• Investigation of molecular polarizabilities and derivatives in halomethanes

      Sharma, Gulshan M.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      The research undertaken was to obtain absolute Raman intensities for the symmetric stretching vibrations of the methyl halides, CH3X with (X=F, CI, Br), by experiment and theory. The intensities were experimentally measured using the Ar+ ion gas laser as excitation source, a Spex 14018 double monochromator and a RCA C-31034 photomultiplier tube as detector. These intensities arise from changes in the derivative of the polarizability (8 a'), with respect to vibration along a normal coordinate (8qi). It was intended that these derivatives obtained with respect to normal coordinates would be converted to derivatives with respect to internal coordinates, for a quantitative comparison with theory. Theoretical numerical polarizability derivatives for the stretching vibrations are obtained using the following procedure. A vibration was simulated in the molecule by increasi.ng and decreasing the respective bond by the amount ±o.oosA for the C-H bonds and ±o.oIA for the C-X (X=F, CI, Br) bond. The derivative was obtained by taking the difference in the polarizability for the equilibrium geometry and the geometry when a particular bond is changed. This difference, when divided by the amount of change in each bond and the number of bonds present results in the derivative of the polarizability with respect to internal coordinate i.e., !1u/!1r. These derivatives were obtained by two methods: I} ab initio molecular orbital calculation and 2} theory of atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis. Due to errors in the experimental setup only a qualitative analysis of the results was undertaken relative to the theory. Theoretically it is predicted that the symmetric carbonhalogen stretch vibrations are more intense than the respective carbon-hydrogen stretch, but only for the methyl chloride and bromide. The carbon fluorine stretch is less intense than the carbon-hydrogen stretch, a fact which is attributed to the small size and high electronegativity of the fluorine atom. The experimental observations are seen to agree qualitatively with the theory results. It is hoped that when the experiment is repeated, a quantitative comparison can be made. The analysis by the theory of atoms in molecules, along with providing polarizabilities and polarizability derivatives, gives additional information outlined below. The theory provides a pictorial description of the main factors contributing to the molecular polarizability and polarizability derivative. These contributions are from the charge transfer and atomic dipole terms i.e., transfer of charge from one atom to another and the reorganization of atomic electronic charge distribution due to presence of an electric field. The linear relationship between polarizability and molecular volume was also observed.
    • Investigation of regio- and sterochemistries of microbial biotransformation /

      Zabic, Mirjana.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      Epoxides can be hydrolyzed by fungi to produce chiral diols. The first part of this thesis presents an investigation of the microbial hydrolysis of aziridines comparable in structure to epoxide biotransformation substrates. Biotransformation of the aziridines 1 -methyl-2-phenyl aziridine, 2- phenylaziridine and N-methyl-7-aza bicyclo[4.1.0] heptane was studied using Beauveria sulfurescens, Aspergillus niger and Diplodia gossypina but no evidence for enzymic hydrolysis was obtained. The hydroxylation reaction performed by the fungus Beauveria sulfurescens ATCC 7159 has been studied for many years and several models describing the hydroxylating pattern exhibited by this fungus have been proposed. The second part of this thesis presents a test of the proposed models. The ability of Beauveria sulfurescens to hydroxylate thirty potential substrates was examined, and the data suggest that none of the earlier proposed models accounts for all of the bioconversion results. A possible explanation is proposed, suggesting that there is more than one enzyme responsible for the hydroxylation reactions performed by Beauveria sulfurescens.
