• The effects of R(+)-lipoic acid supplementation on regulation of human skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase

      Staples, Elizabeth M.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      This thesis investigated whole body glucose disposal and the adaptive changes in skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism following 28 d of supplementation with 1000 mg R(+)-lipoic acid in young sedentary males (age, 22.1 ± 0.67 yr, body mass, 78.7 ± 10.3 kg, n=9). In certain individuals, lipoic acid decreased the 180-min area under the glucose concentration and insulin concentration curve during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (n=4). In the same individuals, lipoic acid supplementation decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity (PDK) (0.09 ± 0.024 min"^ vs. 0.137 ± 0.023 min'\ n=4). The fasting levels of the activated form of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHa) were decreased following lipoic acid (0.42 ± 0.13 mmol-min'kg'^ vs. 0.82 ± 0.32 mmolrnin'^kg"\ n=4), yet increased to a greater extent during the OGTT (1.21 ± 0.34 mmol-min'kg"' vs. 0.81 ±0.13 mmolmin"'kg'\ n=4) following hpoic acid supplementation. No changes were demonstrated in the remaining subjects (n=5). It was concluded that improved glucose clearance during an OGTT following lipoic acid supplementation is assisted by increased muscle glucose oxidation through increased PDHa activation and decreased PDK activity in certain individuals.
    • The influence of skeletal muscle cell volume on the regulation of carbohydrate uptake and muscle metabolism

      Farlinger, Christopher M.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-06-01)
      This study investigated the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and glucose uptake through changes in skeletal muscle cell volume. Using an established invitro isolated whole muscle model, soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were dissected from male rats and incubated in an organ bath containing Sigma medium-199 with 8 mM D-glucose altered to target osmolality (hypo-osmotic: HYPO, iso-osmotic: ISO, hyper-osmotic: HYPER; 190, 290, 400 mmol/kg). Muscles were divided into two groups; metabolite (MM) and uptake (MU). MM (N=48) were incubated for 60 minutes and were then immediately flash frozen. MU (N=24) were incubated for 30 minutes and then the extracellular fluid was exchanged for media containing ^H-glucose and ^'*C-mannitol and incubated for another 30 minutes. After the incubation, the muscles were freeze clamped. Results demonstrated a relative water decrease and increase in HYPER and HYPO, respectively. EDL and SOL glucose uptakes were found to be significantly greater in HYPER conditions. The HYPER condition resulted in significant alterations in muscle metabolite concentrations (lower glycogen, elevated lactate, and G-6-P) suggesting a catabolic cell state, and an increase in glycogen synthase transformation when compared to the HYPO group. In conclusion, skeletal muscle cell volume alters rates of glucose uptake with further alterations in muscle metabolites and glycogen synthase transformation.

      Lui, Adrian; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-07-11)
      Extracellular hyper-osmotic (HYPER) stress increases glucose uptake to defend cell volume, when compared to iso-osmotic (ISO) conditions in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine a time course for changes in common signaling proteins involved in glucose uptake during acute hyper-osmotic stress in isolated mammalian skeletal muscle. Rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were excised and incubated in a media formulated to mimic ISO (290 ± 10 mmol/kg) or HYPER (400 ± 10 mmol/kg) extracellular condition (Sigma Media-199). Signaling mechanisms were investigated by determining the phosphorylation states of Akt, AMPK, AS160, cPKC and ERK after 30, 45 and 60 minutes of incubation. AS160 was found to be significantly more phosphorylated in HYPER conditions compared to ISO after 30 minutes (p<0.01). It is speculated that AS160 phosphorylation increases glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) content at the cell surface thereby facilitating an increase in glucose uptake under hyper-osmotic stress.