• Menstrual status and thermoregulatory responses of active adolescents during exercise in a cold environment

      Cunliffe, Melora.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2002-05-21)
      This study examined the interactions between the reproductive status and the thermoregulatory responses during exercise in the cold in girls involved in competitive sports. Four girls with established menstrual cycles comprised the eumenorrheic menarcheal group (EM) and 5 non-menstruating girls comprised the pre-menarcheal group (PM). During the first visit maximal oxygen consumption, height, weight and percent body fat (%BF) were measured. The second visit involved: a determination of metabolic rate in thermoneutrality (21°C) involving 10-min rest and 20-min cycling (30% of VCL max), and a cold stress test (5°C, 40% humidity, <0.3 m/s air velocity) involving 20-min rest and 40-min cycling (30% of VCL max.). Subjects in the EM group were tested twice in the chamber during the follicular and luteal phases. Pre-menarcheal subjects were found to have significantly (p<0.05) lower core temperatures during the final stages of cold exposure. Overall, body fat was not significantly correlated with core temperature in the cold, however there was a significant surface-to-mass ratio difference between the groups. While in the follicular phase, EM girls had a higher core temperature during cold exposure. Therefore, reproductive hormonal status seems to be an important factor in terms of cold tolerance in females during adolescence.
    • Relationship between physical activity and resting secretory immunity in children

      Cieslak, Thomas J.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2002-05-21)
      This study examined relationships among physical activity, body fat and salivary immonoglobulin A (sIgA) levels in adolescent children of Southern Ontario. Gender differences on these factors were also assessed. Sixty-one grade-five students (10-1 lyrs), males (n=29) and females (n=31), who had not received a flu vaccination in the past 12 months, participated in the study. They were assessed for: aerobic power (20-m shuttle run), relative body fat (bioelectrical impedance analysis), sIgA, sIgA/albumin ratio, and salivary Cortisol. Each subject completed the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale and the Participation Questioimaire. Students wore a pedometer for 48h to estimate their average total distance traveled per day. The results show 40% of the children were over 25% body fat and 50% of them spend less than five hours per day in any physical activities. Salivary IgA was not related to salivary Cortisol, physical activity, fitness level or body fat in this age group. There were no gender differences in sIgA and Cortisol levels. Boys had a significantly higher aerobic power and daily distance traveled, but reported similar organized and fi-ee time activity participation levels as the girls. The test-retest reproducibility for salivary Cortisol was 0.663 (p<0.01), while long term sIgA and sIgA/albumin ratio reproducibility was non-significant for repeated measurements taken after six weeks. It was found that salivary IgA has not been shovm to be a stable measure in children, in contrast to the results found in the literatiu-e that tested adults and the relationship with physical activity, fitness level and body fat.
    • The effect of a weighted-vest strength and balance training program on obstructed walking in postmenopausal women

      Slack, Jill Patricia.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      SUMMARY Background: Age related declines in lower extremity strength have been associated with impaired mobility and changes in gait patterns, which increase the likelihood of falls. Since community dwelling adults encounter a wide range of locomotor challenges including uneven and obstmcted walking surfaces, we examined the effect of a strength 11 and balance exercise program on obstructed walking in postmenopausal women. Objectives: This study examined the effect of a weighted-vest strength and balance exercise program on adaptations of the stance leg during obstacle walking in postmenopausal women. Methods: Eighteen women aged 44-62 years who had not engaged in regular resistance training for the past year were recruited from the St. Catharines community to participate in this study. Eleven women volunteered for an aerobic (walking), strength, and balance training program 3 times per week for 12 weeks while 7 women volunteered as controls. Measurements included: force platform dynamic balance measure of the center of pressure (COP) and ground reaction forces (GRFs) in the stance leg while going over obstacles of different heights (0,5, 10,25 and 30 cm); and isokinetic strength measures of knee and ankle extension and flexion. Results: Of the 18 women, who began the trial, 16 completed it. The EX group showed a significant increase of 40% in ankle plantar flexion strength (P < 0.05). However, no improvements in measures of COP or GRFs were observed for either group. Failure to detect any changes in measures of dynamic balance may be due to small sample size. Conclusions: Postmenopausal women experience significant improvements in ankle strength with 12 weeks of a weighted-vest balance and strength training program, however, these changes do not seem to be associated with any improvement in measures of dynamic balance.
    • Tourism and the precautionary principle : a survey of academic and government stakeholders

