• Expression and function of endothelin and its receptors in vascular adventitial fibroblasts

      Boyd, Ryan.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-06-04)
      Objective: The adventitia has been recognized to play important roles in vascular oxidative stress, remodelling and contraction. We recently demonstrated that adventitial fibroblasts are able to express endothelin-1 (ET-1) in response to angiotensin II (ANG II). However, the mechanisms by which ANG II induces ET-1 expression are unknown. It is also unclear whether the ET-1 receptors are expressed in the adventitia. We therefore examined the role of oxidative stress in the regulation of ET-1. We also investigated the expression of both the ETA and ETB receptors and the roles of these two types of receptors in collagen synthesis and ET-1 clearance in adventitial fibroblasts. Methods and Results: Adventitial fibroblasts were isolated and cultured from the thoracic mouse aorta. Cells were treated with ANG II (lOOnM), ET-1 (lOpM), NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (lOOfiM), the superoxide anion scavenger tempol (lOOfiM), the ANG II receptor antagonists (100[aM), losartan (AT| receptor) and PD 1233 19 (AT2 receptor), the ET-1 receptor antagonists (lOOuM), BQ123 (ETA receptor) and BQ788 (ETB receptor), and the ETB receptor agonist (lOOnM) Sarafotoxin 6C. ET-1 peptide levels were determined by ELISA, while ETA ,ETB and collagen levels were determined by Western blot. ANG II increased ET-1 peptide levels in a time-dependent manner reaching significance when incubated for 24 hours. NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, as well as the superoxide scanverger, tempol, significantly reduced ANG Il-induced ET-1 peptide levels while over-expression of SOD1 (endogenous antioxidant enzyme) significantly decreased ANG Il-induced collagen I expression, therefore implicating reactive oxygen species in the mediation of ET-1. ANG II increased ETA receptor protein as well as collagen in a similar fashion, reaching significance after 4, 6, and 24 hours treatment. ANG II induced collagen was reduced while in the presence of the ETA receptor antagonist suggesting the role of the ETa receptor in the regulation of the extracellular matrix. ANG II treatment also increased ETB receptor protein levels in a time-dependent manner. ANG II treatment in the presence of the ETB receptor antagonist significantly increased ET-1 peptide levels. On another hand, the ETB receptor agonist, Sarafotoxin 6C, significantly decreased ET-1 peptide levels. These data implicate the role of the ETb receptor in the clearance of the ET-1 peptide. Conclusion: ANG II-induced increases of ET-1 peptide appears to be mediated by reactive oxygen species derived from NAD(P)H oxidase. Both the ETA and ETB receptors are expressed in adventitial fibroblasts. The ETA receptor subtype mediates collagen I expression, while the ETB receptor may play a protective role through increasing the clearance of the ET- 1 peptide.