    • Investigation of single tryptophan proteins encapsulated in TEOS-derived sol-gel matrices by fluorescence spectroscopy /

      Zheng, Lili.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      In the work reported here, optically clear, ultrathin TEOS derived sol-gel slides which were suitable for studies of tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence from entrapped proteins were prepared by the sol-gel technique and characterized. The monitoring of intrinsic protein fluorescence provided information about the structure and environment of the entrapped protein, and about the kinetics of the interaction between the entrapped protein and extemal reagents. Initial studies concentrated on the single Trp protein monellin which was entrapped into the sol-gel matrices. Two types of sol-gel slides, termed "wet aged", in which the gels were aged in buffer and "dry-aged", in which the gels were aged in air , were studied in order to compare the effect of the sol-gel matrix on the structure of the protein at different aging stages. Fluorescence results suggested that the mobility of solvent inside the slides was substantially reduced. The interaction of the entrapped protein with both neutral and charged species was examined and indicated response times on the order of minutes. In the case of the neutral species the kinetics were diffusion limited in solution, but were best described by a sum of first order rate constants when the reactions occurred in the glass matrix. For charged species, interactions between the analytes and the negatively charged glass matrix caused the reaction kinetics to become complex, with the overall reaction rate depending on both the type of aging and the charge on the analyte. The stability and conformational flexibility of the entrapped monellin were also studied. These studies indicated that the encapsulation of monellin into dry-aged monoliths caused the thermal unfolding transition to broaden and shift upward by 14°C, and causedthe long-term stability to improve by 12-fold (compared to solution). Chemical stability studies also showed a broader transition for the unfolding of the protein in dry-aged monoliths, and suggested that the protein was present in a distribution of environments. Results indicated that the entrapped proteins had a smaller range of conformational motions compared to proteins in solution, and that entrapped proteins were not able to unfold completely. The restriction of conformational motion, along with the increased structural order of the internal environment of the gels, likely resulted in the improvements in themial and long-term stability that were observed. A second protein which was also studied in this work is the metal binding protein rat oncomodulin. Initially, the unfolding behavior of this protein in aqueous solution was examined. Several single tryptophan mutants of the metal-binding protein rat oncomodulin (OM) were examined; F102W, Y57W, Y65W and the engineered protein CDOM33 which had all 12 residues of the CD loop replaced with a higher affinity binding loop. Both the thermal and the chemical stability were improved upon binding of metal ions with the order apo < Ca^^ < Tb^"^. During thermal denaturation, the transition midpoints (Tun) of Y65W appeared to be the lowest, followed by Y57W and F102W. The placement of the Trp residue in the F-helix in F102W apparently made the protein slightly more thermostable, although the fluorescence response was readily affected by chemical denaturants, which probably acted through the disruption of hydrogen bonds at the Cterminal end of the F-helix. Under both thermal and chemical denaturation, the engineered protein showed the highest stability. This indicated that increasing the number of metal ligating oxygens in the binding site, either by using a metal ion with a higher coordinatenumber (i.e. Tb^*) which binds more carboxylate ligands, or by providing more ligating groups, as in the CDOM33 replacement, produces notable improvements in protein stability. Y57W and CE)OM33 OM were chosen for further studies when encapsulated into sol-gel derived matrices. The kinetics of interaction of terbium with the entrapped proteins, the ability of the entrapped protein to binding terbium, as well as thermal stability of these two entrapped protein were compared with different levels of Ca^"*^ present in the matrix and in solution. Results suggested that for both of the proteins, the response time and the ability to bind terbium could be adjusted by adding excess calcium to the matrix before gelation. However, the less stable protein Y57W only retained at most 45% of its binding ability in solution while the more stable protein CDOM33 was able to retain 100% binding ability. Themially induced denaturation also suggested that CDOM33 showed similar stability to the protein in solution while Y57W was destabilized. All these results suggested that "hard" proteins (i.e. very stable) can easily survive the sol-gel encapsulation process, but "soft" proteins with lower thermodynamic stability may not be able to withstand the sol-gel process. However, it is possible to control many parameters in order to successfully entrap biological molecules into the sol-gel matrices with maxunum retention of activity.
