• A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Functional Movement Screen Scores in Male AAA Minor Hockey Players

      Dol, Steven; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) has been used as a screening tool to assess inefficiencies and asymmetries associated with movement patterns that could potentially lead to injury risks in athletic populations (Kiesel, Plisky, & Voight, 2007; Parenteau-G et al., 2014; Mokha et al., 2016). The primary purpose of the study was to compare FMS scores across four hockey-specific chronological age groups and five stages of maturity in adolescent male ice-hockey players. The secondary purpose of the study was to determine if years of experience in a specific sport, correlated with movement pattern asymmetries. One hundred and eleven male (9-17 years) AAA players completed a battery of physical measurements including; height (cm), weight (kg), grip strength (kg), sit and reach (cm) and the FMS. FMS scores were analyzed by total score (TS), FMS subgroups (FMS movement, FMS flexibility and FMS stability), frequencies of individual movement pattern scores and left/right asymmetries. Significant differences in FMS TS were revealed across both chronological age, categorized by hockey age groups (F (3,107) = 7.002), p<.001 and stage of maturity (F (4,106) = 4.790), p<.001, suggesting that FMS TS improved with both age and physical maturity. However, ANCOVA results revealed no significant differences across hockey age groups (F (3,106) =1.917), p=.131, when maturity was entered as a covariate, suggesting that maturity did not influence FMS TS beyond the effect age. FMS sub-groups revealed significant differences in FMS move and FMS stab across both hockey age group and stage of maturity. No significant differences were found in the frequencies of individual screen scores or left/right asymmetries across hockey age groups or stages of maturity. Therefore, the results did not support the assumption of hockey being a significant unilateral training stimulus.
    • How do school disciplinary approaches and student perceptions of school support relate to youth cannabis use? A cross-sectional analysis of Year 7 (2017-2018) of the COMPASS study

      Magier, Megan; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Background: In the school year immediately following cannabis legalization in Canada, the objectives of this thesis were: (1) to examine the disciplinary approaches being used in secondary schools for students who violate school substance use policies, and associations with cannabis use among youth; and (2) to investigate youth perceptions of school support for the prevention and cessation of substance use, if perceptions vary by school disciplinary approaches, and whether they are associated student cannabis use. Methods: School- and student-level survey data from Year 7 (2018/2019) of the COMPASS study were used, including 74,501 grade 9-12 students attending 136 secondary schools. A framework for classifying schools into disciplinary approach styles was established based on school-reported response measures used for student first-offence violations of the school cannabis policies. Multilevel logistic regression models examined associations between school disciplinary approach styles, student perceptions of school support for the prevention/cessation of student substance use, and student cannabis use. Results: Despite all schools reporting always/sometimes using a progressive discipline approach, punitive consequences (suspension, alert police) remain prevalent as first-offence options, with fewer schools indicating supportive responses (counselling; cessation/educational programs). Most schools were classified as using Authoritarian and Authoritative approaches, followed by Neglectful and Permissive/Supportive styles. No disciplinary approach styles were associated with cannabis use. Students attending schools classified as Permissive/Supportive (high supportive; low punitive) had a higher likelihood of perceiving their school as supportive for substance use prevention/cessation than their peers at Authoritarian (high punitive; low supportive) schools. Students who perceived their school as “supportive” were less likely to report current cannabis use than their peers who perceived their school as unsupportive. Conclusions: This study is the first to classify school discipline approach styles using school-level measures. Unlike previous studies using classifications based on student perceptions, results do not support direct associations between school disciplinary styles and student cannabis use. Greater use of supportive approaches (e.g., counselling referrals, educational programs) over punitive consequences may promote student perceptions of school supportiveness for the cessation/prevention of substance use. Further research is needed to explore additional factors promoting student perceptions of school supportiveness, given associations with cannabis use.
    • A Principal Component Analysis Comparing Forward Skating Strides Pre-Post Skate Treadmill Training in Youth Hockey Players

      Iantomasi, Vincent; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of the study was to explore temporal and phasic waveform patterns within kinematic data, obtained from forward skating strides, pre-post skate treadmill training in youth (U-11), male hockey players to investigate changes in kinematics. Continuous joint angle (deg) and angular velocity (deg/s) stride data for the trunk, hip, and knee were determined, time normalized, and averaged. PCA results suggested that most of the pre-post variance in skating mechanics could be explained through an increase in joint angle (deg) and angular velocity (deg/s) magnitudes during the propulsive and recovery phases of the stride cycle. Single component reconstruction (SCR) facilitated visual representation and interpretation of kinematic differences by isolating variances within each principal component and reconstructing lower (5th percentile) and upper (95th percentile) waveforms based on the respective scalar weight factor of PC scores. Post-training, SCR suggested patterns of increased trunk extension throughout the stride cycle, increased hip and knee extension during propulsion, and increased hip and knee flexion during recovery. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) statistically analysed continuous data points across two waveforms. SPM revealed significant differences in pre-post trunk flexion and extension magnitudes from the early glide phase to propulsion onset ([p=0.0023], ~0-20% stride cycle) and from late propulsion to weight acceptance ([p=0.0001], ~40-80% stride cycle). Differences in pre-post hip and knee measures were non-significant (p>0.05). PCA, SCR and SPM analyses have the potential to contribute to our understanding of biomechanical training adaptations in stride mechanics in youth ice hockey players.