      Ebert, Kevin K.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      The purpose of this exploratory investigation was to provide a more precise understanding and basis from which to assess the potential role of the precautionary principle in tourism. The precautionary principle, analogous to the ideal of sustainable development, is a future-focused planning and regulatory mechanism that emphasizes pro-action and recognizes the limitations of contemporary scientific methods. A total of 100 respondents (80 tourism academics, 20 regional government tourism officials) from Canada, United States, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand completed the webbased survey between May and June 2003. Respondents reported their understanding of the precautionary principle, rated stakeholder involvement and education strategies, assessed potential barriers in implementation, and appraised steps of a proposed fi-amework for implementation. Due to low sub sample numbers, measures of central tendency were primarily used to compare groups, while inferential statistics were applied when warranted. Results indicated that most respondents (79%) felt the principle could be a guiding principle for tourism, while local and regional government entities were reported to have the most power in the implementation process. Findings suggested close links between the precautionary principle and sustainability, as concern for future generations was the most critical element of the principle for tourism. Overall, tourism academics were more supportive of the precautionary principle in tourism than were regional government tourism officials. Only minor variation was found in responses among regional groups across all variables. This study established basic ground for understanding the precautionary principle in tourism and has been effective in formulating more precise questions for future research.
    • What children value : a scale to guide health promotion programs

      Foster, Kelly A.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      Objective. Physical activity is important for the health of all human beings. Although it is important to develop good health promotion programs for children to increase participation in physical activity, to date there appear to be no programs based on what kids value beyond health and physical activity itself. This study proposed to create a scale with strong content and face validity that could uncover what any given population of children value in life regardless of their participation in physical activity and that experts feel could be related to physical activity. These findings will allow the development of targeted health promotion programs to increase children's participation in regular physical activity. Method In this study, a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches was used. Data were gathered from seven experts in the field, sixty-seven children in grades three to five, five parents, and three teachers. From these data response groupings were created and sent to four experts to be given single word names. The resulting nine theme names were re-worked into "child-friendly" language. Four children were then asked to discuss theme names to see if they liked and understood them. The next step involved asking children and experts to rank order the nine themes, the children in general and the experts in terms of relevance to physical activity. From these results, possible versions of the scale were then created using the combined expert/children rankings. Each version was examined for content validity. Two versions of a scale resulted. These were sent to experts, parents, teachers and children in order to determine which one they liked better and to suggest any foreseeable problems. Once this information was collected, a beta (final prototype) version of the scale was created. Results. Nine common theme names were created from the response groupings. All four children agreed that they did understand and like each of the nine theme names. Experts and teachers agreed that full coverage of the content had been achieved. Children suggested a single wording change from "Being Accepted" to "Being Included". Five themes were selected for inclusion. The beta version of the scale included 12 forced choice statements, the first ten comparing all themes against one another followed by two anchor statements. Conclusion. At the outset it was recognized that it is essential to know what children think is important in their lives in order to serve as potential benefits in the development of effective physical activity promotion programs. This study developed a scale which could be used to determine what a population of children feel is important in order to focus health promotion programs for physical activity. The scale has strong face and content validity.
    • Evaluation of a stage II screening protocol for prostate cancer

      deRuiter, Wayne K.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-07-09)
      In 2003, prostate cancer (PCa) is estimated to be the most commonly diagnosed cancer and third leading cause of cancer death in Canada. During PCa population screening, approximately 25% of patients with a normal digital rectal examination (DRE) and intermediate serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level have PCa. Since all patients typically undergo biopsy, it is expected that approximately 75% of these procedures are unnecessary. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of efficacy of clinical tests and algorithms in stage II screening for PCa while preventing unnecessary biopsies from occurring. The sample consisted of 201 consecutive men who were suspected of PCa based on the results of a DRE and serum PSA. These men were referred for venipuncture and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). Clinical tests included TRUS, agespecific reference range PSA (Age-PSA), prostate specific antigen density (PSAD), and free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio (%fPSA). Clinical results were evaluated individually and within algorithms. Cutoffs of 0.12 and 0.15 ng/ml/cc were employed for PSAD. Cutoffs that would provide a minimum sensitivity of 0.90 and 0.95, respectively were utilized for %fPSA. Statistical analysis included ROC curve analysis, calculated sensitivity (Sens), specificity (Spec), and positive likelihood ratio (LR), with corresponding confidence intervals (Cl). The %fPSA, at a 23% cutoff ({ Sens=0.92; CI, 0.06}, {Spec=0.4l; CI, 0.09}, {LR=1.56; CI, O.ll}), proved to be the most efficacious independent clinical test. The combination of PSAD (cutoff 0.15 ng/ml/cc) and %fPSA (cutoff 23%) ({Sens=0.93; CI, 0.06}, {Spec=0.38; CI, 0.08}, {LR=1.50; CI, 0.10}) was the most efficacious clinical algorithm. This study advocates the use of %fPSA at a cutoff of 23% when screening patients with an intermediate serum PSA and benign DRE.
    • Imagery or video feedback : which is the "route" to strategic improvement?

