Recent Submissions

  • Wearable activity monitors and goals: Perceptions on physical activity, attitudes and motivational outcomes

    Bell, Connor; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Evidence attesting to the benefits of wearable activity monitors for increasing PA has been reported (USDHHS, 2018). Goal setting is one behavior change technique that often accompanies wearable activity monitors and has been deemed an essential component to any health behavior change intervention (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2014). Specific to PA behavior, goal setting has been deemed effective regardless of age, sex, and activity status (McEwan et al., 2016). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if affective goals confer unique benefits on physical activity (PA), attitudes and behavioral regulations consistent with the Organismic Integration Theory (OIT; Ryan & Deci, 2017) among users of wearable activity monitors. Affective goals were compared with instrumental goals, step count and a no goal condition. Adopting a randomized experimental post-test only design, undergraduate students (N = 153) were assigned to one of eight conditions. Participants read a scenario then completed a battery of questionnaires housed on a secure online interface. Differences by condition were not found for short- or long-term PA or attitudes (p’s >.05). Differences were noted for extrinsic regulation (p = 0.025; ηp2 = .105). Results indicated that extrinsic regulation was higher in the no goal condition when compared to most other conditions. These findings imply that goal setting, regardless of type, may offset increases in extrinsic motivation associated with the use of wearable activity monitors. Users of wearable activity monitors looking to improve PA, positive attitudes and motivation associated with PA may benefit by utilizing goal setting in combination with other commonly used BCTs. A further investigation upon goal setting and users of wearable activity monitors is warranted.
  • Tone it Down or Tune it Out? The Focus of Instructor Cues on Body Image Outcomes during an Exercise Class in Older Adults

    Galway, Sarah; Applied Health Sciences Program
    In group exercise settings, many factors influence body image, including instructors and the motivational cues they use. The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of appearance versus functionality-focused cues used by an instructor in an exercise class on state body image, enjoyment and intentions to return in older adults. One hundred and seven participants (26 males, 81 females, Mage = 69 years) took part in two visits. During visit one, participants completed demographic and trait body image questionnaires and had anthropometric measures taken. During visit two, participants were randomly assigned to an appearance or functionality-focused exercise class. In the appearance-focused class, the instructor’s cues emphasized the exercises as a way to alter the body’s appearance, whereas in the functionality- focused class, cues focused on exercise as a way to improve function and health. Participants completed state measures of body image immediately before and after participating in the exercise class. Following the exercise class participants also completed measures of enjoyment and intentions to return. Repeated-measures ANCOVAs were conducted for each state body image measure (body appreciation, functional appreciation, body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction with appearance and functionality, self-objectification, and social physique anxiety) controlling for appropriate demographic and trait body image variables. Participants assigned to the functionality-focused condition reported significantly greater decreases in body dissatisfaction [F (1,101) = 6.35, p = .013] compared to those in the appearance-focused condition, and regardless of condition, participants reported significant decreases in state self- objectification pre-to-post exercise [F (1,105) = 7.85, p = .006]. All other time by condition and time effects were non-significant (ps > .05). ANCOVAs to examine between-group differences on enjoyment and intentions to return showed no significant differences (ps > .05). It is possible that older adults, who place a greater focus on the health and functionality of their bodies, may be protected from negative effects of appearance-related commentary within group exercise settings (in contrast to young-women). Findings also suggest that exercise may be particularly beneficial for improving body dissatisfaction and self-objectification in populations across the lifespan. Future studies should continue to examine psychological outcomes of acute exercise in older adults.
  • 'Sent down? Called up?': Exploring the roller coaster of loans and re-assignments in professional hockey

    McLaughlin, Bryan; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Athletes constantly face transitions in their sporting careers, which can influence the quality of their performance and well-being. The purpose of the study is to explore professional hockey players’ lived experiences with being called up and sent down in organizations. For example, an athlete can play in the National Hockey League (NHL) and is then sent down to their affiliated team in the American Hockey League (AHL) for a variety of reasons. The study utilized a phenomenological approach to understand athletes lived experiences with being called up and sent down, this allowed the researcher to move beyond brief descriptions toward understanding this specific transition athletes face. Semi-structured interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, which occurred with six current hockey players (five current professional athletes and one competitive athlete). Data-analysis followed a two-phase process analysis to determine themes and patterns within each interview and then compared patterns across interviews to see what is common across interviews. The results were presented in three clusters such as the performance and well-being of an athlete, external influences on career, and interpretations of experiences. Further research is needed to explore the impact that loaning can have on an athlete and their well-being.
  • Characterization of Neutral Sphingomyelinase Isoforms in Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria

