• Factors Associated with Small Aggressive Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinomas

      Warkentin, Matthew; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Small aggressive non-small cell lung carcinomas (SA-NSCLC) are characterized by spread to distant lymph nodes and metastases, even while the primary tumour remains small in size, as opposed to tumours that are relatively large before cancer progression. These small aggressive cancers present a challenge for clinical diagnosis and screening, carry grave prognosis, and may benefit from using a targeted approach to identify high-risk individuals. The objectives of this thesis were to identify factors associated with SA-NSCLC, and compare survivorship of stage IV SA-NSCLC to large stage IV NSCLC. Logistic and Cox regression analysis were performed using data from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). Model building was guided by knowledge of lung carcinogenesis and lung cancer prognostic factors. Previous diagnosis of emphysema and positive family history of lung cancer in females were associated with increased risk of SA-NSCLC among adenocarcinomas. Despite overall poor prognosis, SA-NSCLC have a better prognosis compared to large stage IV NSCLC.
    • The female coach as a role model for personal growth and development to the female adolescent athlete

      Campbell, Tammy.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-07-09)
      Research interest on the topic of female coaches as role models has recently emerged in the coaching literature. Social learning theory (Bandura, 1963; 1977; 1986) has also emerged as an essential framework in explaining learning through modeling. Previous research has examined the coach as a role model, as well as gender differences between coaches. Several authors, with several different conclusions, have studied the significance of gender as an influencer in role modeling. Whitaker and Molstad in 1988 conducted a study focusing on the coach as a role model. What they found was when they combined the results of high school and college aged athletes; the female coach was considered to be a superior role model. The current research used a social learning theory framework to examine the benefits and intricacies of the modeling relationship between female adolescent athletes and influential female coaches. To accomplish this task, the formative experiences of thirteen adolescent female athletes were examined. Each athlete was interviewed, with each semi-structured interview focusing on extracting the salient features of a coach that the athlete identified as being the most influential in her personal development. The data from these interviews were quaHtatively analyzed using case studies. From case studies, a template emerges in which the coach/athlete relationship can be seen as an essential construct in which caring and strong role models can have lasting effects on the lives, values, and successes of adolescent female athletes.
    • Fitspiration Photos and Quotes: Effects on Body Image in University Women

      Buchmayer, Deanna; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Fitspiration refers to a type of social media that aims to inspire people to exercise using photos and/or quotes. However, while evidence suggests it can lead to increased exercise motivation, it has also been shown to have a negative effect on body image and mood. The purpose of this study was to investigate which component of Fitspiration messages (photos and/or quotes) causes a negative effect on body image and mood and to investigate if this content has an inspiring effect on related health behaviours. A total of 145 women aged 18-29 years were randomly assigned to view one of four Instagram accounts: Fitspiration photos, Fitspiration quotes, a combination of photos and quotes, or travel images (control condition). They completed pre and post-measures of body image and mood (i.e., body satisfaction, self-objectification, body appreciation and negative mood) as well as a measure of inspiration to exercise, eat healthy, and travel after viewing the account. Results of a series of ANCOVAs showed that women in the image-only condition reported lower body appreciation and higher negative mood compared to women in the travel condition. Further, women in the combination condition reported higher self-objectification and lower body satisfaction compared to those in the control condition. Women in the image group also reported greater inspiration to exercise than those in the travel group and greater inspiration to eat healthy than those in both the travel and quote groups. These results suggest that, in general, viewing Fitspiration images (either alone or with a quote) is associated with poorer body image and mood in young adult women, although it did lead to greater inspiration to engage in health behaviours. Given that social media, and Fitspiration in particular, is growing in popularity, it is important to develop protective measures, such as social media literacy programs, to reduce their negative impact.
    • Flavonoid Intake and Periodontal Healing Outcomes Following Sanative Therapy

      Klok, Stephanie; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Diet has an important role in the maintenance of oral health. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease of the soft and hard tissues that support our teeth. Sanative therapy (ST) offers a first-line, cost-effective treatment for periodontal disease. Although ST improved clinical healing outcomes from baseline, it may not completely resolve inflammation associated with periodontal disease. Due to the high flavonoid content in tea and the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of flavonoids, it was hypothesized that participants with higher daily intakes of tea and flavonoids would have improved healing outcomes, designated as greater reductions in probing depth (PD) ≥ 4 mm and salivary biomarker concentration levels (C-reactive protein, interleukin 1-beta, and interleukin-6) eight weeks after ST. The relationship between tea consumption or flavonoid intake and clinical outcomes following sanative therapy (ST) has not been investigated. Participants completed the 2014 Block food frequency questionnaire prior to ST and provided saliva samples via passive drool immediately prior to ST and eight weeks following ST. There were no significant associations between flavonoid intake and tea consumption with periodontal outcomes (percentage of PD sites post-ST ≥ 4 mm) or change in salivary biomarker concentrations pre- and post-ST. Although, salivary concentrations of IL-1ß were significantly lower post-ST (p < 0.05). Therefore, our results suggest that among our sample, no relationship exists between tea or flavonoid intake and clinical healing outcomes after ST.
    • Force potentiation in the MDX mouse

