• Taenia solium transmission in a rural community in Honduras : an examination of risk factors and knowledge

      Pang, Haiyan.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2004-11-04)
      Taenia soliurn taeniasis and cysticercosis are recognized as a major public health problem in Latin America. T. soliurn transmission not only affects the health of the individual, but also social and economic development, perpetuating the cycle of poverty. To determine prevalence rates, population knowledge and risk factors associated with transmission, an epidemiological study was undertaken in the rural community of Jalaca. Two standardized questionnaires were used to collect epidemiological and T. soli urn general knowledge data. Kato-Katz technique and an immunoblot assay (EITB) were used to determine taeniasis and seroprevalence, respectively. In total, 139 individuals belonging to 56 households participated in the study. Household characteristics were consistent with conditions of poverty of rural Honduras: 21.4% had no toilet or latrines, 19.6% had earthen floor, and 51.8% lacked indoor tap water. Pigs were raised in 46.4% of households, of which 70% allowed their pigs roaming freely. A human seroprevalence rate of 18.7% and a taeniasis prevalence rate of 2.4% were found. Only four persons answered correctly 2: 6 out of ten T. soliurn knowledge questions, for an average passing score of 2.9%. In general, a serious gap exists in knowledge regarding how humans acquire the infections, especially neurocysticercosis was identified. After regression analysis, the ability to recognize adult tapeworms and awareness of the clinical importance of taeniasis, were found to be significant risk factors for T. soliurn seropositivity. These results demonstrate a high level of transmission and a low level of kn~,wledge about Taenia soliurn in Jalaca. Consequently, intervention measures integrated with health education are necessary to decrease the burden caused by this parasite.
    • Teamwork and leadership : competitive youth soccer as a context for positive youth development

      Kingsley, Bethan.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-06-01)
      The purpose of this study was to examine processes and interactions that characterized positive developmental experiences in sport. A highly competitive and reputable U-17 girls' soccer team was chosen for the study through purposeful sampling, providing an information rich case from which data could be derived (Patton, 2002). Seventeen players and three coaches participated in this study. Based on an ethnographic methodology data were collected via observations and both informal and formal semi-structured interviews. Tlie data were coded according to the three procedures outlined by Seidel and Kelle (1995): a) noticing relevant phenomena, b) collecting examples of those phenomena, and c) analyzing those phenomena in order to find commonalities, differences, patterns and structures. Significant events and underlying themes were recounted chronologically through a collection of vignettes, aimed to provide a contextual lens for the reader. Results revolved around two prominent themes: Teamwork and leadership. These were closely related concepts that required players to demonstrate a wide range of developmental skills for the team to move collectively towards their end goal. Furthermore, teamwork and leadership experiences took both desirable and undesirable forms. For example, at the beginning of the season competition existed amongst the players at the expense of teamwork and leadership. As the season progressed the pursuit of a shared goal allowed the players to view each other as collaborators and teamwork and leadership skills became increasingly evident. At times, however, success on the field was prioritized above maintaining relationships off the field, requiring the coaches to intervene and re-establish equilibrium.
    • Testing the IZOF directionality model in a team sport

      Brachlow, Manuela C.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-05-21)

      Lui, Adrian; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-07-11)
      Extracellular hyper-osmotic (HYPER) stress increases glucose uptake to defend cell volume, when compared to iso-osmotic (ISO) conditions in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine a time course for changes in common signaling proteins involved in glucose uptake during acute hyper-osmotic stress in isolated mammalian skeletal muscle. Rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were excised and incubated in a media formulated to mimic ISO (290 ± 10 mmol/kg) or HYPER (400 ± 10 mmol/kg) extracellular condition (Sigma Media-199). Signaling mechanisms were investigated by determining the phosphorylation states of Akt, AMPK, AS160, cPKC and ERK after 30, 45 and 60 minutes of incubation. AS160 was found to be significantly more phosphorylated in HYPER conditions compared to ISO after 30 minutes (p<0.01). It is speculated that AS160 phosphorylation increases glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) content at the cell surface thereby facilitating an increase in glucose uptake under hyper-osmotic stress.
    • Tone it Down or Tune it Out? The Focus of Instructor Cues on Body Image Outcomes during an Exercise Class in Older Adults