    Silvera, Sebastian; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Skeletal muscle is composed of fiber types that differ in mitochondrial content, antioxidant capacity, and susceptibility to apoptosis. Ceramides have been linked to apoptosis by increasing mitochondrial permeability, a common hallmark of apoptotic signalling. The enzyme neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) generates ceramides by hydrolysing sphingomyelin. Despite the role of ceramides in mediating apoptosis, there is a gap in the literature regarding nSMase in skeletal muscle mitochondria. This study aimed to characterize activity and content of nSMase isoforms in isolated subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondria from soleus, diaphragm, plantaris, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL). Total nSMase activity did not differ between isolated SS mitochondria. nSMase2 content was higher in SS mitochondria from EDL compared to soleus or diaphragm, and positively correlated to total nSMase activity in soleus. nSMase3 was undetectable in all samples, suggesting it is not associated with SS mitochondria, and likely does not contribute to total nSMase activity in SS mitochondria.
  • The relationship between adverse childhood experiences and pro-inflammatory analytes and the mediating role of cortisol

    Wong, Kingston; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are harmful experiences that have occurred during the developing years of life. ACEs often include maltreatment, household dysfunctions and other traumatic events. People with ACEs have been found to be at greater risk of pulmonary, cardiovascular and auto-immune diseases. Recent research has suggested that the epigenetic regulation occurring as a result of these ACEs can program macrophages to sustain inflammatory processes and therefore contribute to the development of these diseases. As one of the primary responders to stress, cortisol is also a suppressor of inflammation. Therefore, dysregulation of the cortisol levels, chronically high or low, also brought forth by ACEs exposure can affect inflammation. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between ACEs exposure and physiological measures including cortisol and different pro-inflammatory analytes. This cross-sectional study included follow-up data from 156 participants as part of the Niagara Longitudinal Heart Study. Out of the 156 participants, a final sample of 101, with 23 males and 78 females, complete with physiological measures was included in the analyses. The current study collected ACEs data from questionnaire, cortisol from hair, and inflammatory analytes including CRP, IL-6Rα, gp130, sTNFr1, sTNFr2, IFN-γ, and IL-10 from blood. Total ACEs score was negatively associated with cortisol levels. Every additional exposure to a type of ACEs decreased cortisol levels by 21.2 (pg/mg) on average. Exposure to ACEs was positively associated with IL-6Rα but was not associated with all other inflammatory analytes. Every additional exposure to a type of ACEs increased IL-6Rα levels by 284.6 (pg/mL) on average. In contrast to previous literature, sex differences from the regression analyses were also found in the current study among the inflammatory analytes CRP, IL-6Rα, sTNFr1, and IL-10. Cortisol did not mediate the relationship between exposure to ACEs and the different inflammatory analytes. The current study was limited in properly detecting associations as the pilot sample was underpowered. The proportion of cortisol availability in males was much lower than in females. The current study found that ACEs were associated with lowered chronic cortisol and elevated IL-6Rα.
  • Sex-related differences in the microvascular function of pre-pubertal children

    Massarotto, Raffaele Joseph; Applied Health Sciences Program
    There is little research examining the effect of sex on skin blood flow (SkBF) in adults, and less in children. Sex-related differences in SkBF may help explain known thermoregulatory differences between males and females. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are sex-related differences in the SkBF response to exercise, local heating, and acetylcholine (ACh). Additionally, the role of nitric oxide (NO) was examined. Laser-Doppler fluxmetry was used to assess forearm SkBF. Responses to exercise (30 min cycling, 60%O2max), local heating (44˚C), and ACh iontophoresis were assessed in 12 pre-pubertal boys (age=10.9 ±1.1y, O2max =1665 ± 282 ml·min-1) and 12 girls (age=11.1±1.2y, O2max =1537± 296 ml·min-1), with and without NO synthase inhibition, using Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) iontophoresis. Exercise-induced increase in SkBF was greater in boys compared with girls (528±290 and 374±192% of baseline, respectively, p=0.03). L-NAME blunted the SkBF response to exercise in boys and in girls (group-by-treatment interaction, p=.82). Local heating-induced SkBF was not significantly different between boys and girls (1445±900% and 1432±582%, respectively, p=.57). The ACh-induced SkBF was not different between the boys and girls, with no difference in the increase in SkBF (673±434% and 558±405%, respectively, p=.18). L-NAME blunted the SkBF response to ACh in boys and girls (group-by-treatment interaction, p=.19). These findings demonstrate that there are no differences between boys and girls in the responses to ACh and to local heating (44˚C). Additionally, the role of NO in the SkBF response appears similar in boys and girls both during exercise and ACh-mediated vasodilation. The greater SkBF response in the boys during exercise may be workload-related. Absolute and relative (%O2max) exercise intensity were not different between the two groups. Therefore, it is possible that the greater SkBF response in boys may be related to their greater workload relative to body mass (p=0.01). Additionally, sex-related factors (e.g., hormones) may interact with the exercise response or other vasodilators may be involved, resulting in the observed sex-related difference in the SkBF response to exercise.
  • A Case Study to Explore Women's Body Image Experiences Practicing Hot Yoga