      Brownell, Kyle J.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-07-09)
      The implementation of imagery and video feedback programs has become an important tool for aiding athletes in achieving peak performance (Halliwell, 1990). The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of strategic imagery training and video feedback on immediate performance. Participants were two university goaltenders. An alternating treatment design (ATD; Barlow & Hayes, 1979; Tawney & Gast, 1984) was employed. The strategies were investigated using three plays originating from the right side by a right-handed shooting defenceman from the blueline. The baseline condition consisted of six practices and was used to establish a stable and "ideal" measure of performance. The intervention conditions included alternating the use of strategic imagery (Cognitive general; Paivio, 1985) and video feedback. Both participants demonstrated an increase in the frequency of Cognitive general use. Specific and global performance measures were assessed to determine the relative effectiveness of the interventions. Poor inter-rater reliability resulted in the elimination of specific performance measures. Consequently, only the global measure (i.e., save percentage) was used in subsequent analyses. Visual inspection of participant save percentage was conducted to determine the benefits of the intervention. Strategic imagery training resulted in performance improvements for both participants. Video feedback facilitated performance for Participant 2, but not Participant 1. Results are discussed with respect to imagery and video interventions and the challenges associated with applied research. KEYWORDS: imagery, video, goaltenders, alternating treatment design.
    • Reliability of a new measure of motoneuron excitability

      Christie, Anita.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-07-09)
      Objectlve:--This study examined the intraclass reliability· of different measures of the excitability of the Hoffmann reflex, derived from stimulus-response curves. The slope of the regression line of the H-reflex stimulus-response curve advocated by Funase et al. (1994) was also compared to the peak of the first derivative of the H-reflex stimulus-response curve (dHIdVmax), a new measure introduced in this investigation. A secondary purpose was to explore the possibility of mood as a covariate when measuring excitability of the H-reflex arc. Methods: The H-reflex amplitude at a stimulus intensity corresponding to 5% of the maximum M-wave (Mmax) is an established measure that was used as an additional basis of comparison. The H-reflex was elicited in the soleus for 24 subjects (12 males and 12 females) on five separate days. Vibration was applied to the Achilles tendon prior to stimulation to test the sensitivity of the measures on test day four. The means of five evoked potentials at each gradually increasing intensity, from below H-reflex threshold to above Mmax, were used to create both the H-reflex and M-wave stimulus response curves for each subject across test days. The mood of the subjects was assessed using the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale (SEES) prior to the stimulation protocol each day. Results: There was a modest decrease in all H-reflex measures from the first to third test day, but it was non-significant (P's>0.05). All measures of the H-reflex exhibited a profound reduction following vibration on test day four, and then returned to baseline levels on test day five (P's<0.05). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for H-reflex amplitude at 5% of Mmax was 0.85. The ICC for the slope of the regression line was 0.79 while it was 0.89 for dH/dVmax. Maximum M-wave amplitude had an ICC of 0.96 attesting to careful methodological controls. The SEES subscales of fatigue and psychological well-being remained unchanged IV across the five days. The psychological distress subscale (P<O.05), as well as the amplitude of the H-reflex_.at5% Mmax·(P<O.OI) showed a significant cubic trend across the live days. No significant correlation was found between Hs% and psychological distress (P>O.05). Conclusions: The peak of the first derivative of the H-reflex stimulus-response curve (dH/dVmax) was shown to have comparable reliability and sensitivity to other more established measures of excitability. Psychological distress and the amplitude of the H-reflex at 5% Mmax follow similar trends across days, however there was no significant correlation between the two measures. Significance: The proposed method appears to be a more robust measure ofH-reflex excitability than the other methods tested. As such it would be an advantageous method to apply in clinical and investigative settings. Additionally, the results suggest that the relationship between psychological distress and H-reflex amplitude should be investigated further.
    • The female coach as a role model for personal growth and development to the female adolescent athlete