      Smith, Ian Curtis.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-06-29)
      Large forces are the primary mechanism of injury in muscular dystrophy, and muscular dystrophy is especially damaging to type IIB muscle fibers. It was hypothesized that post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) would be down-regulated to prevent damage in Xlinked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mice since PTP increases force and PTP effects are greatest in IIB fibers. PTP experiments were performed on the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of 50 day old mdx (YM) and C57BL/10 (YC) mice and 10 month old mdx (OM) and C57B1710 (OC) mice. Twitch and tetanic forces were lower in mdx than controls and lower in younger than older mice. Contrary to the hypothesis, PTP was higher in both mdx groups compared to controls. OM potentiated more than any other condition (OM: 29.8%, OC: 23.2%, YM: 21.9%, YC: 17.2%). In accordance with literature PTP increased in the older groups. To explain PTP changes, fiber typing and Western blots for myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) were performed. YM and YC had similar fiber type profiles (2% I, 58% IIX/D and 40% IIB). In accordance with literature but contrary to expected conditions for elevated PTP, OM had a slower fiber type profile (1.7% I, 69% IIX/D and 29% IIB) than OC (0.4% I, 61% IIX/D and 38% IIB). No differences were found in MLCK expression. It seems that PTP is up-regulated to maintain muscle function rather than being down-regulated to prevent muscle damage. Ca""^ transient and myosin phosphorylation measurements would be beneficial in explaining increased PTP seen in this study.
    • A framework for understanding the factors that influence spectators' recall and recognition of embedded sponsorship stimuli

      Potwarka, Luke Richard.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      Now, more than ever, sponsors of athletic events demand to see evidence of a commercial return, such as enhanced brand awareness, for their investment of cash or non-cash resources (Lough et aI., 2000). The most common way to measure the impact of perimeter signage (Le., any billboard or sign that displays a company's brand name and/or logo and which surrounds the playing area) on spectators' awareness of event sponsors has been through the use of brand name recall and recognition tests (Shilbury & Berriman, 1996). Recall testing requires spectators to list all of the sponsors they can remember seeing at, for example, an athletic event, strictly from memory and without any help (Cuneen & Hannan, 1993). With recognition testing, spectators are required to identify sponsors from a prepared list which include "dummy" brand names (i.e., sponsors that are present in the list but which do not actually sponsor the event). In order to determine whether sponsors' brand awareness objectives are being met, it is important for sport and recreation marketers to understand what influences a spectator's ability to remember (Le., recall and/or recognize) the brand names of companies who advertise on perimeter signage. The purpose this study was to examine the factors that influence spectators' recall and recognition of embedded sponsorship stimuli (i.e., company brand names on perimeter signage surrounding the play area) at a Canadian University's men's basketball game and football game. These factors included the number of games spectators attended over the course of the season (i.e., repeated exposure to sponsorship stimuli), spectators' level of involvement with the event, and spectators' level of involvement with the advertisements (i.e., perimeter signage). This study also examined the differences between recall and recognition as a means of measuring spectators' awareness of sponsors, and attempted to determine if there are sport differences in spectators' recall and recognition of perimeter signage. Upon leaving the football stadium or gymnasium, spectators were approached, at random, by trained research assistants located at each exit and asked to complete a brief survey questionnaire. Respondents completed the survey on-site. A total of 358 completed surveys were collected from spectators who attended the football (N = 277) and basketball (N = 81) games. The data suggest that football and basketball respondents recognized more sponsors' brand names than they recalled. In addition, football respondents who were highly involved with the event (i.e., those individuals who viewed attending the events as fun, interesting and exciting) attended more games over the course of the season and had significantly higher brand name recognition of sponsors who advertised on perimeter signage than those individuals with low involvement with the athletic event. Football respondents who were highly involved with the sponsors' advertisements (i.e., those individuals who viewed sponsors' perimeter signage as appealing, valuable and important) had significantly higher brand name recall of event sponsors than those individuals with low involvement with these sponsors' advertisements. Repeated exposure to perimeter signage did not have a significant influence on football or basketball respondents' recall or recognition of sponsors. Finally, the data revealed that football respondents had significantly higher recall of sponsors' brand names than basketball respondents. Conversely, basketball respondents had significantly higher recognition of sponsors' brand names than did football respondents.
    • Gendered attitudes and family planning decision-making in Honduras