    • Investigation of the composition of linear alkylbenzenes with emphasis on the identification and quantitation of some trace compounds using GS/MS system in both electron impact and chemical ionization modes

      Zalewski, Teresa Maria.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      Linear alkylbenzenes, LAB, formed by the Alel3 or HF catalyzed alkylation of benzene are common raw materials for surfactant manufacture. Normally they are sulphonated using S03 or oleum to give the corresponding linear alkylbenzene sulphonates In >95 % yield. As concern has grown about the environmental impact of surfactants,' questions have been raised about the trace levels of unreacted raw materials, linear alkylbenzenes and minor impurities present in them. With the advent of modem analytical instruments and techniques, namely GCIMS, the opportunity has arisen to identify the exact nature of these impurities and to determine the actual levels of them present in the commercial linear ,alkylbenzenes. The object of the proposed study was to separate, identify and quantify major and minor components (1-10%) in commercial linear alkylbenzenes. The focus of this study was on the structure elucidation and determination of impurities and on the qualitative determination of them in all analyzed linear alkylbenzene samples. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, (GCIMS) study was performed o~ five samples from the same manufacturer (different production dates) and then it was followed by the analyses of ten commercial linear alkylbenzenes from four different suppliers. All the major components, namely linear alkylbenzene isomers, followed the same elution pattern with the 2-phenyl isomer eluting last. The individual isomers were identified by interpretation of their electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectra. The percent isomer distribution was found to be different from sample to sample. Average molecular weights were calculated using two methods, GC and GCIMS, and compared with the results reported on the Certificate of Analyses (C.O.A.) provided by the manufacturers of commercial linear alkylbenzenes. The GC results in most cases agreed with the reported values, whereas GC/MS results were significantly lower, between 0.41 and 3.29 amu. The minor components, impurities such as branched alkylbenzenes and dialkyltetralins eluted according to their molecular weights. Their fragmentation patterns were studied using electron impact ionization mode and their molecular weight ions confirmed by a 'soft ionization technique', chemical ionization. The level of impurities present i~ the analyzed commercial linear alkylbenzenes was expressed as the percent of the total sample weight, as well as, in mg/g. The percent of impurities was observed to vary between 4.5 % and 16.8 % with the highest being in sample "I". Quantitation (mg/g) of impurities such as branched alkylbenzenes and dialkyltetralins was done using cis/trans-l,4,6,7-tetramethyltetralin as an internal standard. Samples were analyzed using .GC/MS system operating under full scan and single ion monitoring data acquisition modes. The latter data acquisition mode, which offers higher sensitivity, was used to analyze all samples under investigation for presence of linear dialkyltetralins. Dialkyltetralins were reported quantitatively, whereas branched alkylbenzenes were reported semi-qualitatively. The GC/MS method that was developed during the course of this study allowed identification of some other trace impurities present in commercial LABs. Compounds such as non-linear dialkyltetralins, dialkylindanes, diphenylalkanes and alkylnaphthalenes were identified but their detailed structure elucidation and the quantitation was beyond the scope of this study. However, further investigation of these compounds will be the subject of a future study.