      Galway, Sarah; Applied Health Sciences Program
      In group exercise settings, many factors influence body image, including instructors and the motivational cues they use. The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of appearance versus functionality-focused cues used by an instructor in an exercise class on state body image, enjoyment and intentions to return in older adults. One hundred and seven participants (26 males, 81 females, Mage = 69 years) took part in two visits. During visit one, participants completed demographic and trait body image questionnaires and had anthropometric measures taken. During visit two, participants were randomly assigned to an appearance or functionality-focused exercise class. In the appearance-focused class, the instructor’s cues emphasized the exercises as a way to alter the body’s appearance, whereas in the functionality- focused class, cues focused on exercise as a way to improve function and health. Participants completed state measures of body image immediately before and after participating in the exercise class. Following the exercise class participants also completed measures of enjoyment and intentions to return. Repeated-measures ANCOVAs were conducted for each state body image measure (body appreciation, functional appreciation, body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction with appearance and functionality, self-objectification, and social physique anxiety) controlling for appropriate demographic and trait body image variables. Participants assigned to the functionality-focused condition reported significantly greater decreases in body dissatisfaction [F (1,101) = 6.35, p = .013] compared to those in the appearance-focused condition, and regardless of condition, participants reported significant decreases in state self- objectification pre-to-post exercise [F (1,105) = 7.85, p = .006]. All other time by condition and time effects were non-significant (ps > .05). ANCOVAs to examine between-group differences on enjoyment and intentions to return showed no significant differences (ps > .05). It is possible that older adults, who place a greater focus on the health and functionality of their bodies, may be protected from negative effects of appearance-related commentary within group exercise settings (in contrast to young-women). Findings also suggest that exercise may be particularly beneficial for improving body dissatisfaction and self-objectification in populations across the lifespan. Future studies should continue to examine psychological outcomes of acute exercise in older adults.
    • Tourism and the precautionary principle : a survey of academic and government stakeholders

      Ebert, Kevin K.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      The purpose of this exploratory investigation was to provide a more precise understanding and basis from which to assess the potential role of the precautionary principle in tourism. The precautionary principle, analogous to the ideal of sustainable development, is a future-focused planning and regulatory mechanism that emphasizes pro-action and recognizes the limitations of contemporary scientific methods. A total of 100 respondents (80 tourism academics, 20 regional government tourism officials) from Canada, United States, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand completed the webbased survey between May and June 2003. Respondents reported their understanding of the precautionary principle, rated stakeholder involvement and education strategies, assessed potential barriers in implementation, and appraised steps of a proposed fi-amework for implementation. Due to low sub sample numbers, measures of central tendency were primarily used to compare groups, while inferential statistics were applied when warranted. Results indicated that most respondents (79%) felt the principle could be a guiding principle for tourism, while local and regional government entities were reported to have the most power in the implementation process. Findings suggested close links between the precautionary principle and sustainability, as concern for future generations was the most critical element of the principle for tourism. Overall, tourism academics were more supportive of the precautionary principle in tourism than were regional government tourism officials. Only minor variation was found in responses among regional groups across all variables. This study established basic ground for understanding the precautionary principle in tourism and has been effective in formulating more precise questions for future research.
    • Toxocariasis in Honduras: Seroprevalence and Risk of Infection in Schoolchildren from a Coastal Community in Tela, Honduras

      Hernández, Sergio A.; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Background: Human toxocariasis is a globally distributed zoonotic disease mainly caused by Toxocara canis, a common intestinal parasite of domestic dogs. In Honduras, favorable conditions for T. canis are widespread and dog infection is widely known. However, epidemiological data for animal and human infection are severely lacking. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in rural Honduran schoolchildren and to identify socioeconomic and biological factors associated with seropositivity. A secondary objective of comparing performance of the screening with the confirmatory test was also set. Methods: Two cross-sectional studies conducted in 2015 and 2017 among schoolchildren living in rural Honduras. Demographic and socio-epidemiological data were collected though individual interviews. A blood sample was drawn to determine serum anti-Toxocara antibodies using a screening and a confirmatory test, TES-ELISA and Western blotting (WB), respectively. Eosinophilia was determined by complete haematological assay. Results: Eighty-eight children completed the study. An overall prevalence of 90.9% was found by the TESELISA however, the confirmatory Western blot revealed a prevalence of 88.6% for anti-Toxocara antibodies. TES-ELISA and WB showed an agreement of k = 0.87, an indicator of an almost perfect agreement between the two diagnostic tools. Most WB-positive children were so for the lower molecular protein bands, suggesting specificity for T. canis infection. Higher levels of eosinophilia were observed in immunoreactive children and a statistically significant difference between the geometric means of circulating eosinophils in seropositive versus seronegative children was found. None of the socioeconomic factors analyzed were found statistically associated with antibody positivity. Conclusions: The study confirms that T. canis transmission is present in Honduras and is affecting children in the rural countryside. The high exposure as determined by high antibody titres and eosinophilia levels among the studied children is a serious concern. Clinical examination of these children to assess their health status is warranted.
    • Training distribution and the acquisition of maximal isometric elbow flexion strength