    Rose, Hannah; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Yoga is an embodying activity associated with positive body image; however, hot yoga may have differing impacts on body image and embodiment than traditional yoga, as several features of hot yoga differ from traditional yoga (e.g., heat, clothing worn, emphasis on fitness) and may influence women’s body image and practice of hot yoga. Using an exploratory case study approach, one hot yoga studio (Modo Yoga St. Catharines) was chosen for this study. The research questions pertaining to this case were: 1) In what ways is body image related to women’s practice of hot yoga? 2) What are women’s experiences practicing hot yoga at Modo Yoga studio St. Catharines? Ten women were recruited from the yoga studio and interviewed about their body image and experience practicing yoga at Modo Yoga. Four women, with differing experiences and body image, completed a follow-up interview to further clarify their experiences. Overall, it was found that women tended to emphasize the fitness aspects of hot yoga, which impacted their body image and undermined some benefits of yoga. However, there were also positive effects on body image and mental health as a result of the practice. Case-specific features, specifically related to the physical characteristics of the studio (e.g., large mirrors in the studio) and the social environment within the studio (i.e., instructor cues and other members) impacted women’s body image both positively and negatively. Further, some differences based on age and experience at the studio were also identified, with long-term members (6 months+) experiencing more psychological benefits (e.g., mindfulness, feeling less anxious, body acceptance, body responsiveness), with the physical challenges of hot yoga being an additional benefit. Overall, hot yoga had a complex impact on women’s body image and experience practicing hot yoga through a larger focus on the fitness elements of the practice.
  • Mindfulness therapy as a means to improve sexual satisfaction in couples with neuromuscular disabilities

    Seliman, Merna; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Research regarding sexuality after neuromuscular disabilities has focused on either men or women separately, without considering the couple and how acquiring a disability may influence relationships. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week modified mindfulness intervention on sexual satisfaction in couples where one or both partners are living with neuromuscular disability. One couple (male age 42, female age 44) with the female living with neuromuscular disability (relapsing remitting MS, 11 years since diagnosis) participated in the study. The mindfulness intervention was administered to participants via a booklet and the exercises were explained verbally after the baseline interview. The booklet contained a total of eight mindfulness-based exercises for each week of the intervention. The exercises were explained in a step-by-step manner in the booklet. The booklet also included reflection questions at the end of each exercise in order to prompt the couple to journal about their experiences and record how much time they dedicated to that exercise per week. The exercises were carried out at home. The intervention also included a psycho-education session that was offered at week five of the intervention. The psycho-education session aimed to challenge thought patterns and negative beliefs about sex and physical abilities. It also involved a discussion about body-image as it relates to mindfulness. Testing involved a sexual satisfaction questionnaire that was completed by each member of the couple individually at baseline and at the end of the 8-week intervention. II Also, an in-depth semi-structured phenomenological interview of the couple together was conducted at baseline and at the end of the 8-week intervention. The results of this study showed that sexual satisfaction and sexual-self view have improved for the couple as a result of participating in the 8-week mindfulness intervention. In addition, the couple reported an improvement in communication, understanding, and awareness. Sensate focus exercises enhanced intimacy between the couple. Themes such as acceptance and feeling present in the moment were discerned from phenomenological analysis. These findings show promise for mindfulness-based therapies to enhance sexual satisfaction and relationship satisfaction in couples living with neuromuscular disabilities.
  • The effect of acute low-load resistance exercise with the addition of blood flow occlusion on muscle function in children and adults