      Willard, Kendra.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-05-21)
      This study examines gendered attitudes and family planning in the Central American country of Honduras using a feminist perspective. Specifically, this study investigates the relationships between gendered attitudes (i.e., male oriented or non-male oriented attitudes) and who makes decisions about contraceptive use and family size among married and common-law Hondurans. This study also attempts to account for social elements such as gendered attitudes, education, economics, environment and demographics that may act to limit or enhance women's agency in reproductive decisionmaking. Furthermore, gender is examined to determine whether these relationships depend on the gender of the respondents. Two national Honduran surveys from 2001 are used in a secondary analysis, specifically muUinomial logisfic regression. Findings indicate that women reporting non-male oriented attitudes are significantly more likely to indicate that they (the wives) make the contraceptive decisions. Moreover, both men and women reporting non-male oriented attitudes are significantly more likely to indicate making contraceptive decisions together. Both of these effects remain significant when other social factors included in the analyses, though part of the effect is explained by education and economics. Similar effects are found in terms of family size decisions. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
    • Getting Comfortable Being Uncomfortable: Men’s Psychobiological and Behavioural Responses to and Recovery from a Social-Evaluative Body Image Threat

      Smyth, Aidan; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Negative body image, which often results from social-evaluative threats, is common in young men and related to many harmful outcomes. Social self-preservation theory (SSPT) suggests that social-evaluative threats elicit psychobiological (e.g., shame and cortisol) and behavioural responses (e.g., submission). Exercise is a long-term coping strategy for negative body image and can reduce psychobiological responses to social-evaluative threats unrelated to the body (e.g., giving a speech to a panel of judges). The present study investigated the psychobiological and behavioural responses to, and recovery from, a social-evaluative body image threat in university men, and whether weight training moderated the expected psychobiological responses. University men (N = 69; Mage = 20.8 years, SD = 1.84; MBMI = 25.25 kg/m2, SD = 3.23) were randomly assigned to a high-threat or low-threat condition. Results showed that men in the high-threat condition had greater levels of post-threat body dissatisfaction, body shame, social physique anxiety, and cortisol compared to men in the low-threat condition after controlling for pre-threat scores (psychological measures), body fat percentage and trait body image. At the recovery time point there were no longer significant differences between conditions. Participants in the high-threat condition also exhibited shame-relevant behaviours to a greater extent than men in the low-threat condition. Weight training did not moderate any of the psychobiological responses. These findings are consistent with SSPT and suggest that men respond to, and recover from, body image threats relatively quickly.
    • Glucose dynamics in rat skeletal muscle : recovery from osmotic stress

      Mulligan, Matthew J.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-06-15)
      The purpose of this study was to examine cell glucose kinetics in rat skeletal muscle during iso-osmotic recovery from hyper- and hypo-osmotic stress. Rat EDL muscles were incubated for sixty minutes in either HYPO (190 mmol/kg), ISO (290 mmol/kg), or HYPER (400 mmol/kg) media (Sigma medium-199, 8 mM glucose) according to an established in vitro whole muscle model. In addition to sixty minute baseline measures in aniso-osmotic conditions, (HYPO-0 n=8; ISO- 0, n=S; HYPER-0, n=8), muscles were subjected to either one minute (HYPO-1 n=8; ISO-1, n=8; HYPER-1, n=8) or five minutes (HYPO-5 n=8; ISO-5, n=8; HYPER-5, n=8) of iso-osmotic recovery media and analyzed for metabolite content and glycogen synthase percent activation. To determine glucose uptake during iso-osmotic recovery, muscles (n=6 per group) were incubated for sixty minutes in either hypo-, iso-, or hyper-osmotic media immediately followed by five minutes of iso-osmotic media containing 3H-glucose and 14 C-mannitol. Increased relative water content/decreased [glucose] (observed in HYPO-0) and decreased water content/increased [glucose] (observed in HYPER-0) returned to ISO levels within 5 minutes of recovery. Glycogen synthase percent activation increased significantly in HYPO-5 over iso-osmotic controls. Glucose uptake measurements revealed no significant differences between groups. It was determined that [glucose] and muscle water content rapidly recovered from osmotic stress demonstrating skeletal muscle's resilience to osmotic stress.
    • Health-related quality of life among patients attending cardiovascular rehabilitation