      Calder, Kristina M.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      Twenty-six sedentary, college-aged females were matched and randomly assigned to one of two groups. The massed group (n=13) completed 15 maximal isometric elbow flexion strength trials in one session, while the distributed group (n=13) performed five such contractions on three successive days. After a two-week and three month rest interval, both groups returned to perfonn another five maximal isometric elbow flexion strength trials to assess retention of any potential strength gains. Elbow flexion torque and surface electromyography (SEMG) of the biceps and triceps were monitored concurrently. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in strength in both groups from block one (first five contractions) to block four (first retest) and from block one to block five (second retest). Both groups exhibited a similar linear increasing (P < 0.05) trend in biceps root-mean-square (RMS) SEMG amplitude. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in triceps RMS SEMG amplitude was found between block one and block four for the distributed group. However, a significant (P < 0.05) increase was then found between block one and five for the massed group, and between blocks four and five for distributed group. These results suggest that there is flexibility in resistive exercise schedules. An increase in neural drive to the agonist muscle continued throughout testing. This was accompanied by a reduction in antagonist co activation that was a short-tenn (two weeks) training effect, dissipated over the longer rest interval (three months).
    • Transmission of West Nile virus in the Niagara Region among a population at risk for exposure

      Mergl, Ronald; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-03-09)
      Background. West Nile Virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is one of an increasing number of infectious diseases that have been emerging or re-emerging in the last two decades. Since the arrival ofWNV to Canada to present date, the Niagara Region has only reported 30 clinical cases, a small number compared to the hundreds reported in other regions of similar conditions. Moreover, the last reported human case in Niagara was in 2006. As it has been demonstrated that the majority of WNV infections are asymptomatic, the question remains whether the lack of clinical cases in Niagara truly reflects the lack of transmission to humans or if infections are still occurring but are mostly asymptomatic. Objectives. The general objective of this study was to establish whether or not active WNV transmission could be detected in a human population residing in Niagara for the 2007 transmission season. To fullfil this objective, a cross-sectional seroprevalence study was designed to investigate for the presence of anti-WNV antibodies in a sample of Mexican migrant agricultural workers employed in farms registered with the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP). Due to the Mexican origin of the study participants, three specific research objectives were proposed: a) determine the seroprevalence ofanti-WNV antibodies as well as anti-Dengue virus antibodies (a closely related virus prevalent in Mexico and likely to confound WNV serology); b) analyze risk factors associated with WNV and Dengue virus seropositivity; and c) assess the awareness of study participants about WNV infection as well as their understanding of the mode of transmission and clinical importance of the infection. Methodology: After obtaining ethics clearance from Brock University, farms were visited and workers invited to participate. Due to time constraints, only a small number of farms were enrolled with a resulting convenience and non-randomized study sample. Workers' demographic and epidemiological data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and blood samples were drawn to determine serum anti-WNV and anti- Dengue antibodies with a commercial ELISA. All positive samples were sent to the National Microbiology Laboratory in Winnipeg, Manitoba for confirmation with the Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT). Data was analyzed with Stata 10.0. Antibody determinations were reported as seroprevalence proportions for both WNV and Dengue. Logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors that may be associated with seropositivity and awareness was reported as a proportion of the number of individuals possessing awareness over the total number of participants. Results and Discussion. In total 92 participants working in 5 farms completed the study. Using the commercial ELISA, seropositivity was as follows: 2.2% for WNV IgM, 20.7% for WNV IgG, and 17.1 % for Dengue IgG. Possible cross-reactivity was demonstrated in 15/20 (75.0%) samples that were positive for both WNV IgG and Dengue IgG. Confirmatory testing with the PRNT demonstrated that none of the WNV ELISA positive samples had antibodies to WNV but 13 samples tested positive for anti-Dengue antibodies (14.1 % Dengue sereoprevalence). The findings showed that the ELISA performance was very poor for assessing anti-WNV antibodies in individuals previously exposed to Dengue virus. However, the ELISA had better sensitivity and specificity for assessing anti-Dengue antibodies. Whereas statistical analysis could not be done for WNV seropositivity, as all samples were PRNT negative, logistic regression demonstrated several risk factors for Dengue exposure_ The first year coming to Canada appeared to be significantly associated with increased exposure to Dengue while lower socio-economic housing and the presence of a water basin in the yard in Mexico appeared to be significantly associated with a decreased exposure to Dengue_ These seemingly contradictory results illustrate that in mobile populations such as migrant workers, risk factors for exposure to Dengue are not easily identified and more research is needed. Assessing the awareness of WNV and its clinical importance showed that only 23% of participants had some knowledge of WNV, of which 76% knew that the infection was mosquito-borne and 47% recognized fever as a symptom. The identified lack of understanding and awareness was not surprising since WNV is not a visible disease in Mexico. Since WNV persists in an enzootic cycle in Niagara and the occurrence of future outbreaks is unpredictable, the agricultural workers remain at risk for transmission. Therefore it important they receive sufficient health education regarding WNV before leaving Mexico and during their stay in Canada. Conclusions. Human transmission of WNV could not be proven among the study participants even when due to their occupation they are at high risk for mosquito bites. The limitations of the study sample do not permit generalizable conclusions, however, the study findings are consistent with the absence of clinical cases in the Niagara Region, so it is likely that human transmission is indeed neglible or absent. As evidenced by our WNV serology results, PRNT must be utilized as a confirmatory test since false positivity occurs frequently. This is especially true when previous exposure to Dengue virus is likely.
    • Understanding space, place and leisure of women over 85 living in the community

