Browsing M.Sc. Applied Health Sciences by Subject "Carbohydrates"
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The influence of skeletal muscle cell volume on carbohydrate metabolism in contracting skeletal muscleThis study investigated the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism through changes in skeletal muscle cell volume immediately post contraction and during recovery. Using an established in vitro isolated muscle strip model, soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) were dissected from male rats and incubated in an organ bath (perfused with 95% O2; 5% CO2, pH 7.4, temperature 25°C) containing medium- 199 altered to a target osmotic condition (iso-, hypo- or hyper-osmotic; 290, 1 80, 400 mmol/kg). Muscles were stimulated for 10 minutes (40 Hz SOL; 30 Hz EDL) and then either immediately flash frozen or allowed to recover for 20 minutes before subsequent metabolite and enzyme analysis. Results demonstrated a relative water decrease in HYPER vs. HYPOosmotic condition (n=8/group; p<0.05) regardless of muscle type. Specifically, the SOL HYPER condition had elevated metabolite concentrations after 10 minutes of stimulation in comparison to both HYPO and ISO (p<0.05), while EDL muscle did not show any significant difTerences between the HYPER or HYPO conditions. After 20 minutes of recovery, metabolic changes occurred in both SOL and EDL with the SOL HYPER condition showing greater relative changes in metabolite concentrations versus HYPO. The results of the current study have demonstrated that osmotic imbalance induces metabolic change within the skeletal muscle cell and muscle type may influence the mechanisms utilized for cell volume regulation.
The influence of skeletal muscle cell volume on the regulation of carbohydrate uptake and muscle metabolismThis study investigated the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and glucose uptake through changes in skeletal muscle cell volume. Using an established invitro isolated whole muscle model, soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were dissected from male rats and incubated in an organ bath containing Sigma medium-199 with 8 mM D-glucose altered to target osmolality (hypo-osmotic: HYPO, iso-osmotic: ISO, hyper-osmotic: HYPER; 190, 290, 400 mmol/kg). Muscles were divided into two groups; metabolite (MM) and uptake (MU). MM (N=48) were incubated for 60 minutes and were then immediately flash frozen. MU (N=24) were incubated for 30 minutes and then the extracellular fluid was exchanged for media containing ^H-glucose and ^'*C-mannitol and incubated for another 30 minutes. After the incubation, the muscles were freeze clamped. Results demonstrated a relative water decrease and increase in HYPER and HYPO, respectively. EDL and SOL glucose uptakes were found to be significantly greater in HYPER conditions. The HYPER condition resulted in significant alterations in muscle metabolite concentrations (lower glycogen, elevated lactate, and G-6-P) suggesting a catabolic cell state, and an increase in glycogen synthase transformation when compared to the HYPO group. In conclusion, skeletal muscle cell volume alters rates of glucose uptake with further alterations in muscle metabolites and glycogen synthase transformation.