    • The investigation of the reduction mechanism of the 5a-reductase enzyme of Penicillium decumbens /

      Hsü, Wei-li.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1990-05-21)
      The 5a-reductase of Penicillium decumbens ATCC 10436 was used as a model for the mammalian enzyme to investigate the mechanism of reduction of testosterone to 5adihydrotestosterone . The purpose of this study was to search for specific 5a-reductase inhibitors which antagonize prostate cancer . In a whole-cell biotransformation mode, this organism reduced testosterone (1) to 5a-dihydrosteroids (8) and 5aandrostane- 3, 17-dione (9) in yields of 28% and 37% respectively. Control experiments have shown that 5aandrostane- 3, 17-dione (9) can be produced from the corresponding alcohol (8) in a subsequent reaction separate from that catalysed by the 5a-reductase enzyme . Androst-4- ene-3, 17-dione (2) is reduced to give only (9) with a recovery of 80% The stereochemistry of the reduction was determined by 500 MHz ^H NMR analysis of the products resulting from the deuterium labelled substrates. The results were obtained by an analysis of the NOE difference spectra, double-quantum filtered phase sensitive COSY 2-D spectra, and ^^c-Ir 2-D shift correlation spectra of deuterium labelled products. According to the unambiguous assignment of the signals due to H-4a and H-4Ii in 5a-dihydro steroids, the NMR data show clearly that addition of hydrogen to the 4{5)K bond has occurred in a trans manner at positions 413 and 5a. To Study the reduction mechanism of this enzyme, several substrates were prepared as following; 3-methyleneandrost-4-en- 17fi-ol(3), androst-4-en-17i5-ol(5) , androst-4-en-3ii, 17fi-diol (6) and 4, 5ii-epoxyandrostane-3, 17-dione (7) . Results suggest that this enzyme system requires an oxygen atom at the 3-position of the steroid in order to bind the substrate. Furthermore, the mechanism of this 5a-reductase may proceed via direct addition of hydrogen at the 4,5 position without involvement of a carbonyl group as an intermediate.
    • Investigations in flow injection analysis (FIA): conventional FIA determination of chloride in water; sequential injection (SI)-FIA determination of mercury in water

      Cirello-Egamino, Joanne.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1994-10-02)
      Flow injection analysis (FIA) was applied to the determination of both chloride ion and mercury in water. Conventional FIA was employed for the chloride study. Investigations of the Fe3 +/Hg(SCN)2/CI-,450 nm spectrophotometric system for chloride determination led to the discovery of an absorbance in the 250-260 nm region when Hg(SCN)2 and CI- are combined in solution, in the absence of iron(III). Employing an in-house FIA system, absorbance observed at 254 nm exhibited a linear relation from essentially 0 - 2000 Jlg ml- 1 injected chloride. This linear range spanning three orders of magnitude is superior to the Fe3+/Hg(SCN)2/CI- system currently employed by laboratories worldwide. The detection limit obtainable with the proposed method was determin~d to be 0.16 Jlg ml- 1 and the relative standard deviation was determined to be 3.5 % over the concentration range of 0-200 Jig ml- 1. Other halogen ions were found to interfere with chloride determination at 254 nm whereas cations did not interfere. This system was successfully applied to the determination of chloride ion in laboratory water. Sequential injection (SI)-FIA was employed for mercury determination in water with the PSA Galahad mercury amalgamation, and Merlin mercury fluorescence detection systems. Initial mercury in air determinations involved injections of mercury saturated air directly into the Galahad whereas mercury in water determinations involved solution delivery via peristaltic pump to a gas/liquid separator, after reduction by stannous chloride. A series of changes were made to the internal hardware and valving systems of the Galahad mercury preconcentrator. Sequential injection solution delivery replaced the continuous peristaltic pump system and computer control was implemented to control and integrate all aspects of solution delivery, sample preconcentration and signal processing. Detection limits currently obtainable with this system are 0.1 ng ml-1 HgO.
    • Investigations into phosphorus removal by constructed wetlands : root bed media modifications /

      McLaughlin, Roger.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      A study has been conducted focusing on how the phosphorus renrx)val efficiency of a constructed wetland (CW) can be optimized through the selective enrichment of the substratum. Activated alumina and powdered iron were examined as possible enrichment compounds. Using packed glass column trials it was found that alumina was not suitable for the renx)val of ortho-phosphate from solution, while mixtures of powdered iron and quartz sand proved to be very efficient. The evaluation of iron/sand mixtures in CWs planted with cattails was performed in three stages; first using an indoor lab scale wetland, then an outdoor lab scale wetland, and finally in a small scale pilot project. For the lab scale tests, three basic configurations were evaluated: using the iron/sand as a pre-filter, in the root bed. and as a post filter. Primary lagoon effluent was applied to the test cells to simulate actual CW conditions, and the total phosphorus and iron concentrations of the influent and effluent were nfK)nitored. The pilot scale trials were limited to using only a post filter design, due to in-progress research at the pilot site. The lab scale tests achieved average renrK>val efficiencies greater than 91% for all indoor configurations, and greater than 97% for all outdoor configurations. The pilot scale tests had an average renK)val efficiency of 60%. This relatively low efficiency in the pilot scale can be attributed to the post filters being only one tenth the size of the lab scale test in terms of hydraulic loading (6 cm/day vs. 60 cm/day).