      Bergman, Nicole U. H.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-11-04)
      There is an increase in the number of older adults 85 and over, who are choosing to live alone within the community. Moreover, older adults who live alone are reportedly spending an extensive amount of time alone within the home environment. In an effort to provide additional support and resources to older adults living in the community, a compliment of services are being offered through public and private organizations. These in-home supports focus on the instrumental or functional tasks of daily living, such as personal and rehabilitative care, nourishment, maintenance and upkeep of the home, as well as volunteer social visitation. However leisure resources and programs are not included among these services. Consequently, this creates a gap in leisure provision among this segment of the population. Throughout the life course, an individual's identity, role and purpose are developed and sustained through instrumental work roles in the formal and informal sector, as well as through personally meaningful leisure pastimes and experiences. Although roles shift post retirement, participation in instrumental and expressive activities can provide opportunities through which older adults are able to fulfill their need for agency (individuality and autonomy) and affiliation (social relatedness). Therefore barriers that inhibit instrumental or leisure experiences can negatively impact older adults' quality of life. This study explored the leisure lifestyles of four older adults, all of whom were over 85, lived alone within the community and were oriented to person, time and place. It became apparent that participants ordered their lives around a routine that consisted of instrumental, expressive and socially integrated tasks and activities. Moreover participants purposely chose to remain at home because their home environment facilitated freedom, choice and independence. As a result all four participants viewed their independence within the home as a critical determinant to their overall quality of life. Challenges associated with the home environment, participants' personal capacities and relationships were negotiated on a daily basis. Failure to positively adapt to these challenges inhibited meaningful engagement and personal fulfillment. Traditionally, leisure service delivery has been offered within institutions and through various community based venues. As a result leisure provision has been focused on the needs of the frail elderly who reside in institutions or the well elderly who are able to access leisure amenities within the community. However the growing number of older adults electing to live alone is on the rise. As individuals age the home becomes the preferred context for leisure experiences. If older adults are choosing to live alone, then both their instrumental and leisure needs must be addressed. As a result, it is imperative that leisure professionals extend the scope of service delivery to include home centered older adults.
    • Understanding the financial status of a group of high performance athletes