    Bax, Alyssa; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Background: Resistance training recommendations to increase muscular strength suggest using high loads. However, some individuals cannot withstand high mechanical stress. Thus, in adults, low-load training is used with blood flow occlusion (BFO), to mimic strength increases from high-load training. Due to differing physiological responses to exercise, children may respond differently to BFO than adults. This study compares the effect of low-load exercise with BFO on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and electromyographical (EMG) activity in children and adults. Methods: 16 men (24.4±2.5y) and 14 boys (10.7±2.0y) performed two experimental conditions: (1) occlusion and (2) control. During the occlusion condition, a blood pressure cuff on the upper arm was inflated above systolic pressure during 25 wrist flexions at 35% MVC. Participants then performed an MVC and rated their perceived exertion (RPE). The control condition was the same as the occlusion condition but without the use of BFO. EMG signal was recorded from the flexor carpi radialis (FCR). Results: Men displayed a 16.9±7.1% increase in FCR EMG amplitude across the occlusion (p=0.005) but not the control condition (p=0.919). The boys did not show a change in EMG amplitude between time points (p=0.576) or conditions (p=0.549). Across both age groups, EMG mean power frequency was influenced by a condition-x-time interaction, with a larger decrease across the occlusion (-20.1±9.6%; p<0.001) than the control condition (-5.6±9.7%; p=0.002). Furthermore, across both age groups, MVC torque decreased more following the occlusion (-18.7±12.8%; p<0.001) than the control condition (-6.7±12.5%; p<0.001). Discussion: Based on our findings, a partial explanation for increases in EMG amplitude in the men but not the boys may be that the men recruited more of their higher-threshold motor units than the boys. However, not all measures were consistent in showing child-adult differences, as BFO caused similar decreases in MPF for both groups. Thus, while adults use low-loads with BFO to simulate high-load training, it remains unclear whether this form of training would be as effective for children.
  • Examining the adherence to clinical guidelines for the assessment of pain, agitation and delirium in a Canadian community intensive care unit

    Camargo, Peñuela; Applied Health Sciences Program
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted and multidisciplinary intervention on the adherence of assessments for the management of pain, agitation and delirium (PAD) in a community intensive care unit (ICU) setting. All patients admitted to the community ICU for over 24 hours were included. Data were collected on a total of 430 patient-days during the pre-intervention period and 406 patient-days during the post-intervention period. A 6-week baseline data collection was performed, followed by a 4-week intervention, and a 6-week post-intervention data collection. The multifaceted intervention targeted nurses, physicians and family members and included online nurse education sessions, cue cards, posters, physician round scripts, patient family interviews, patient education pamphlets, and patient education videos. In addition, a PAD Advisory Committee was formed to engage, motivate and support frontline healthcare staff during the design and the implementation of the intervention. There were improvements in the number of patient-days with pain assessment at least 4 times per shift using NPRS or CPOT (68.0% vs 87.5%, p=0.0001), agitation assessment at least 4 times per shift using CAM-ICU. There was no significant improvement in the number of patient-days with at least once delirium assessment per shift using CAM-ICU (74.4% vs 76.3%, p=0.514). The mean number of patient-days with significant pain assessed as NPRS ≥ 4 or CPOT ≥3 was 0.026 lower in the post- intervention period compared to the pre-intervention period (95 % CI: 0.043, 0.008). Further, the mean number of patient-days with over sedation defined by RASS of < -2 at least 50% of the time was 0.063 higher in the post-intervention period compared to the pre-intervention period (95 % CI: 0.016, 0.109). This study demonstrates that involving frontline healthcare professionals in the design and implementation of multidisciplinary and multifaceted interventions improved the adherence to PAD care processes in a Canadian community ICU.
  • Characterizing the role of tafazzin in allergically activated mast cells

