• Gendered attitudes and family planning decision-making in Honduras

      Willard, Kendra.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-05-21)
      This study examines gendered attitudes and family planning in the Central American country of Honduras using a feminist perspective. Specifically, this study investigates the relationships between gendered attitudes (i.e., male oriented or non-male oriented attitudes) and who makes decisions about contraceptive use and family size among married and common-law Hondurans. This study also attempts to account for social elements such as gendered attitudes, education, economics, environment and demographics that may act to limit or enhance women's agency in reproductive decisionmaking. Furthermore, gender is examined to determine whether these relationships depend on the gender of the respondents. Two national Honduran surveys from 2001 are used in a secondary analysis, specifically muUinomial logisfic regression. Findings indicate that women reporting non-male oriented attitudes are significantly more likely to indicate that they (the wives) make the contraceptive decisions. Moreover, both men and women reporting non-male oriented attitudes are significantly more likely to indicate making contraceptive decisions together. Both of these effects remain significant when other social factors included in the analyses, though part of the effect is explained by education and economics. Similar effects are found in terms of family size decisions. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
    • Getting Comfortable Being Uncomfortable: Men’s Psychobiological and Behavioural Responses to and Recovery from a Social-Evaluative Body Image Threat

      Smyth, Aidan; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Negative body image, which often results from social-evaluative threats, is common in young men and related to many harmful outcomes. Social self-preservation theory (SSPT) suggests that social-evaluative threats elicit psychobiological (e.g., shame and cortisol) and behavioural responses (e.g., submission). Exercise is a long-term coping strategy for negative body image and can reduce psychobiological responses to social-evaluative threats unrelated to the body (e.g., giving a speech to a panel of judges). The present study investigated the psychobiological and behavioural responses to, and recovery from, a social-evaluative body image threat in university men, and whether weight training moderated the expected psychobiological responses. University men (N = 69; Mage = 20.8 years, SD = 1.84; MBMI = 25.25 kg/m2, SD = 3.23) were randomly assigned to a high-threat or low-threat condition. Results showed that men in the high-threat condition had greater levels of post-threat body dissatisfaction, body shame, social physique anxiety, and cortisol compared to men in the low-threat condition after controlling for pre-threat scores (psychological measures), body fat percentage and trait body image. At the recovery time point there were no longer significant differences between conditions. Participants in the high-threat condition also exhibited shame-relevant behaviours to a greater extent than men in the low-threat condition. Weight training did not moderate any of the psychobiological responses. These findings are consistent with SSPT and suggest that men respond to, and recover from, body image threats relatively quickly.
    • Glucose dynamics in rat skeletal muscle : recovery from osmotic stress

      Mulligan, Matthew J.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-06-15)
      The purpose of this study was to examine cell glucose kinetics in rat skeletal muscle during iso-osmotic recovery from hyper- and hypo-osmotic stress. Rat EDL muscles were incubated for sixty minutes in either HYPO (190 mmol/kg), ISO (290 mmol/kg), or HYPER (400 mmol/kg) media (Sigma medium-199, 8 mM glucose) according to an established in vitro whole muscle model. In addition to sixty minute baseline measures in aniso-osmotic conditions, (HYPO-0 n=8; ISO- 0, n=S; HYPER-0, n=8), muscles were subjected to either one minute (HYPO-1 n=8; ISO-1, n=8; HYPER-1, n=8) or five minutes (HYPO-5 n=8; ISO-5, n=8; HYPER-5, n=8) of iso-osmotic recovery media and analyzed for metabolite content and glycogen synthase percent activation. To determine glucose uptake during iso-osmotic recovery, muscles (n=6 per group) were incubated for sixty minutes in either hypo-, iso-, or hyper-osmotic media immediately followed by five minutes of iso-osmotic media containing 3H-glucose and 14 C-mannitol. Increased relative water content/decreased [glucose] (observed in HYPO-0) and decreased water content/increased [glucose] (observed in HYPER-0) returned to ISO levels within 5 minutes of recovery. Glycogen synthase percent activation increased significantly in HYPO-5 over iso-osmotic controls. Glucose uptake measurements revealed no significant differences between groups. It was determined that [glucose] and muscle water content rapidly recovered from osmotic stress demonstrating skeletal muscle's resilience to osmotic stress.
    • Health-related quality of life among patients attending cardiovascular rehabilitation