      Batey, Brandon; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      Purpose: f i rst , an investigation of baseline differences in Health-Related Quality of l i fe (HRQOl) among adhere and non-adhere patients of Phase III cardiac rehabilitation (CR) was examined. Second, among patients who adhered to the program, effectiveness of t reatment based on HRQOl was evaluated. Methods: Data was collected by the Brock University Heart Institute. Participants completed a questionnaire battery at baseline and again at six months i f they were still a client. Results: The physical dimension of HRQOl differed at baseline between the adhere and non-adhere groups. for everyone point increase in physical HRQOl scores there was an associated 1.06 times greater likelihood that an individual would adhere to the program. Second, in those who adhered to the program for six months, physical HRQOl scores improved 3.18 points. Conclusions: Phase III CR significant improves HRQOl in patients suffering f rom cardiovascular disease.
    • How do school disciplinary approaches and student perceptions of school support relate to youth cannabis use? A cross-sectional analysis of Year 7 (2017-2018) of the COMPASS study

      Magier, Megan; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Background: In the school year immediately following cannabis legalization in Canada, the objectives of this thesis were: (1) to examine the disciplinary approaches being used in secondary schools for students who violate school substance use policies, and associations with cannabis use among youth; and (2) to investigate youth perceptions of school support for the prevention and cessation of substance use, if perceptions vary by school disciplinary approaches, and whether they are associated student cannabis use. Methods: School- and student-level survey data from Year 7 (2018/2019) of the COMPASS study were used, including 74,501 grade 9-12 students attending 136 secondary schools. A framework for classifying schools into disciplinary approach styles was established based on school-reported response measures used for student first-offence violations of the school cannabis policies. Multilevel logistic regression models examined associations between school disciplinary approach styles, student perceptions of school support for the prevention/cessation of student substance use, and student cannabis use. Results: Despite all schools reporting always/sometimes using a progressive discipline approach, punitive consequences (suspension, alert police) remain prevalent as first-offence options, with fewer schools indicating supportive responses (counselling; cessation/educational programs). Most schools were classified as using Authoritarian and Authoritative approaches, followed by Neglectful and Permissive/Supportive styles. No disciplinary approach styles were associated with cannabis use. Students attending schools classified as Permissive/Supportive (high supportive; low punitive) had a higher likelihood of perceiving their school as supportive for substance use prevention/cessation than their peers at Authoritarian (high punitive; low supportive) schools. Students who perceived their school as “supportive” were less likely to report current cannabis use than their peers who perceived their school as unsupportive. Conclusions: This study is the first to classify school discipline approach styles using school-level measures. Unlike previous studies using classifications based on student perceptions, results do not support direct associations between school disciplinary styles and student cannabis use. Greater use of supportive approaches (e.g., counselling referrals, educational programs) over punitive consequences may promote student perceptions of school supportiveness for the cessation/prevention of substance use. Further research is needed to explore additional factors promoting student perceptions of school supportiveness, given associations with cannabis use.
    • How Nonverbal Behaviour and Game Context Alter Athletes Perceptions: A Study of Nonverbal Influence on Expectancy of Success and Impression Formation in Different Game Scenarios, Immediately After an Opponent’s Mistake

      Ra; Razavi, Parmida; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Nonverbal behaviour is a social cognition component of sport psychology. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of non-verbal behaviour (NVB), and game scenarios immediately after a mistake was made. Participants (N = 103) were randomly assigned to one of six groups, comprised of one of two body languages, dominant (n = 51) and submissive (n = 52), and one of three game scenarios, winning (n = 34), tied (n = 34), and losing (n = 35). Due to a high internal consistency between factors of performance outcomes and psychological characteristics one composite variable was created for each variable. Results revealed that dominant NVB was rated significantly higher than submissive NVB in each category, while game situation did not show any significant differences for performance outcome or psychological characteristics. NVB can be a readily accessible resource that should utilized by athletes to gain an advantage over their opponent.
    • Human skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase activity and expression : the effect of aerobic capacity