    Maguire, Aindriu; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Introduction & Aim: Allergic inflammatory diseases are a constantly growing health concern in westernized societies. Mast cells, the driving force behind many allergic diseases, modulate various metabolic pathways to carry out their various functions following IgE-FceRI-mediated activation. Tafazzin is a cardiolipin transacylase that works to remodel cardiolipin into its mature form of tetralinoleoyl-cardiolipin. Mature cardiolipin is important for efficient energy production through oxidative phosphorylation. The aim of this project is to study the effects of a reduction in tafazzin protein content on IgE-mediated mast cell activation. Methods: Fetal liver-derived mast cells (FLMCs) were treated with 1 μg/mL doxycycline for 5 days to initiate the tafazzin knockdown. Western blotting was used to confirm a reduction in tafazzin protein content. Flow cytometry was used to ensure that the FLMCs expressed both c-kit and FceRI receptors, and that receptor expression was not impacted by the doxycycline treatment. Oxygen consumption rate was measured using a Clark-type electrode. b-hexosaminidase release assays were utilized to assess degranulation during the early phase of the allergic reaction. ELISA assays were used to examine secretion of de novo synthesized inflammatory mediators, while qPCR assays were used to examine gene transcription of these mediators. Results: The doxycycline inducible tafazzin knockdown resulted in a 99.5% reduction in tafazzin protein content. This reduction was accompanied by a 25% reduction in oxygen consumption and a 31.4% reduction in degranulation. Secretion of CCL1, CCL2, and TNF was significantly reduced, CCL9 secretion levels showed a decrease that approached significance. Secretion of CCL3 and IL-6 was not impacted. Gene expression was not impacted for any of the inflammatory mediators measured. Conclusion & Significance: These results suggest that tafazzin may play a role in mast cell oxidative phosphorylation. Functionally, the results suggest that tafazzin plays a role in degranulation and mediator secretion. However, since gene expression was not impacted it is thought that the tafazzin reduction causes these decreases due to an impairment of the exocytosis mechanism. This work adds to the growing field of immunometabolism and improves our understanding of how mast cells modulate metabolic pathways during an allergic inflammatory event.
  • Evaluation of the PLCOM2012 Risk Prediction Model and National Lung Screening Trial Criteria for Selecting Individuals for Lung Cancer Screening

    Mahmud, Meera; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Background: Lung Cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer death in North America. Cancer screening trials, such as the PLCO (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian) and NLST (National Lung screening trial) evaluate LC mortality. There has been a growing interest in risk prediction modelling for selecting high-risk individuals for LC screening. Increased risk for developing LC is however associated with greater risk of dying from non-LC (competing) causes; the presence of coexisting illnesses may negate the net benefit of LC screening. Purpose: The focus of this study was to compare the two selection criteria methods, the NLST criteria and the PLCOM2012 model (at 1.5% and 2% 6-year risk), for selecting smokers age of 55 to 75 for screening who may develop LC, and to evaluate which risk factors are strongly associated with competing causes of death (CCoD). Methods: Contingency table and logistic regression analysis, using STATA software, were used to analyze the results of applying both criteria on the PLCO ever-smokers population (N= 74 207). A CCoD logistic regression model was developed using 5-year follow-up data to assess the association between each PLCOM2012 model predictor and non-LC death. Predictor variables were ranked by their ability to predict 6-year LC incidence and 5-year non-LC death. Predictive performance, discrimination (area under the receiving-operating-characteristic curve [ROC-AUC]) and calibration were assessed. Results: Significantly higher LC proportions were found using the PLCOM2012 model than the NLST criteria in various individual characteristics. Increasing the model threshold resulted in less false positives, higher positive predictive value and probability of 6-year LC incidence. The PLCOM2012 model was also shown to be significantly associated with 5-year non-LC death (p<0.001). The CCoD model demonstrated fair discrimination (AUC=0.7114) and good calibration. There was an overall agreement in the rank order of variables predicting LC incidence and non-LC death, with the top four variables being age, smoking intensity and duration, and body mass index (BMI), however the effects were opposite in nature for the latter. Conclusion: Findings show that the PLCOM2012 risk prediction model accurately identifies higher proportions of LC cases compared to the NLST criteria, however it also selects individuals for LC screening who are at risk of dying from competing causes who will not benefit from screening. Decisions on LC screening among individuals at high-risk of developing LC should be based on an appropriate assessment of each person’s health status and life expectancy, in order to maximize the benefit-harm ratio from LC screening. Keywords: Lung cancer, epidemiology, risk prediction modelling, lung cancer screening, competing causes of death
  • Positive Body Image and Physical Activity in Pregnant Women