      Batey, Brandon; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      Purpose: f i rst , an investigation of baseline differences in Health-Related Quality of l i fe (HRQOl) among adhere and non-adhere patients of Phase III cardiac rehabilitation (CR) was examined. Second, among patients who adhered to the program, effectiveness of t reatment based on HRQOl was evaluated. Methods: Data was collected by the Brock University Heart Institute. Participants completed a questionnaire battery at baseline and again at six months i f they were still a client. Results: The physical dimension of HRQOl differed at baseline between the adhere and non-adhere groups. for everyone point increase in physical HRQOl scores there was an associated 1.06 times greater likelihood that an individual would adhere to the program. Second, in those who adhered to the program for six months, physical HRQOl scores improved 3.18 points. Conclusions: Phase III CR significant improves HRQOl in patients suffering f rom cardiovascular disease.
    • How do school disciplinary approaches and student perceptions of school support relate to youth cannabis use? A cross-sectional analysis of Year 7 (2017-2018) of the COMPASS study

      Magier, Megan; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Background: In the school year immediately following cannabis legalization in Canada, the objectives of this thesis were: (1) to examine the disciplinary approaches being used in secondary schools for students who violate school substance use policies, and associations with cannabis use among youth; and (2) to investigate youth perceptions of school support for the prevention and cessation of substance use, if perceptions vary by school disciplinary approaches, and whether they are associated student cannabis use. Methods: School- and student-level survey data from Year 7 (2018/2019) of the COMPASS study were used, including 74,501 grade 9-12 students attending 136 secondary schools. A framework for classifying schools into disciplinary approach styles was established based on school-reported response measures used for student first-offence violations of the school cannabis policies. Multilevel logistic regression models examined associations between school disciplinary approach styles, student perceptions of school support for the prevention/cessation of student substance use, and student cannabis use. Results: Despite all schools reporting always/sometimes using a progressive discipline approach, punitive consequences (suspension, alert police) remain prevalent as first-offence options, with fewer schools indicating supportive responses (counselling; cessation/educational programs). Most schools were classified as using Authoritarian and Authoritative approaches, followed by Neglectful and Permissive/Supportive styles. No disciplinary approach styles were associated with cannabis use. Students attending schools classified as Permissive/Supportive (high supportive; low punitive) had a higher likelihood of perceiving their school as supportive for substance use prevention/cessation than their peers at Authoritarian (high punitive; low supportive) schools. Students who perceived their school as “supportive” were less likely to report current cannabis use than their peers who perceived their school as unsupportive. Conclusions: This study is the first to classify school discipline approach styles using school-level measures. Unlike previous studies using classifications based on student perceptions, results do not support direct associations between school disciplinary styles and student cannabis use. Greater use of supportive approaches (e.g., counselling referrals, educational programs) over punitive consequences may promote student perceptions of school supportiveness for the cessation/prevention of substance use. Further research is needed to explore additional factors promoting student perceptions of school supportiveness, given associations with cannabis use.
    • How Nonverbal Behaviour and Game Context Alter Athletes Perceptions: A Study of Nonverbal Influence on Expectancy of Success and Impression Formation in Different Game Scenarios, Immediately After an Opponent’s Mistake