      Campbell, Tammy.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-07-09)
      Research interest on the topic of female coaches as role models has recently emerged in the coaching literature. Social learning theory (Bandura, 1963; 1977; 1986) has also emerged as an essential framework in explaining learning through modeling. Previous research has examined the coach as a role model, as well as gender differences between coaches. Several authors, with several different conclusions, have studied the significance of gender as an influencer in role modeling. Whitaker and Molstad in 1988 conducted a study focusing on the coach as a role model. What they found was when they combined the results of high school and college aged athletes; the female coach was considered to be a superior role model. The current research used a social learning theory framework to examine the benefits and intricacies of the modeling relationship between female adolescent athletes and influential female coaches. To accomplish this task, the formative experiences of thirteen adolescent female athletes were examined. Each athlete was interviewed, with each semi-structured interview focusing on extracting the salient features of a coach that the athlete identified as being the most influential in her personal development. The data from these interviews were quaHtatively analyzed using case studies. From case studies, a template emerges in which the coach/athlete relationship can be seen as an essential construct in which caring and strong role models can have lasting effects on the lives, values, and successes of adolescent female athletes.
    • A qualitative study of inclusion at a residential summer camp

      Mecke, Tricia.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-07-14)
      The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand the inclusion process at a Project Rainbow affiliated camp. Project Rainbow is a non-profit organization which promotes inclusion into children's camps in Ontario. This study was completed in order to provide stakeholders of the camping industry insight on how inclusive techniques can be implemented in residential camps. The researcher observed one camp's inclusion techniques for six days. The researcher observed three campers with disabilities and the camp staff and campers that interacted with them on a daily basis. While the researcher was at the camp, she interviewed nine staff members. The staff members consisted of the camp director, the inclusion coordinator, four camp counsellors, and three inclusion counsellors. An additional interview was conducted after arriving home from camp with the manager from Project Rainbow. The qualitative analysis program NVivo was used to help organize the analyzed data. The researcher found that in attempting to build a culture of inclusion, two important concepts are necessary. First, mutual leadership involved the camp director and Project Rainbow working together as a team to facilitate the inclusion process. Second, power of supportive relationships focused on inclusion being the responsibility of everyone, teamwork, and creating a welcoming environment. Hints at some potentially serious problems related to staff training, teamwork, and attitudes of non-disabled campers pointed to future research and policies which focus on the Ontario and Canadian Camping Associations' role in inclusion, in addition to camp in this study and Project Rainbow.
    • The effects of athletic scholarships on motivation in sport

      Medic, Nikola.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-07-14)
      The presence of rewards has been found to undermine intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1999). This conclusion is primarily based on research conducted in non-sporting environments. The purpose of this study was to examine perceived motivational changes resulting from the hypothetical manipulation of a reward (i.e., athletic scholarships). Differences in "present" motivation between scholarship and non-scholarship athletes were also assessed. Gender, life roles, and sport experience were also examined in relation to scholarship status. Basketball players from four Ontario (n = 70) and seven U.S. Division I universities (n = 46) were examined. All athletes completed a set of demographic questions, as well as questions from the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS; Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand, Tuson, Briere, & Blais, 1995) which assessed their "present" motivation. Athletes also completed the SMS to evaluate their "perceived future" motivation based on a hypothetical manipulation of the scholarship status. For Ontario non-scholarship athletes, extrinsic regulation (an extrinsic motive) increased with the introduction of a scholarship and the intrinsic motive to experience stimulation decreased. For U.S. scholarship athletes, the intrinsic motive to accomplish things decreased when scholarships were removed. When the two scholarship status groups were compared across "present" levels of motivation, U.S. scholarship males reported significantly higher levels of introjected regulation compared to Ontario non-scholarship males. Ontario non-scholarship females reported significantly higher levels of introjected regulation compared to U.S. scholarship females. U.S. scholarship athletes reported significantly higher levels of external regulation compared to Ontario non-scholarship athletes. Results offer partial support for self-determination theory. Implications for future research are discussed.
    • An international investigation on the validity of the CSAPPA scale in screening for developmental coordination disorder /