      Harman, Alanna.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-05-21)
      With the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games quickly approaching, there has been a heightened interest in the performance of Canadian athletes at international competitions (Duffy, 2007; Fidlin, 2005; Longley, 2006). Two significant documents outline Canada's goal to become the number one sporting nation at the 2010 Olympic Games, and improve Canada's performance at the 2008 Olympic Games: Own the Podium and Road to Excellence (Priestner Allinger & Allinger, 2004; Road to Excellence, 2006). These two documents represent heightened interest in the performance of our elite athletes, in conjunction with Canada's hosting status of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games. The requirements to train and compete at the international level have become more demanding both in terms of financial resources and time commitment. The need to financially assist athletes with their training and competition costs has been an important topic of debate over the past decades (Beamish & Borowy, 1987; Gatehouse, 2004; Macintosh, 1996; Munro, 1970; Owens, 2004). Two sources of fiinding for high performance athletes in Canada are the Athlete Assistance Program (AAP) provided by the Federal Government and the Canadian Olympic Excellence Fund provided by the Canadian Olympic Committee. The importance of these fiinds for athletes has been discussed in various forums (Ekos, 1992, 1997, 2005; Priestner Allinger & Allinger, 2004; Thibault «& Babiak, 2005). However, alternative sources of funds for high performance athletes have never been the object of research. As such the purpose of this study was to describe a group of athlete applicants from the time period of November 2004 to April 2006, and to contextualize these applications within the development of the Charitable Fund for Athletes.
    • Understanding the relationship between body image and menopause in South Asian Canadian women

      Dhillon, Taranjot Kaur; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Research regarding women’s body image during menopause is limited; few studies reflect the experiences of ethnic women, especially South Asian women living in Canada. Cultural differences play an important role in both body image and menopause experiences and may be particularly important to South Asian women, who often fear stigmatization and struggle with openly discussing health concerns. This study used interpretive phenomenological analysis, which focuses on understanding and interpreting the experiences of the participants, to explore the relationship between body image and the transition of menopause in South Asian Canadian women. Nine first generation South Asian immigrant Canadian women (aged 49-59 years), in perimenopause or postmenopause were recruited for semi-structured individual interviews. Overall, three themes were constructed: 1) Complexity and intertwining of body image and menopause experiences, which showed that although women understood body image as a multidimensional construct, their own body image focused on weight and appearance that was impacted by menopause and aging; 2) “It's just something we go through silently”: The challenges of body image and menopause experiences, which highlighted the lack personal support from family and South Asian community and the disconnected feeling from their bodies through the menopause transition; and 3) The push and pull of South Asian and Western cultures, which focused on conflicts between the two cultures and influence of the South Asian culture on beauty, body image, and aging. Results showed that participants often upheld Western body image ideals by equating positive body image practices and attitudes with these ideals, and this was often worsened by South Asian cultural norms. Additionally, women’s understanding of body image and menopause showed a gap between their personal understanding and research. Participants emphasized a lack of ethnically appropriate education for body image and menopause, suggesting there is a need for the implementation of culturally-appropriate and community-based interventions, and resources (e.g., workshops, seminars, support groups). Moreover, an underlying narrative of cultural conflict (Western vs South Asian cultures) and impact of the South Asian culture was evident. Therefore, further examination of the complexity and influence of the South Asian culture on body image and menopause experiences is required.
    • Understanding value congruence : a sport organization case study

      Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-05-19)
      With the recent growth in cultural complexity, many organizations are faced with increasingly diverse employee pools. Gaining a greater understanding of the values that employees possess is the first step in effectively satisfying their needs and achieving a more productive workforce (lung & Avolio, 2000). Values playa significant role in influencing individual behaviours. It is therefore necessary to assess the qualities of employee value systems and directly link them to the values of the organization. The importance of values and value congruence has been emphasized by many organizational behaviour researchers (cf. Adkins & Caldwell, 2004; Erdogan, Kraimer, & Liden, 2004; Jung & Avolio, 2000; Rokeach, 1973); however the emphasis on value studies remains fairly stagnant within the sport industry (Amis, Slack, & Hinings, 2002). In order to examine the realities that were constructed by the participants in this study a holistic view of the impact of values within a specific sport organization were provided. The purpose of this case study was to examine organizational and employee values to understand the effects of values and value congruence on employee behaviours within the context of a large Canadian sport organization. A mUltiple methods case study approach was adopted in order to fully serve the purpose and provide a comprehensive view of the organization being examined. Document analysis, observations, surveys, as well as semi-structured interviews were conducted. The process allowed for triangulation and confirmability of the findings. Each method functioned to create an overarching understanding of the values and value congruence within this organization. The analysis of the findings was divided into qualitative and quantitative sections. The qualitative documents were analyzed twice, once manually by the researcher and once via AtIas.ti Version 4 (1998). The a priori and emergent coding that took place was based on triangulating the findings and uncovering common themes throughout the data. The Rokeach Value Survey (1973) that was incorporated into the survey design of the study was analyzed using descriptive statistics, as well as Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal Wallis formulas. These were deemed appropriate for analysis given the non-parametric nature of the survey instrument (Kinnear & Gray, 2004). The quantitative survey served to help define the values and value congruence that was then holistically examined through the qualitative interviews, document analyses, and observations. The results of the study indicated incongruent value levels between employees and those stated or perceived as the organization's values. Each finding demonstrated that varying levels of congruence may have diverse affects on individual behaviours. These behaviours range from production levels to interactions with fellow employees to turnover. In addition to the findings pertaining to the research questions, a number of other key issues were uncovered regarding departmentalization, communication, and board relations. Each has contributed to a greater understanding of the organization and has created direction for further research within this area of study.
    • University Students' Perceptions of Myocardial Infarction Patients