      Ra; Razavi, Parmida; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Nonverbal behaviour is a social cognition component of sport psychology. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of non-verbal behaviour (NVB), and game scenarios immediately after a mistake was made. Participants (N = 103) were randomly assigned to one of six groups, comprised of one of two body languages, dominant (n = 51) and submissive (n = 52), and one of three game scenarios, winning (n = 34), tied (n = 34), and losing (n = 35). Due to a high internal consistency between factors of performance outcomes and psychological characteristics one composite variable was created for each variable. Results revealed that dominant NVB was rated significantly higher than submissive NVB in each category, while game situation did not show any significant differences for performance outcome or psychological characteristics. NVB can be a readily accessible resource that should utilized by athletes to gain an advantage over their opponent.
    • Human skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase activity and expression : the effect of aerobic capacity

      Love, Lorenzo Kenward.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-02-16)
      Activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, is accomplished by a pair of specific phosphatases (PDP 1 & 2). A cross-sectional study investigating the effect of aerobic capacity on PDP activity and expression found that: 1) PDP activity and PDP! protein expression were positively correlated with most aerobic capacity measures in males (n=lS), but not females (n=12); 2) only males showed a positive correlation between PDP activity and PDPl protein expression (r=0.47; p=O.05), indicating that the increase in PDP activity in males is largely explained by increased PDPl protein expression, but that females rely on another level for PDP activity regulation; and 3) PDP} and Ela protein expression increase in unison when expressed relative to the E2 core. These data suggest that with increased aerobic capacity there is an increased capacity for carbohydrate oxidation through PDH, via El a, and an increased ability to activate PDH, via PDP, when exercising maximally.
    • Identification of Network-Based Risk Factors Associated with Gonorrhea

      Zahradnik, Michelle; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The evolving antimicrobial resistance coupled with a recent increase in incidence highlights the importance of reducing gonococcal transmission. Establishing novel risk factors associated with gonorrhea facilitates the development of appropriate prevention and disease control strategies. Sexual Network Analysis (NA), a novel research technique used to further understand sexually transmitted infections, was used to identify network-based risk factors in a defined region in Ontario, Canada experiencing an increase in the incidence of gonorrhea. Linear network structures were identified as important reservoirs of gonococcal transmission. Additionally, a significant association between a central network position and gonorrhea was observed. The central participants were more likely to be younger, report a greater number of risk factors, engage in anonymous sex, have multiple sex partners in the past six months and have sex with the same sex. The network-based risk factors identified through sexual NA, serving as a method of analyzing local surveillance data, support the development of strategies aimed at reducing gonococcal spread.
    • Identifying changes in dietary intake, diet quality, body weight and body composition during first year university

      Beaudry, Kayleigh; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study was to identify if dietary intake and eating habits change in students during first-year university and how these changes influence anthropometrics and body composition. 301 students (n=71 males, n=230 females) completed food frequency and dietary habits questionnaires. Anthropometry and body composition were measured at the beginning and end of first-year university. Both males and females gained body weight (p<0.05). Both gained fat mass and males gained significantly more lean mass than females. Energy intake significantly decreased by ~400 kcals/d for both sexes. Diet quality also decreased in both sexes characterized by negative changes in healthy and unhealthy foods. Caffeine intake remained the same and alcohol intake increased. Therefore, modest weight gain does occur during first-year university, males more than females, but the composition was different. Dietary intake and quality decreased in both sexes and changes in some dietary habits reflected these negative intake changes.
    • Identifying Changes in Physical Activity Behaviours That Lead to Weight Gain in First Year University Students

      Thomas, Aysha Martinah; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The transition to university is a critical time period for weight gain, possibly explained by a decrease in physical activity. The aim of this study was to identify changes in physical activity as students’ transition from high school to university and to assess if they relate to body weight and composition. Three hundred one (71 males, 230 females) first year Brock University students participated. Anthropometric and body composition data were collected in September and April. Students also filled out questionnaires assessing their physical activity behaviours. Significant increases in weight, BMI, and body composition were observed across the sample, accompanied by reductions in physical activity output and increases in factors preventing physical activity participation. However, the reductions in physical activity were not correlated with the changes in body composition. Therefore, in our sample, changes in physical activity behaviours are not the main cause of weight gain in first year university students.
    • Imagery or video feedback : which is the "route" to strategic improvement?