      Flouris, Andreas D.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2004-05-21)
      The main objective of the present investigation was to continue the research initiated by Hay and colleagues (2004) in examining the efficacy of the Children's Self-Perceptions of Adequacy in and Predilection for Physical Activity (CSAPPA) scale as a proxy for the short form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP-SF) in screening for Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in children. To better appreciate DCD knowledge outside Canada, the measurements of this investigation were expanded in Greece. A translated Greek CSAPP A scale and the BOTMP-SF were administered for the first time in Greek children. A second objective was to investigate the relationship between DCD and various risk factors of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Canadian and Greek children. A sample of 591 (Ms=322; Fs=269) Canadian and 392 (Ms=211; Fs=181) Greek children, aged 9 to 13 years, consented to the BOTMP-SF, CSAPP A Scale, participation in physical activity questionnaire, Leger 20-meter Multistage Shuttle Run test, and body fat using bioelectric impedance. Prevalence of DCD in Canada and Greece was 8% and 19%, respectively. Significant agreement (p<O.OOI) was confirmed when comparing the CSAPPA scale to the BOTMP-SF test in both countries. Canadian children revealed significantly lower percent body fat, CSAPPA scores, and participation in physical activity, as well as higher aerobic fitness levels and BOTMP-SF compared to their Greek peers. Clumsiness was associated with increased percent body fat and low aerobic fitness values. Physical activity was a significant mediator in the clumsiness-aerobic fitness relationship. It is concluded that the CSAPPA scale is an accurate, practical, and inexpensive screening tool for DCD, and that motoric competence is associated with aerobic fitness through physical activity participation.
    • A systematic observation of hostile aggression in Junior B hockey

      Gee, Chris J.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      Aggressive behaviours within the sport of hockey appear to be increasing in both prevalence and consequence (Biasca, Wirth, & Tegner, 2002). Accordingly, this area of inquiry is currently garnering a considerable amount of attention from society and academics alike. The problem however, is that our current understanding of these behaviours has been deemed both incomplete and unreliable. The inconsistencies inherent within this body of knowledge have been traced back to a variety of methodological shortcomings. The purpose of this investigation was to assess hostile aggression using a more ecologically valid and comprehensive research design. Ten Junior B hockey games were tapped and subsequently coded by three independent observers, using a validated operational list. Two hundred and fifty-nine behaviours were extrapolated and examined according to the score differential, period, position of the aggressor, status of the aggressor's team, and whether the aggressor was a member of the home or visiting team. It was concluded that the frequency of aggressive behaviours significantly differed according to the score differential, and status of the aggressor's team (p < .01). However, these hostile acts did not differ according the aggressor's position, period, and the home versus away status of the aggressor's team (p > .01). It was also determined that the majority of aggressive acts (69.1 1%) across these ten games went unsanctioned. This highlights the profound influence that "positive misses" have on penalty measures of aggression, while concurrently highlighting the ecological validity present with observational designs. Consequently, by assessing aggressive behaviour in a more inclusive and ecologically valid manner, a more accurate picture of the frequency and distribution of hostile aggression may be provided.
    • Training distribution and the acquisition of maximal isometric elbow flexion strength

      Calder, Kristina M.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      Twenty-six sedentary, college-aged females were matched and randomly assigned to one of two groups. The massed group (n=13) completed 15 maximal isometric elbow flexion strength trials in one session, while the distributed group (n=13) performed five such contractions on three successive days. After a two-week and three month rest interval, both groups returned to perfonn another five maximal isometric elbow flexion strength trials to assess retention of any potential strength gains. Elbow flexion torque and surface electromyography (SEMG) of the biceps and triceps were monitored concurrently. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in strength in both groups from block one (first five contractions) to block four (first retest) and from block one to block five (second retest). Both groups exhibited a similar linear increasing (P < 0.05) trend in biceps root-mean-square (RMS) SEMG amplitude. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in triceps RMS SEMG amplitude was found between block one and block four for the distributed group. However, a significant (P < 0.05) increase was then found between block one and five for the massed group, and between blocks four and five for distributed group. These results suggest that there is flexibility in resistive exercise schedules. An increase in neural drive to the agonist muscle continued throughout testing. This was accompanied by a reduction in antagonist co activation that was a short-tenn (two weeks) training effect, dissipated over the longer rest interval (three months).
    • An analysis of students' travel motivations and images of China as a tourist destination