      Cloudt, Miranda; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-09-19)
      This study examined: (1) whether individuals who were described as having a myocardial infarction (MI) were perceived differently compared to individuals who were described as having rheumatoid arthritis or individuals who had no health condition; and (2) whether individuals described as engaging in exercise following an MI were perceived more positively than those described as not engaging in exercise following an MI or for whom no mention of exercise was made. University students (n = 473) were randomly assigned 1 of 10 target conditions. They completed demographic information, read a target description, created an image of that target in their head, and then rated that target on physical and personality characteristics. The results showed that the MI targets were perceived more negatively than the arthritis targets and healthy controls, specifically on the physical characteristics. Further, engaging in exercise following an MI helped to reduce the negative perceptions associated with MIs.
    • Utilizing a Phenomenological Approach to Examine the Experience of Sexuality for Women Concerned about Urinary Incontinence following Spinal Cord Injury

      Cramp, Jackie; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-01-24)
      Sexuality after spinal cord injury (SCI) is a complex issue that is influenced by a number of social, psychological and physiological factors, one of which is urinary incontinence (UI). Using a phenomenological approach, seven mixed methods interviews combining both the interview guide and standardized open-ended approaches were conducted to examine the experience of sexuality for women who are concerned about UI following SCI. Sexual function was one of the top priorities for the women after SCI, and UI was one of the main concerns the women had regarding sexuality. The findings of this study demonstrate that various dimensions of intimacy and the sexual experience as a whole were affected by UI, and the women discussed both physical and psychological concerns. The main issues regarding sexuality included concerns related to relationships, frustrations with limited sexual activities and the difficulty of being sexually satisfied, the number of unanswered questions and concerns, and a fear of being hurt or injured while participating in sexual activities. The main concerns regarding UI were embarrassment, the work and inconvenience involved with the clean-up of UI, bladder infections, the lack of accessible washrooms, and the negative effects of UI medications. When examining sexuality and UI together, the major issues were the constant comparison to the way things were before SCI, as well as the new concerns that the women did not have to worry about previously, worrying about how their partner would react if UI were to occur during sexual activity, and the impact of their own feelings toward UI on sexuality, a connection between pleasurable sexual sensations and UI as well as difficulty differentiating between the sensation of UI with the sensation of UI, dealing with infected urine during sexual activity, having to discuss UI with a new potential sexual partner, and a fear of rejection. Other identified issues included those related to body image, a lack of resources, Doctors who were inadequately educated regarding SCI, and issues related to both having and raising children. There is a significant shortage of information available for women with SCI to use as a resource regarding sexual function in general, and sexual function as it relates to UI. It is necessary that future work focus on creating resources to assist in this area, and that the dissemination of those resources becomes both appropriate and effective. Addressing sexual function and UI which are among the top concerns for this population has the opportunity to greatly improve quality of life (QOL) for these individuals.
    • The validation of heart rate variability in individuals with spinal cord injury