      Brownell, Kyle J.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-07-09)
      The implementation of imagery and video feedback programs has become an important tool for aiding athletes in achieving peak performance (Halliwell, 1990). The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of strategic imagery training and video feedback on immediate performance. Participants were two university goaltenders. An alternating treatment design (ATD; Barlow & Hayes, 1979; Tawney & Gast, 1984) was employed. The strategies were investigated using three plays originating from the right side by a right-handed shooting defenceman from the blueline. The baseline condition consisted of six practices and was used to establish a stable and "ideal" measure of performance. The intervention conditions included alternating the use of strategic imagery (Cognitive general; Paivio, 1985) and video feedback. Both participants demonstrated an increase in the frequency of Cognitive general use. Specific and global performance measures were assessed to determine the relative effectiveness of the interventions. Poor inter-rater reliability resulted in the elimination of specific performance measures. Consequently, only the global measure (i.e., save percentage) was used in subsequent analyses. Visual inspection of participant save percentage was conducted to determine the benefits of the intervention. Strategic imagery training resulted in performance improvements for both participants. Video feedback facilitated performance for Participant 2, but not Participant 1. Results are discussed with respect to imagery and video interventions and the challenges associated with applied research. KEYWORDS: imagery, video, goaltenders, alternating treatment design.
    • Immunoendocrine profiles in neurocysticercosis patients: a clinical study in Honduras

      Gadea, Nicholas; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection caused by the infiltration and localization of the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium within the central nervous system (CNS). Clinical presentation and severity are heterogeneous and depend particularly on the age and sex of its host. A clinical study was conducted to evaluate specific endocrine and immune status changes that are associated with NCC. A total of 11 (9 female and 2 male) NCC patients were recruited and matched by sex and age with 11 healthy subjects. Evaluations for 7 hormones and 2 cytokines were measured and compared between patients and their matched controls. Compared with controls, all patients had statistically significant higher serum concentration levels of 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A4), luteinising hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10). In contrast, NCC patients showed significantly lower concentrations of free testosterone (T4), and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). To our knowledge, the present study constitutes one of the first demonstrations in humans that the presence of T. solium metacestodes can modify the host microenviornment by the induction of immunoendocrine changes. In summary, the present work adds to the growing body of knowledge indicating how this parasitic infection may modulate the host for its successful establishment and survival. In addition to being “curiosity-driven”, the ultimate aim of this type of work is to provide insight into the design of new therapeutic strategies. Among these, researchers in the field envision novel treatments or vaccines with the ability to block specific parasite molecules, thereby inhibiting the cysticercus establishment in the CNS, or at least shortening its survival and improving the pathological markers associated with neurocysticercosis.
    • The Impact of Directed Mirror Focus and Technique Cues on Psychological, Cognitive and Emotional Exercise Correlates in an Introductory Weight Training Orientation

      Cameron, Carly; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of the study was to investigate whether teaching inactive and low active women to use mirrors for form and technique purposes could lessen the negative impact of mirrors on self-presentational concerns, affect, and self-efficacy. Eligible women (N = 82) underwent a one-on-one weight training orientation with a personal trainer. Participants were randomized into one of four experimental groups, each unique in the type of feedback (general or technique-specific) and the degree of focus on the mirror for technique reinforcement. Questionnaires assessed study outcomes pre- and post-orientation. Results indicated groups did not significantly differ on any post-condition variables, when controlling for pre-condition values (all p’s >.05). All groups showed outcome improvements following the orientation. This suggests that during a complex task, a personal trainer who emphasizes form and technique can facilitate improvements to psychological outcomes in novice exercisers, independent of the presence of mirrors or directional cues provided.
    • The impact of drug-induced dyskinesias on rapid alternating movements in patients with Parkinson's disease