    • Investigations into the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by capillary gas chromatography

      Li, Xing-Fang.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1989-11-04)
      Factors involved in the determination of PAHs (16 priority PAHs as an example) and PCBs (10 PCB congeners, representing 10 isomeric groups) by capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS, for PAHs) and electron capture detection (GC/ECD , for PCBs) were studied, with emphasis on the effect of solvent. Having various volatilities and different polarities, solvent studied included dichloromethane, acetonitrile, hexan e, cyclohexane, isooctane, octane, nonane, dodecane, benzene, toluene, p-xylene, o-xylene, and mesitylene. Temperatures of the capillary column, the injection port, the GC/MS interface, the flow rates of carrier gas and make-up gas, and the injection volume were optimized by one factor at a time method or simplex optimization method. Under the optimized conditions, both peak height and peak area of 16 PAHs, especially the late-eluting PAHs, were significantly enhanced (1 to 500 times) by using relatively higher boiling point solvents such as p-xylene and nonane, compared with commonly used solvents like benzene and isooctane. With the improved sensitivity, detection limits of between 4.4 pg for naphthalene and 30.8 pg for benzo[g,h,i]perylene were obtained when p-xylene was used as an injection solvent. Effect of solvent on peak shape and peak intensity were found to be greatly dependent on temperature parameters, especially the initial temperature of the capillary column. The relationship between initial temperature and shape of peaks from 16 PAHs and 10 PCBs were studied and compared when toluene, p-xylene, isooctane, and nonane were used as injection solvents. If a too low initial temperature was used, fronting or split of peaks was observed. On the other hand, peak tailing occurred at a too high initial column temperature. The optimum initial temperature, at which both peak fronting and tailing were avoided and symmetrical peaks were obtained, depended on both solvents and the stationary phase of the column used. On a methyl silicone column, the alkane solvents provided wider optimum ranges of initial temperature than aromatic solvents did, for achieving well-shaped symmetrical GC peaks. On a 5% diphenyl: 1% vinyl: 94% dimethyl polysiloxane column, when the aromatic solvents were used, the optimum initial temperature ranges for solutes to form symmetrical peaks were improved to a similar degree as those when the alkanes were used as injection solvents. A mechanism, based on the properties of and possible interactions among the analyte, the injection solvent, and the stationary phase of the capillary column, was proposed to explain these observations. The effect of initial temperature on peak height and peak area of the 16 PAHs and the 10 PCBs was also studied. The optimum initial temperature was found to be dependent on the physical properties of the solvent used and the amount of the solvent injected. Generally, from the boiling point of the solvent to 10 0C above its boiling point was an optimum range of initial temperature at which cthe highest peak height and peak area were obtained.