    angrish, kirina; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Generally, research has shown pregnant women have a more negative body image pre-pregnancy and early pregnancy compared to mid-to-late pregnancy. Negative body image in this population has been linked to several important pregnancy-related behaviours and poorer mental health that may put the mother’s and baby’s health at risk. In regards to positive body image, there has been a lack of research investigating how positive body image constructs such as body appreciation and embodiment change, and little work has examined how self-objectification changes. In nonpregnant populations, positive body image has been linked to several health behaviours and outcome; thus, it is important to determine if pregnant women experience positive body image during their pregnancy. In addition, participation in physical activity has been linked to improvements in body image via an increase in embodiment and a decrease in selfobjectification in young adult women. Whether this is true for the pregnant population is unknown. The overall purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between positive body image and physical activity in pregnant women. The first purpose was to determine whether body appreciation, embodiment, and self-objectification levels differ across trimester. The second purpose was to determine if physical activity was associated with body appreciation, and if this relationship was mediated by an increase in embodiment and a decrease in selfobjectification. Thirty-one women in the first trimester, 55 in the second trimester, and 75 in the third trimester completed measures of body appreciation, embodiment, self-objectification, and physical activity online. Multivariate analysis of covariance showed all measures differed by trimester. Post-hoc tests showed body appreciation (M = 3.79; SE = 0.08) and embodiment (M = 2.92; SE = 0.05) were higher and self-objectification (M = 3.86; SE = 0.14) lower in third trimester compared to first trimester (M = 3.37; SE = 0.12; M = 2.56; SE = 0.09; M = 4.54; SE = 0.22). Embodiment was also higher in the third trimester (M = 2.92; SE = 0.05) compared to the second trimester (M = 2.67; SE = 0.06). Serial mediation analysis revealed physical activity was associated with body appreciation through an increase in embodiment and a decrease in self-objectification. The findings from this study indicate positive body image improves across pregnancy and physical activity could be one way to improve positive body image in pregnant women.
  • The Effects of Chronic High Intensity Interval Training on Cardiometabolic Health in Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury

    Gibson, Mitchel; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Abstract Advancements in medicine and post-injury care has allowed for the extended life expectancy following spinal cord injuries (SCI). However, such advancements have led to a paradigm shift in the prevalence of secondary health complications from renal and pulmonary to cardiovascular and metabolic. In the able-bodied literature, accumulating evidence for high intensity interval training (HIIT) has shown that this time efficient, heart safe style of exercise may have advantages over moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) as a means to reduce cardiometabolic risk. The effectiveness of HIIT in an SCI population has yet to be explored. The current study examined the effectiveness of the “5 by 1” HIIT protocol over a 6-week timeframe, consisting of three supervised sessions per week in an SCI population. Outcome measures included VO2peak, cholesterol, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, pro an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and adipokines leptin and adiponectin. Results of the current study suggest that this protocol is an effective means to significantly improve aerobic fitness, however the intervention did induce significant metabolic change. Limitations such as small sample size (N=7) and the relatively short intervention duration may have limited these results. Further research focused on the effectiveness of HIIT in an SCI population is warranted to explore whether the metabolic benefit from HIIT may be dependent on a minimum baseline fitness level or power output that some individuals may not possess. In conclusion, the “5 by 1” HIIT protocol proved to be an effective means of improving aerobic capacity and therefore represents an alternative to the currently suggested MICT.
  • Fitspiration Photos and Quotes: Effects on Body Image in University Women

    Buchmayer, Deanna; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Fitspiration refers to a type of social media that aims to inspire people to exercise using photos and/or quotes. However, while evidence suggests it can lead to increased exercise motivation, it has also been shown to have a negative effect on body image and mood. The purpose of this study was to investigate which component of Fitspiration messages (photos and/or quotes) causes a negative effect on body image and mood and to investigate if this content has an inspiring effect on related health behaviours. A total of 145 women aged 18-29 years were randomly assigned to view one of four Instagram accounts: Fitspiration photos, Fitspiration quotes, a combination of photos and quotes, or travel images (control condition). They completed pre and post-measures of body image and mood (i.e., body satisfaction, self-objectification, body appreciation and negative mood) as well as a measure of inspiration to exercise, eat healthy, and travel after viewing the account. Results of a series of ANCOVAs showed that women in the image-only condition reported lower body appreciation and higher negative mood compared to women in the travel condition. Further, women in the combination condition reported higher self-objectification and lower body satisfaction compared to those in the control condition. Women in the image group also reported greater inspiration to exercise than those in the travel group and greater inspiration to eat healthy than those in both the travel and quote groups. These results suggest that, in general, viewing Fitspiration images (either alone or with a quote) is associated with poorer body image and mood in young adult women, although it did lead to greater inspiration to engage in health behaviours. Given that social media, and Fitspiration in particular, is growing in popularity, it is important to develop protective measures, such as social media literacy programs, to reduce their negative impact.
  • Investigation of the anti-cancer effects of rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) extract in human breast and prostate cancer cells