      Ghassemi, Mehrdad Marco.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2005-06-15)
      We investigated the likelihood that hypokinesia/bradykinesia coexist with druginduced dyskinesias (DID) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The influence of dyskinesias on rapid alternating movements (RAM) was investigated in ten dyskinetic patients (DPD). Their motor performance was compared to that of ten age/gendermatched non-dyskinetic patients (NDPD) and ten healthy control subjects. Whole-body magnitude (WBM) and fast pronation-supination at the wrist were recorded using 6- degrees of freedom magnetic motion tracker and forearm rotational sensors, respectively. Subjects were asked to pronate-supinate their dominant hand for 10s. Pre- and postmeasures were taken in a neutral position for 20s. RANGE (measure of hypokinesia), DURATION (measure of bradykinesia). VELOCITY (measure of bradykinesia) and IRREGULARITY (measure of fluctuations in movement amplitude) were used to assess RAM performance. Results showed that DPD patients had greater WBM than NDPD and control groups during rest and RAM performance. There were no differences in performance between NDPD and DPD groups for RANGE, DURATION and VELOCITY, despite significant longer disease duration for the DPD group (DPD = 15.5 ± 6.2 years versus NDPD = 6.6 ± 2.6 years). However, both the NDPD and DPD groups showed lower RANGE, longer DURATION, and reduced VELOCITY compared to controls,, suggesting the presence of bradykinesia and hypokinesia. In the case of IRREGULARITY, DPD patients showed clear fluctuations in movement amplitude compared to the NDPD and control groups. However, the lack of correlation between WBM and IRREGULARITY within the DPD group (Spearman's rank order, Rho - 0.31, p > 0.05), suggests that DID was not the primary cause of the fluctuating movementamplitude observed in that group. In conclusion, these findings suggest that DID may coexists with bradykinesia and hypokinesia, but that they are not inevitably accompanied with worsening motor performance.
    • The impact of job insecurity on mental health over time across gender and family responsibility

      Kaur, Sukhdeep; Applied Health Sciences Program
      While there is growing evidence that job insecurity leads to increased mental distress, prior studies have not investigated how gender and parental responsibilities may exacerbate this relationship. Since gender and parental responsibilities may interact with job insecurity to produce unique stressors, examining their contribution as potential effect modifiers may provide insights into gender inequalities in mental health and inform gender-sensitive labour policies to ameliorate the negative effects of job insecurity. Our study addresses this gap by examining the longitudinal association between job insecurity and mental health across different configurations of gender and parental responsibilities using a prospective cohort study design. Our sample includes 34,772 employed participants from the UK Household Longitudinal Study over the period of 2010-2018. A gender-stratified fixed-effect regression was used to model the within-person change over time in mental health functioning associated with loss of job security, and effect modification by parent-partner status (e.g. non-parents, lone mother, partnered father, etc). Loss of job security was associated with a moderate decrease in mental functioning for partnered fathers, partnered mothers, and non-parents ranging between a reduction in MCS-12 by 1.00 to 2.27 points (all significant at p<0.05). Lone fathers who lose their job security experienced a much higher decrease in mental functioning at -7.69 MCS-12 (95% CI: -12.69 to -2.70), while lone mothers did not experience any change. The effects of job insecurity on mental functioning varies across different configurations of gender, parental responsibilities, and partner status. Future studies should investigate the effects of policies that may reduce mental distress in the face of the threat of job loss such as reducing wait time for payment of unemployment benefits or increasing childcare cost coverage in the UK universal credit programme.
    • The Impact of Motor Task Success on the Perception of Target Size

      Bianchi, Krystina; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The action-specific perception literature has demonstrated that superior task success is correlated with perceiving task-related objects as appearing larger. Using a putting task, the present study examined this relationship under three different practice conditions (errorless, errorful, and self-control) while perceiving the size of the putting hole at various distances from the putting hole (25 cm, 50 cm, 75 cm, 100 cm, 125 cm, 150 cm, 175 cm, 200 cm). The acquisition and retention data revealed that there was no correlation between superior task success and larger perceived putting hole sizes. Additionally, it was found that the perceived putting hole sizes that were recorded at the end of acquisition were robust enough to persist over a 24-hour retention interval to exist before the first trial of retention. The results of the present study introduce inconsistencies with the current action-specific literature, while adding a novel contribution to the literature regarding perception retention.
    • The impact of social competence between physical activity and motor performance