      Chen, Xu.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      Despite China's rapid growth in inbound tourism, the nature of its Canadian tourist market has been insufficiently studied. In response to this need, the objectives of this study are to identify China's destination image in Canadian students' minds, their possible internal motivations for visiting China as well as examining demographic influences on people's destination image formation. The study reviews image formation process and travel motivation categorisation, discusses their relationship, and implements Baloglu and McCleary's (1999) perceptual and affective image formation model and "push and pull factors" theory as its framework. A self-administered survey was applied to 424 undergraduate students in a Canadian university in early 2004. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted to identify perceived images and travel motivation. Summated means were calculated to illustrate the affective attitudes. A series of f-test and ANOVA tests were employed to examine the influence of demographics. An open-ended question format was adopted to analyse other images, motivations and visitation barriers that students may have. Findings demonstrate that cultural and natural attractions are the predominant image which the Canadian students have of China'; some stereotypes and negative images still influence the students' perception; travel service quality is largely unknown; increasing knowledge and seeking excitement and fun are the significant motivators in the likelihood of the Canadian students choosing to visit China; and personal interests may be a factor that significantly influences an individual's destination image and travel motivation. Raising awareness and increasing familiarity through promotion are suggested as methods to create a positive destination image of China.
    • A framework for understanding the factors that influence spectators' recall and recognition of embedded sponsorship stimuli

      Potwarka, Luke Richard.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      Now, more than ever, sponsors of athletic events demand to see evidence of a commercial return, such as enhanced brand awareness, for their investment of cash or non-cash resources (Lough et aI., 2000). The most common way to measure the impact of perimeter signage (Le., any billboard or sign that displays a company's brand name and/or logo and which surrounds the playing area) on spectators' awareness of event sponsors has been through the use of brand name recall and recognition tests (Shilbury & Berriman, 1996). Recall testing requires spectators to list all of the sponsors they can remember seeing at, for example, an athletic event, strictly from memory and without any help (Cuneen & Hannan, 1993). With recognition testing, spectators are required to identify sponsors from a prepared list which include "dummy" brand names (i.e., sponsors that are present in the list but which do not actually sponsor the event). In order to determine whether sponsors' brand awareness objectives are being met, it is important for sport and recreation marketers to understand what influences a spectator's ability to remember (Le., recall and/or recognize) the brand names of companies who advertise on perimeter signage. The purpose this study was to examine the factors that influence spectators' recall and recognition of embedded sponsorship stimuli (i.e., company brand names on perimeter signage surrounding the play area) at a Canadian University's men's basketball game and football game. These factors included the number of games spectators attended over the course of the season (i.e., repeated exposure to sponsorship stimuli), spectators' level of involvement with the event, and spectators' level of involvement with the advertisements (i.e., perimeter signage). This study also examined the differences between recall and recognition as a means of measuring spectators' awareness of sponsors, and attempted to determine if there are sport differences in spectators' recall and recognition of perimeter signage. Upon leaving the football stadium or gymnasium, spectators were approached, at random, by trained research assistants located at each exit and asked to complete a brief survey questionnaire. Respondents completed the survey on-site. A total of 358 completed surveys were collected from spectators who attended the football (N = 277) and basketball (N = 81) games. The data suggest that football and basketball respondents recognized more sponsors' brand names than they recalled. In addition, football respondents who were highly involved with the event (i.e., those individuals who viewed attending the events as fun, interesting and exciting) attended more games over the course of the season and had significantly higher brand name recognition of sponsors who advertised on perimeter signage than those individuals with low involvement with the athletic event. Football respondents who were highly involved with the sponsors' advertisements (i.e., those individuals who viewed sponsors' perimeter signage as appealing, valuable and important) had significantly higher brand name recall of event sponsors than those individuals with low involvement with these sponsors' advertisements. Repeated exposure to perimeter signage did not have a significant influence on football or basketball respondents' recall or recognition of sponsors. Finally, the data revealed that football respondents had significantly higher recall of sponsors' brand names than basketball respondents. Conversely, basketball respondents had significantly higher recognition of sponsors' brand names than did football respondents.
    • Carbohydrate refeeding rapidly reverses the adaptive upregulation of human skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase following a high fat diet