      Cotie, Lisa.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-06-15)
      The current classification system for spinal cord injury (SCI) considers only somatic information and neglects autonomic damage after injiuy. Heart rate variability (HRV) has the potential to be a valuable measure of cardiac autonomic control after (SCI). Five individuals with tetraplegia and four able-bodied controls underwent 1 min continuous ECG recordings during rest, after Metoprolol administration (max dose=3x5mg) and after Atropine administration (0.02mg/kg) in both supine and 40° head-up tilt. After Metoprolol administration there was a 61.8% decrease in the LF:HF ratio in the SCI participants suggesting that the LF:HF ratio is a reflection of cardiac sympathetic outflow. After Atropine administration there was a 99.1% decrease in the HF power in the SCI participants suggesting that HF power is highly representative of cardiac parasympathetic outflow. There were no significant differences between the SCI and able-bodied participants. Thus, HRV measures are a valid index of cardiac autonomic control after SCI.
    • Validation of ice skating protocol to predict aerobic power in hockey players

      Petrella, Nicholas J.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      Validation ofan Ice Skating Protocol to Predict Aerobic Power in Hockey Players In assessing the physiological capacity of ice hockey players, researchers have often reported the outcomes from different anaerobic skate tests, and the general physical fitness of participants. However, with respect to measuring the aerobic power of ice hockey players, few studies have reported a sport-specific protocol, and currently there is a lack of cohort-specific information describing aerobic power based on evaluations using an on-ice protocol. The Faught Aerobic Skating Test (FAST) uses an on-ice continuous skating protocol to induce a physical stress on a participant's aerobic energy system. The FAST incorporates the principle of increasing workloads at measured time intervals during a continuous skating exercise. Regression analysis was used to determine the estimate of aerobic power within gender and age level. Data were collected on 532 hockey players, (males=384, females=148) ranging in age between 9 and 25 years. Participants completed a laboratory test to measure aerobic power using a modified Bruce protocol, and the on-ice FAST. Regression equations were developed for six male and female, age-specific cohorts separately. The most consistent predictors were weight and final stage completed on the FAST. These results support the application of the FAST to estimate aerobic power among hockey players with R^ values ranging from 0.174 to 0.396 and SEE ranging from 5.65 to 8.58 ml kg' min'' depending on the cohort. Thus we conclude that FAST to be an accurate predictor of aerobic power in age and gender-specific hockey playing cohorts.
    • Vitamin D status and latent tuberculosis infection : a preliminary study in a group of healthy Mexican agricultural workers

      Merion, Timna.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-02-16)
      Vitamin D metabolites are important in the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis, but also have a more ubiquitous role in the regulation of cell differentiation and immune function. Severely low circulating 25-dihydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with the onset of active tuberculosis (TB) in immigrant populations, although the association with latent TB infection (LTBI) has not received much attention. A previous study identified the prevalence of LTBI among a sample of Mexican migrant workers enrolled in Canada's Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SA WP) in the Niagara Region of Ontario. The aim of the present study was to determine the vitamin D status of the same sample, and identify if a relationship existed with LTBI. Studies of vitamin D deficiency and active TB are most commonly carried out among immigrant populations to non-endemic regions, in which reactivation of LTBI has occurred. Currently, there is limited knowledge of the association between vitamin D deficiency and LTBI. Entry into Canada ensured that these individuals did not have active TB, and L TBI status was established previously by an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube®, Cellestis Ltd., Australia). Awareness of vitamin D status may enable individuals at risk of deficiency to improve their nutritional health, and those with LTBI to be aware of this risk factor for disease. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among the Mexican migrant workers was determined from serum samples collected in the summer of 2007 as part of the cross sectional LTBI study. Samples were measured for concentrations of the main circulating vitamin D metabolite, 25(OH)D, with a widely used 1251 250HD RIA (DiaSorin Inc.®, Stillwater, MN), and were categorized as deficient «37.5 nmoI/L), insufficient (>37.5 nmollL, < 80 nmol/L) or sufficient (2::80 nmoI/L). Fisher's exact tests and t tests were used to determine if vitamin D status (sufficiency or insufficiency) or 25(OH)D concentrations significantly differed by sex or age categories. Predictors of vitamin D insufficiency and 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from questionnaires carried out during the previous study, and analyzed in the present study using multiple regression prediction models. Fisher's exact test and t test was used to determine if vitamin D status or 25(OH)D concentration differed by LTBI status. Strength of the relationship between interferongamma (IFN-y) concentration (released by peripheral T cells in response to TB antigens) and 25(OH)D concentration was analyzed using a Spearman correlation. Out of 87 participants included in the study (78% male; mean age 38 years), 14 were identified as LTBI positive but none had any signs or symptoms of TB reactivation. Only 30% of the participants were vitamin D sufficient, whereas 68% were insufficient and 2% were deficient. Significant independent predictors of lower 25(OH)D concentrations were sex, number of years enrolled in the SA WP and length of stay in Canada. No significant differences were found between 25(OH)D concentrations and LTBI status. There was a significant moderate correlation between IFN-y and 25(OH)D concentrations ofLTBI-positive individuals. The majority of participants presented with Vitamin D insufficiency but none were severely deficient, indicating that 25(OH)D concentrations do not decrease dramatically in populations who temporarily reside in Canada but go back to their countries of origin during the Canadian winter. This study did not find a statistical relationship between low levels of vitamin D and LTBI which suggests that in the presence of overall good health, lower than ideal levels of 2S(OH)D, may still be exerting a protective immunological effect against LTBI reactivation. The challenge remains to determine a critical 2S(OH)D concentration at which reactivation is more likely to occur.
    • Wearable activity monitors and goals: Perceptions on physical activity, attitudes and motivational outcomes