    Jaglanian, Alina; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Breast and prostate cancer are the most frequently diagnosed cancers in women and men respetively, in North America. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells do not express estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). TNBC accounts for 15% of all breast cancer cases, is aggressive in nature, and is characterized by resistance to chemo and radiotherapy thus, finding new approaches to inhibit it are urgently needed. Similarly, prostate cancer is typically characterized by the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Prostate cancer that is AR positive can be treated with hormonal therapy. In contrast, AR negative prostate cancer is more aggressive and does not respond to hormone therapy, thus new approaches, including identifying specific signaling molecules that are overactivated and could be targeted, are required to effectively treat this subtype of prostate cancer. Rosemary extract (RE) has been shown to have anti-cancer properties in vitro and in vivo. However, limited evidence exists regarding its effect on triple-negative breast cancer and AR negative prostate cancer. In this study, we examined the effects of RE on triple-negative breast cancer cell (MDA-MB-231) and androgen insensitive prostate cancer cell (PC-3) proliferation, survival/apoptosis, and migration. In addition, we investigated the effect of RE treatment on key signaling molecules involved in cancer cell proliferation and survival.
  • The Effect of Blade Alignment on Kinetic and Kinematic Characteristics During the Execution of Goaltender-Specific Movement Patterns

    Dunne, Colin; Applied Health Sciences Program
    The goaltender skate traditionally consists of the boot, cowling, and blade runner. The cowling protects the foot and positions the blade on the boot. Innovations in boot design and material properties have deemed the cowling redundant, presenting the opportunity to manipulate skate blade alignment and potentially reveal a performance advantage. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of blade alignment on select kinetic and kinematic variables during the execution of two goaltender-specific movement patterns; Butterfly Drop to Recovery, Lateral Butterfly Slide to Recovery. A male goaltender (n = 1) with professional hockey experience completed an A-B-A, quasi-experimental design across three days investigating four blade alignment conditions. Blade alignment conditions were defined by the blade holder type and positioning on the boot [alignment neutral cowling (ANC), alignment neutral (AN), alignment lateral (AL), and alignment medial (AM)]. Five trials were executed per blade alignment condition for both movements (n=30 trials per day, n=90 trials overall). All trials were executed in a controlled laboratory environment on synthetic ice (xHockeyProductsTM). Kinetic measures included; in-skate peak plantar pressure [PPP(psi)], time to peak plantar pressure [TPP(s)] collected with in-skate LogRTM insoles (Orpyx® Medical Technologies Inc.). Kinematic measures included; butterfly drop velocity [BDV(m/s)], left leg recovery velocity [LLRV(m/s)], right leg recovery velocity [RLRV(m/s)], lateral butterfly slide velocity [LBSV(m/s)], butterfly width [BW(m)] collected with 3D motion capture (ViconTM). Results revealed no significant differences in nineteen of twenty kinetic and kinematic analyses between the two neutral alignment conditions (ANC, AN) defined by different holder types. True Hockey blade holders were retrofit with slots to facilitate the blade alignments. Results revealed significantly higher Butterfly Drop PPP on the AM compared to AN, and higher Left and Right Leg Recovery PPP on AM compared to AL and AN during the Butterfly Drop to Recovery. Results also revealed significantly higher BDV on AM compared to AL and AN during the Butterfly Drop to Recovery, and higher BDV on AM compared to AN during the Lateral Butterfly Slide to Recovery. Study outcomes provide insight into the contribution of manipulating blade alignment to positively impact the execution of goaltender-specific movement patterns.
  • A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Functional Movement Screen Scores in Male AAA Minor Hockey Players

