• Bone speed of sound, biochemical markers of bone turnover and IGF-1 in competetive synchronized swimmers

      Ludwa, Izabella Atena.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-07-14)
      The purpose of this study was to compare bone speed of sound (SOS) measured by quantitative ultrasound, circulating levels of IGF- 1 and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- (Pr) and post-menarcheal (Po) synchronized swimmers (SS) and controls (NS). Seventy participants were recruited: 8 PrSS, 22 PoSS, 20 PrNS, and 20 PoNS. Anthropometric measures of height, weight, skeletal maturity and percent body fat were taken, and dietary intake evaluated using 24-hour recall. Bone SOS was measured at the distal radius and mid-tibia and blood samples analyzed for IGF-1, osteocalcin, NTx, and 25-OH vitamin D. Results demonstrated maturational effects on bone SOS, IGF-1 and bone turnover (p<0.05), with no differences observed between SS and NS. Main effects were observed for a reduced caloric intake in SS compared to NS (p<0.05). Therefore, SS does not offer additive affects on bone strength but imparts no adverse affects to skeletal health in these athletes.