      Martin, Britney; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-04-18)
      Objective: To identify the association of low physical activity (PA) participation in children with various motor performances (MP) and to establish the impact of social competence (SC). Methods: Sixth grade children from PHAST study at Brock University (n=1958; 50.53% males) had MP test results from Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Participation Questionnaire (PQ) used for PA and Harter Social Competence Scale for self-perceived SC. Comparative tests, multiple and logistic regressions were performed. Results: Significant differences in PQ measures in MP quartiles and SCs. MP and SC are independent predictors of PA (p<.05) except with SES on free play activity, making MP not significant. Lower MP increased the odds of low total PA and organized sport participation but not for free play activities (OR~1). Higher SC reduced the risk of low participation in all PA measures. Conclusions: SC improves PA participation, including free play and organized sports, despite the child’s MP.
    • The impact of tobacco control policies on university students' smoking in Ontario

      Dupuis, Sandy.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-11-04)
      Objective. Despite steady declines in the prevalence of tobacco use among Canadians, young adult tobacco use has remained stubbornly high over the past two decades (CTUMS, 2005a). Currently in Ontario, young adults have the highest proportion of smokers of all age cohorts at 26%. A growing body of evidence shows that smoking restrictions and other tobacco control policies can reduce tobacco use and consumption among adults and deter initiation among youth; whether young adult university students' smoking participation is influenced by community smoking restrictions, campus tobacco control policies or both remains an empirical question. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship among current smoking status of students on university campuses across Ontario and various tobacco control policies, 3including clean air bylaws of students' home towns, clean air by-laws of the community where the university is situated, and campus policies. Methods. Two data sets were used. The 200512006 Tobacco Use in a Representative Sample of Post-Secondary Students data set provides information about the tobacco use of 10,600 students from 23 universities and colleges across Ontario. Data screening for this study reduced the sample to 5,114 17-to-24 year old undergraduate students from nine universities. The second data set is researcher-generated and includes information about strength and duration of, and students' exposure to home town, local and campus tobacco control policies. Municipal by-laws (of students' home towns and university towns) were categorized as weak, moderate or strong based on criteria set out in the Ontario Municipal By-law Report; campus policies were categorized in a roughly parallel fashion. Durations of municipal and campus policies were calculated; and length of students' exposure to the policies was estimated (all in months). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between students' current smoking status (daily, less-than-daily, never-smokers) and the following policy measures: strength of, duration of, and students' exposure to campus policy; strength of, duration of, and students' exposure to the by-law in the university town; and, strength of, duration of, and students' exposure to the by-law in the home town they grew up in. Sociodemographic variables were controlled for. Results. Among the Ontario university students surveyed, 7.0% currently use tobacco daily and 15.4% use tobacco less-than-daily. The proportions of students experiencing strong tobacco control policies in their home town, the community in which their university is located and at their current university were 33.9%,64.1 %, and 31.3% respectively. However, 13.7% of students attended a university that had a weak campus policy. Multinomial logistic regressions suggested current smoking status was associated with university town by-law strength, home town by-law strength and the strength of the campus tobacco control policy. In the fmal model, after controlling for sociodemographic factors, a strong by-law in the university town and a strong by-law in students' home town were associated with reduced odds of being both a less-than-daily (OR = 0.64, 95%CI: 0.48-0.86; OR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.66-0.95) and daily smoker (OR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.39-0.89; OR = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.58-0.99), while a weak campus tobacco control policy was associated with higher odds of being a daily smoker (OR = 2.08, 95%CI: 1.31-3.30) (but unrelated to less-than-daily smoking). Longer exposure to the municipal by-law (OR = 0.93; 95%CI: 0.90-0.96) was also related to smoking status. Conclusions. Students' smoking prevalence was associated with the strength of the restrictions in university, and with campus-specific tobacco control policies. Lessthan- daily smoking was not as strongly associated with policy measures as daily smoking was. University campuses may wish to adopt more progressive campus policies and support clean air restrictions in the broader community. More research is needed to determine the direction of influence between tobacco control policies and students' smoking.
    • Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Body Mass, Physical Activity and Nutrition in Canadian Post-Secondary Students