      Bigrigg, Jonathan Kent.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      The time course for the reversal of the adaptive increase in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) activity following a 6d high fat diet (HP: 4.2 ± 0.2 % carbohydrate; 75.6 ± 0.4 % fat; 19.5 ± 0.8 % protein) was investigated in human skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis). HF feeding increased PDK activity by 44% (from 0.081 ± 0.025 min"' to 0.247 ± 0.025 mm\p < 0.05). Following carbohydrate re-feeding, (88% carbohydrate; 5% fat; 7% protein), PDK activity had returned to baseline (0.111 ± 0.014 min"') within 3h of re-feeding. The active fraction of pyruvate dehydrognease (PDHa) was depressed following 6d of the HF diet (from 0.89 ± 0.21 mmol/min/kg WW to 0.32 ± 0.05 mmol/min/kg ww,p <0.05) and increased to pre-HF levels by 45 min of post re-feeding (0.74 ±0.19 mmol/min/kg ww) and remained elevated for 3h. Western blotting analysis of the PDK isoforms, PDK4 and PDK2, revealed a 31% increase in PDK4 protein content following the HF diet, with no change in PDK2 protein. This adaptive increase in PDK4 protein content was reversed with carbohydrate re-feeding. It was concluded that the adaptive up-regulation in PDK activity and PDK4 protein content was fiilly reversed by 3h following carbohydrate re-feeding.
    • Taenia solium transmission in a rural community in Honduras : an examination of risk factors and knowledge

      Pang, Haiyan.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2004-11-04)
      Taenia soliurn taeniasis and cysticercosis are recognized as a major public health problem in Latin America. T. soliurn transmission not only affects the health of the individual, but also social and economic development, perpetuating the cycle of poverty. To determine prevalence rates, population knowledge and risk factors associated with transmission, an epidemiological study was undertaken in the rural community of Jalaca. Two standardized questionnaires were used to collect epidemiological and T. soli urn general knowledge data. Kato-Katz technique and an immunoblot assay (EITB) were used to determine taeniasis and seroprevalence, respectively. In total, 139 individuals belonging to 56 households participated in the study. Household characteristics were consistent with conditions of poverty of rural Honduras: 21.4% had no toilet or latrines, 19.6% had earthen floor, and 51.8% lacked indoor tap water. Pigs were raised in 46.4% of households, of which 70% allowed their pigs roaming freely. A human seroprevalence rate of 18.7% and a taeniasis prevalence rate of 2.4% were found. Only four persons answered correctly 2: 6 out of ten T. soliurn knowledge questions, for an average passing score of 2.9%. In general, a serious gap exists in knowledge regarding how humans acquire the infections, especially neurocysticercosis was identified. After regression analysis, the ability to recognize adult tapeworms and awareness of the clinical importance of taeniasis, were found to be significant risk factors for T. soliurn seropositivity. These results demonstrate a high level of transmission and a low level of kn~,wledge about Taenia soliurn in Jalaca. Consequently, intervention measures integrated with health education are necessary to decrease the burden caused by this parasite.
    • Ontario high school sport : an investigation of organizational design and its context

      Sarson, Lindsay A.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2005-05-19)
      In 2002, The Ontario Federation of School Athletic Associations (OFSAA) identified that in providing extracurricular sport programs schools are faced with the 'new realities' of the education system. Although research has been conducted exploring the pressures impacting the provision of extracurricular school sport (Donnelly, Mcloy, Petherick, & Safai, 2000), few studies within the field have focused on understanding extracurricular school sport from an organizational level. The focus of this study was to examine the organizational design (structure, systems, and values) of the extracurricular sport department within three Ontario high schools, as well as to understand the context within which the departments exist. A qualitative multiple case study design was adopted and three public high schools were selected from one district school board in Ontario to represent the cases under investigation. Interviews, observations and documents were used to analyze the extracurricular sport department design of each case and to better understand the context within which the departments exist. As the result of the analysis of the structure, systems and values of each case, two designs emerged- Design KT1 and Design KT2. Differences in the characteristics of design archetype KT1 and KT2 centered on the design dimension of values, and therefore this study identified that contrasting organizational values reflect differences in design types. The characteristics of the Kitchen Table archetype were found to be transferable to the sub-sector of extracurricular school sport, and therefore this research provides a springboard for further research in organizational design within the education sector of extracurricular high school sport. Interconnections were found between the data associated with the external and internal contexts within which the extracurricular sport departments exist. The analysis of the internal context indicated the important role played by organizational members in shaping the context within which the departments exist. The analysis of the external context highlighted the institutional pressures that were present within the education environment. Both political and cultural expectations related to the role of extracurricular sport within schools were visible and were subsequently used by the high schools to create legitimacy and prestige, and to access resources.