      Love, Lorenzo Kenward.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-02-16)
      Activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, is accomplished by a pair of specific phosphatases (PDP 1 & 2). A cross-sectional study investigating the effect of aerobic capacity on PDP activity and expression found that: 1) PDP activity and PDP! protein expression were positively correlated with most aerobic capacity measures in males (n=lS), but not females (n=12); 2) only males showed a positive correlation between PDP activity and PDPl protein expression (r=0.47; p=O.05), indicating that the increase in PDP activity in males is largely explained by increased PDPl protein expression, but that females rely on another level for PDP activity regulation; and 3) PDP} and Ela protein expression increase in unison when expressed relative to the E2 core. These data suggest that with increased aerobic capacity there is an increased capacity for carbohydrate oxidation through PDH, via El a, and an increased ability to activate PDH, via PDP, when exercising maximally.
    • Identification of Network-Based Risk Factors Associated with Gonorrhea

      Zahradnik, Michelle; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The evolving antimicrobial resistance coupled with a recent increase in incidence highlights the importance of reducing gonococcal transmission. Establishing novel risk factors associated with gonorrhea facilitates the development of appropriate prevention and disease control strategies. Sexual Network Analysis (NA), a novel research technique used to further understand sexually transmitted infections, was used to identify network-based risk factors in a defined region in Ontario, Canada experiencing an increase in the incidence of gonorrhea. Linear network structures were identified as important reservoirs of gonococcal transmission. Additionally, a significant association between a central network position and gonorrhea was observed. The central participants were more likely to be younger, report a greater number of risk factors, engage in anonymous sex, have multiple sex partners in the past six months and have sex with the same sex. The network-based risk factors identified through sexual NA, serving as a method of analyzing local surveillance data, support the development of strategies aimed at reducing gonococcal spread.
    • Identifying changes in dietary intake, diet quality, body weight and body composition during first year university

      Beaudry, Kayleigh; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study was to identify if dietary intake and eating habits change in students during first-year university and how these changes influence anthropometrics and body composition. 301 students (n=71 males, n=230 females) completed food frequency and dietary habits questionnaires. Anthropometry and body composition were measured at the beginning and end of first-year university. Both males and females gained body weight (p<0.05). Both gained fat mass and males gained significantly more lean mass than females. Energy intake significantly decreased by ~400 kcals/d for both sexes. Diet quality also decreased in both sexes characterized by negative changes in healthy and unhealthy foods. Caffeine intake remained the same and alcohol intake increased. Therefore, modest weight gain does occur during first-year university, males more than females, but the composition was different. Dietary intake and quality decreased in both sexes and changes in some dietary habits reflected these negative intake changes.
    • Identifying Changes in Physical Activity Behaviours That Lead to Weight Gain in First Year University Students

      Thomas, Aysha Martinah; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The transition to university is a critical time period for weight gain, possibly explained by a decrease in physical activity. The aim of this study was to identify changes in physical activity as students’ transition from high school to university and to assess if they relate to body weight and composition. Three hundred one (71 males, 230 females) first year Brock University students participated. Anthropometric and body composition data were collected in September and April. Students also filled out questionnaires assessing their physical activity behaviours. Significant increases in weight, BMI, and body composition were observed across the sample, accompanied by reductions in physical activity output and increases in factors preventing physical activity participation. However, the reductions in physical activity were not correlated with the changes in body composition. Therefore, in our sample, changes in physical activity behaviours are not the main cause of weight gain in first year university students.
    • Imagery or video feedback : which is the "route" to strategic improvement?

      Brownell, Kyle J.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-07-09)
      The implementation of imagery and video feedback programs has become an important tool for aiding athletes in achieving peak performance (Halliwell, 1990). The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of strategic imagery training and video feedback on immediate performance. Participants were two university goaltenders. An alternating treatment design (ATD; Barlow & Hayes, 1979; Tawney & Gast, 1984) was employed. The strategies were investigated using three plays originating from the right side by a right-handed shooting defenceman from the blueline. The baseline condition consisted of six practices and was used to establish a stable and "ideal" measure of performance. The intervention conditions included alternating the use of strategic imagery (Cognitive general; Paivio, 1985) and video feedback. Both participants demonstrated an increase in the frequency of Cognitive general use. Specific and global performance measures were assessed to determine the relative effectiveness of the interventions. Poor inter-rater reliability resulted in the elimination of specific performance measures. Consequently, only the global measure (i.e., save percentage) was used in subsequent analyses. Visual inspection of participant save percentage was conducted to determine the benefits of the intervention. Strategic imagery training resulted in performance improvements for both participants. Video feedback facilitated performance for Participant 2, but not Participant 1. Results are discussed with respect to imagery and video interventions and the challenges associated with applied research. KEYWORDS: imagery, video, goaltenders, alternating treatment design.
    • Immunoendocrine profiles in neurocysticercosis patients: a clinical study in Honduras