      Bell, Madison; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This study examined changes in body mass, physical activity, and dietary intake and habits in Canadian university students during the first (March – September 2020) and second (October 2020 – March 2021) lockdown/restrictions of the COVID-19 pandemic. Two observational, self-reported recall surveys were conducted online; in September 2020 (T1) and March 2021 (T2). Five hundred ten (99 males, 411 females) students completed the survey at T1 and 135 of them also completed the survey at T2. The surveys included demographic information (age, sex, living arrangements, activity level, etc.), body mass and height, and a series of standardized questionnaires on eating habits and behaviours, as well as energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake. Body mass and body mass index increased in both males and females. Body mass increased on average by 0.91 kg, t(132) = -2.7, p = 0.008, 95%CI = [0.24, 1.58]. Importantly, a significant change was shown that between T1 and T2 with a greater number of participants identified as overweight (19.8% to 24.4%) than normal weight (61.7% to 54.8%). Body mass change was not associated with changes in physical activity and dietary intake. Females were more likely to decrease At Home Workouts compared to males with no other significant changes detected for type of physical activity in either T1 or T2. Energy intake significantly decreased by ~200 kcals/d. Diet quality also changed in both sexes characterized by negative changes in in both macro and micronutrients. Restrictive eating behaviours were found to increase significantly in females and were more frequent in those with eating disorders. Therefore, modest weight gain did occur during the pandemic in Canadian university students despite the insignificant changes reported in physical activity and the decrease in overall dietary intake, which can be possibly attributed to the changes in diet quality and dietary behaviours.
    • Implementing the OPTIMAL model : the impact on students' motivation in an elementary school games environment

      Sheppard, Joanna C.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2005-05-21)
      Optimal challenge occurs when an individual perceives the challenge of the task to be equaled or matched by his or her own skill level (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). The purpose of this study was to test the impact of the OPTIMAL model on physical education students' motivation and perceptions of optimal challenge across four games categories (i. e. target, batting/fielding, net/wall, invasion). Enjoyment, competence, student goal orientation and activity level were examined in relation to the OPTIMAL model. A total of 22 (17 M; 5 F) students and their parents provided informed consent to take part in the study and were taught four OPTIMAL lessons and four non-OPTIMAL lessons ranging across the four different games categories by their own teacher. All students completed the Task and Ego in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ; Duda & Whitehead, 1998), the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI; McAuley, Duncan, & Tanmien, 1987) and the Children's Perception of Optimal Challenge Instrument (CPOCI; Mandigo, 2001). Sixteen students (two each lesson) were observed by using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time tool (SOFTT; McKenzie, 2002). As well, they participated in a structured interview which took place after each lesson was completed. Quantitative results concluded that no overall significant difference was found in motivational outcomes when comparing OPTIMAL and non-OPTIMAL lessons. However, when the lessons were broken down into games categories, significant differences emerged. Levels of perceived competence were found to be higher in non-OPTIMAL batting/fielding lessons compared to OPTIMAL lessons, whereas levels of enjoyment and perceived competence were found to be higher in OPTIMAL invasion lessons in comparison to non-OPTIMAL invasion lessons. Qualitative results revealed significance in feehngs of skill/challenge balance, enjoyment and competence in the OPTIMAL lessons. Moreover, a significance of practically twice the active movement time percentage was found in OPTIMAL lessons in comparison to non-OPTIMAL lessons.