    Dol, Steven; Applied Health Sciences Program
    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) has been used as a screening tool to assess inefficiencies and asymmetries associated with movement patterns that could potentially lead to injury risks in athletic populations (Kiesel, Plisky, & Voight, 2007; Parenteau-G et al., 2014; Mokha et al., 2016). The primary purpose of the study was to compare FMS scores across four hockey-specific chronological age groups and five stages of maturity in adolescent male ice-hockey players. The secondary purpose of the study was to determine if years of experience in a specific sport, correlated with movement pattern asymmetries. One hundred and eleven male (9-17 years) AAA players completed a battery of physical measurements including; height (cm), weight (kg), grip strength (kg), sit and reach (cm) and the FMS. FMS scores were analyzed by total score (TS), FMS subgroups (FMS movement, FMS flexibility and FMS stability), frequencies of individual movement pattern scores and left/right asymmetries. Significant differences in FMS TS were revealed across both chronological age, categorized by hockey age groups (F (3,107) = 7.002), p<.001 and stage of maturity (F (4,106) = 4.790), p<.001, suggesting that FMS TS improved with both age and physical maturity. However, ANCOVA results revealed no significant differences across hockey age groups (F (3,106) =1.917), p=.131, when maturity was entered as a covariate, suggesting that maturity did not influence FMS TS beyond the effect age. FMS sub-groups revealed significant differences in FMS move and FMS stab across both hockey age group and stage of maturity. No significant differences were found in the frequencies of individual screen scores or left/right asymmetries across hockey age groups or stages of maturity. Therefore, the results did not support the assumption of hockey being a significant unilateral training stimulus.
  • Associations between Selected Dietary Factors, Selected Obesity-Related Metabolic Markers (Leptin, C-peptide, and High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein), and Lung Cancer: A Matched Case-Control Study Nested in the Prospective PLCO Trial

    Chen, Yixian; Applied Health Sciences Program
    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the associations between selected dietary factors, body mass index (BMI), selected obesity-related metabolic markers, and lung cancer risk as well as histological types in ever-smokers (former and current-smokers). Characteristics of interest included BMI at age 50, fruits and vegetables daily frequency, supplemental beta-carotene intake, C-peptide (CP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and leptin concentrations. Data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial were analyzed. Linear regression models were used to describe the associations between quantitative variables. The relationships between variables of interest and lung cancer were studied by logistic regression modelling. Multivariable fractional polynomial (MFP) models were utilized to address non-linearity in these associations. Higher fruits and vegetables daily frequency and supplemental beta-carotene intake were associated with a lower risk of lung cancer in ever-smokers. Metabolic markers, C-peptide and hsCRP, were positively associated with lung cancer risk. Inverse relationships were observed between BMI and leptin with lung cancer risk. The relationships between selected dietary factors, BMI, selected metabolic markers, and lung cancer risk were more prominent in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in comparison with those in small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
  • Investigation of Periodontal Outcomes After Sanative Therapy Among Patients With or Without Dry Mouth

    Sparrow, Taylor; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Untreated periodontal disease can have detrimental consequences on oral health. Consequences such as tooth loss can significantly affect an individual’s daily habits such as eating, speaking, and socializing. Sanative therapy (ST) followed by ongoing periodontal maintenance appointments is necessary to attenuate periodontal disease and prevent tooth loss. In addition to ST and periodontal maintenance appointments, saliva has an essential role in oral health. However, the relationship between salivary flow and periodontal outcomes, particularly in terms of low salivary production, has not been extensively investigated. The first objective was to determine if patients with dry mouth have similar probing depths as patients without dry mouth when receiving regular periodontal maintenance post-ST. The second objective was to determine if patients who alternate periodontal maintenance appointments between a general dental clinic and a periodontal specialty clinic have different probing depths than patients who solely have periodontal maintenance at a periodontal specialty clinic post-ST. Patients who had completed initial ST 1 to 5 years prior and continued with routine periodontal maintenance provided an unstimulated saliva sample and completed questionnaires assessing their symptoms of dry mouth. It was hypothesized that patients who have inadequate salivary flow exhibit worsened probing depths than patients who have adequate salivary output. However, periodontal health was maintained post-ST to present day for both groups. The second hypothesis was that patients who have periodontal maintenance performed solely at a periodontal specialty clinic have improved periodontal outcomes than those who alternate appointments 1 to 5 years post-ST There was a significant difference in probing depth between patients who do or do not alternate appointments (p < 0.05). Patients who do not alternate appointments had significantly greater probing depth than those who alternate. This may be due to the periodontist’s recommendation for patients of unstable periodontal health to be solely seen at specialty clinic.

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