      Gadea, Nicholas; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection caused by the infiltration and localization of the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium within the central nervous system (CNS). Clinical presentation and severity are heterogeneous and depend particularly on the age and sex of its host. A clinical study was conducted to evaluate specific endocrine and immune status changes that are associated with NCC. A total of 11 (9 female and 2 male) NCC patients were recruited and matched by sex and age with 11 healthy subjects. Evaluations for 7 hormones and 2 cytokines were measured and compared between patients and their matched controls. Compared with controls, all patients had statistically significant higher serum concentration levels of 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A4), luteinising hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10). In contrast, NCC patients showed significantly lower concentrations of free testosterone (T4), and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). To our knowledge, the present study constitutes one of the first demonstrations in humans that the presence of T. solium metacestodes can modify the host microenviornment by the induction of immunoendocrine changes. In summary, the present work adds to the growing body of knowledge indicating how this parasitic infection may modulate the host for its successful establishment and survival. In addition to being “curiosity-driven”, the ultimate aim of this type of work is to provide insight into the design of new therapeutic strategies. Among these, researchers in the field envision novel treatments or vaccines with the ability to block specific parasite molecules, thereby inhibiting the cysticercus establishment in the CNS, or at least shortening its survival and improving the pathological markers associated with neurocysticercosis.
    • The Impact of Directed Mirror Focus and Technique Cues on Psychological, Cognitive and Emotional Exercise Correlates in an Introductory Weight Training Orientation

      Cameron, Carly; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of the study was to investigate whether teaching inactive and low active women to use mirrors for form and technique purposes could lessen the negative impact of mirrors on self-presentational concerns, affect, and self-efficacy. Eligible women (N = 82) underwent a one-on-one weight training orientation with a personal trainer. Participants were randomized into one of four experimental groups, each unique in the type of feedback (general or technique-specific) and the degree of focus on the mirror for technique reinforcement. Questionnaires assessed study outcomes pre- and post-orientation. Results indicated groups did not significantly differ on any post-condition variables, when controlling for pre-condition values (all p’s >.05). All groups showed outcome improvements following the orientation. This suggests that during a complex task, a personal trainer who emphasizes form and technique can facilitate improvements to psychological outcomes in novice exercisers, independent of the presence of mirrors or directional cues provided.
    • The impact of drug-induced dyskinesias on rapid alternating movements in patients with Parkinson's disease

      Ghassemi, Mehrdad Marco.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2005-06-15)
      We investigated the likelihood that hypokinesia/bradykinesia coexist with druginduced dyskinesias (DID) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The influence of dyskinesias on rapid alternating movements (RAM) was investigated in ten dyskinetic patients (DPD). Their motor performance was compared to that of ten age/gendermatched non-dyskinetic patients (NDPD) and ten healthy control subjects. Whole-body magnitude (WBM) and fast pronation-supination at the wrist were recorded using 6- degrees of freedom magnetic motion tracker and forearm rotational sensors, respectively. Subjects were asked to pronate-supinate their dominant hand for 10s. Pre- and postmeasures were taken in a neutral position for 20s. RANGE (measure of hypokinesia), DURATION (measure of bradykinesia). VELOCITY (measure of bradykinesia) and IRREGULARITY (measure of fluctuations in movement amplitude) were used to assess RAM performance. Results showed that DPD patients had greater WBM than NDPD and control groups during rest and RAM performance. There were no differences in performance between NDPD and DPD groups for RANGE, DURATION and VELOCITY, despite significant longer disease duration for the DPD group (DPD = 15.5 ± 6.2 years versus NDPD = 6.6 ± 2.6 years). However, both the NDPD and DPD groups showed lower RANGE, longer DURATION, and reduced VELOCITY compared to controls,, suggesting the presence of bradykinesia and hypokinesia. In the case of IRREGULARITY, DPD patients showed clear fluctuations in movement amplitude compared to the NDPD and control groups. However, the lack of correlation between WBM and IRREGULARITY within the DPD group (Spearman's rank order, Rho - 0.31, p > 0.05), suggests that DID was not the primary cause of the fluctuating movementamplitude observed in that group. In conclusion, these findings suggest that DID may coexists with bradykinesia and hypokinesia, but that they are not inevitably accompanied with worsening motor performance.