      Bell, Connor; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Evidence attesting to the benefits of wearable activity monitors for increasing PA has been reported (USDHHS, 2018). Goal setting is one behavior change technique that often accompanies wearable activity monitors and has been deemed an essential component to any health behavior change intervention (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2014). Specific to PA behavior, goal setting has been deemed effective regardless of age, sex, and activity status (McEwan et al., 2016). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if affective goals confer unique benefits on physical activity (PA), attitudes and behavioral regulations consistent with the Organismic Integration Theory (OIT; Ryan & Deci, 2017) among users of wearable activity monitors. Affective goals were compared with instrumental goals, step count and a no goal condition. Adopting a randomized experimental post-test only design, undergraduate students (N = 153) were assigned to one of eight conditions. Participants read a scenario then completed a battery of questionnaires housed on a secure online interface. Differences by condition were not found for short- or long-term PA or attitudes (p’s >.05). Differences were noted for extrinsic regulation (p = 0.025; ηp2 = .105). Results indicated that extrinsic regulation was higher in the no goal condition when compared to most other conditions. These findings imply that goal setting, regardless of type, may offset increases in extrinsic motivation associated with the use of wearable activity monitors. Users of wearable activity monitors looking to improve PA, positive attitudes and motivation associated with PA may benefit by utilizing goal setting in combination with other commonly used BCTs. A further investigation upon goal setting and users of wearable activity monitors is warranted.
    • What children value : a scale to guide health promotion programs

      Foster, Kelly A.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      Objective. Physical activity is important for the health of all human beings. Although it is important to develop good health promotion programs for children to increase participation in physical activity, to date there appear to be no programs based on what kids value beyond health and physical activity itself. This study proposed to create a scale with strong content and face validity that could uncover what any given population of children value in life regardless of their participation in physical activity and that experts feel could be related to physical activity. These findings will allow the development of targeted health promotion programs to increase children's participation in regular physical activity. Method In this study, a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches was used. Data were gathered from seven experts in the field, sixty-seven children in grades three to five, five parents, and three teachers. From these data response groupings were created and sent to four experts to be given single word names. The resulting nine theme names were re-worked into "child-friendly" language. Four children were then asked to discuss theme names to see if they liked and understood them. The next step involved asking children and experts to rank order the nine themes, the children in general and the experts in terms of relevance to physical activity. From these results, possible versions of the scale were then created using the combined expert/children rankings. Each version was examined for content validity. Two versions of a scale resulted. These were sent to experts, parents, teachers and children in order to determine which one they liked better and to suggest any foreseeable problems. Once this information was collected, a beta (final prototype) version of the scale was created. Results. Nine common theme names were created from the response groupings. All four children agreed that they did understand and like each of the nine theme names. Experts and teachers agreed that full coverage of the content had been achieved. Children suggested a single wording change from "Being Accepted" to "Being Included". Five themes were selected for inclusion. The beta version of the scale included 12 forced choice statements, the first ten comparing all themes against one another followed by two anchor statements. Conclusion. At the outset it was recognized that it is essential to know what children think is important in their lives in order to serve as potential benefits in the development of effective physical activity promotion programs. This study developed a scale which could be used to determine what a population of children feel is important in order to focus health promotion programs for physical activity. The scale has strong face and content validity.