    • Investigations into the determinations of hydride-forming elements

      Le, Xiao-chun.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1988-07-09)
      Analytical methods for the determination of trace amounts of germanium, tin and arsenic were established using hydride generation coupled with direct current plasma atomic emission spectrometry. A continuous gas flowing batch system for the hydride generation was investigated and was applied to the determination of germanium(Ge), tin(Sn), antimony(Sb) and lead(Pb) (Preliminary results suggest that it is also applicable to arsenic)As) ). With this system, the reproducibility of signals was improved and the determination was speeded up, compared with the conventional batch type hydride generation system. Each determination was complete within one minute. Interferences from a number of transition metal ions, especially from Pd(II), Pt(IV), Ni(II), Cu(II), Co(II), and Fe(II, III), have proven to be very serious under normal conditions, in the determination of germanium, tin, and arsenic. These interference effects were eliminated or significantly reduced in the presence of L-cystine or L-cysteine. Thus, a 10-1000 fold excess of Ni(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(II), Pt(IV), Pd(II), etc. can be tolerated without interference, In the presence of L-cystine or L-cysteine, compared with absence of interference reducing agent. The methods for the determination of Ge, Sn, and As were examined by the analyses of standard reference materials. Interference effects from the sample matrix, for example, in transition metal-rich samples, copper, iron and steel, were eliminated by L-cystine (for As and Sn) and by LI cysteine (for Ge). The analysis of a number of standard reference materials gave excellent results of As and Sn contents in agreement with the certified values, showing there was no systematic interference. The detection limits for both germanium and tin were 20 pg ml- I . Preliminary studies were carried out for the determination of antimony and lead. Antimony was found to react with NaBH4, remaInIng from the previous determinations, giving an analytical signal. A reversed injection manner, i.e., injection of the NaBH4 solution prior to the analyte solution was used to avoid uncertainty caused by residual NaBH4 present and to ensure that an excess of NaB H4 was available. A solution of 0.4% L-cysteine was found to reduce the interference from selected transition metal ions, Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pt(IV). Hydrochloric acid - hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid - ammonium persulphate, and potassium dichromate malic acid reaction systems for lead hydride generation were compared. The potassium dichromate - malic acid reaction medium proved to be the best with respect to reproducibility and minimal interference. Cu(II), Ni(II), and Fe(II) caused strong interference In lead determinations, which was not reduced by L-cysteine or Lcystine. Sodium citrate, ascorbic acid, dithizone, thiosemicarbazide and penicillamine reduced interferences to some extent. Further interference reduction studies were carried out uSIng a number of amino acids, glycine, alanine, valine, leucine and histidine, as possible interference reducing agents in the determination of germanium. From glycine, alanine, valine to leucine, the interference reduction effect in germanium determinations decreased. Histidine II was found to be very promising In the reduction of interference. In fact, histidine proved more efficient than L-cystine and L-cysteine In the reduction of interference from Ni(II) in the determination of germanium. Signal enhancement by easily ionized elements (EIEs), usually regarded as an interference effect in analysis by DCP-AES, was studied and successfully applied to advantage in improving the sensitivity and detection limit in the determination of As, Ge, Sn, Sb, and Pb. The effect of alkali and alkaline-earth elements on the determination of the above five hydride forming elements was studied. With the appropriate EIE, a signal enhancement of 40-115% was achieved. Linear calibration and good reproducibility were also obtained in the presence of EIEs. III
    • Investigations into the extraction and the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water by solid-phase extraction and capillary gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry

      Elrutb, Mohamed.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      Factors affecting the detennination of PAHs by capillary GC/MS were studied. The effect of the initial column temperature and the injection solvent on the peak areas and heights of sixteen PAHs, considered as priority pollutants, USillg crosslinked methyl silicone (DB!) and 5% diphenyl, 94% dimethyl, 1% vinyl polysiloxane (DBS) columns was examined. The possibility of using high boiling point alcohols especially butanol, pentanol, cyclopentanol, and hexanol as injection solvents was investigated. Studies were carried out to optimize the initial column temperature for each of the alcohols. It was found that the optimum initial column temperature is dependent on the solvent employed. The peak areas and heights of the PAHs are enhanced when the initial column temperature is 10-20 c above the boiling point of the solvent using DB5 column, and the same or 10 C above the boiling point of the solvent using DB1 column. Comparing the peak signals of the PAHs using the alcohols, p-xylene, n-octane, and nonane as injection solvents, hexanol gave the greatest peak areas and heights of the PAHs particularly the late-eluted peaks. The detection limits were at low pg levels, ranging from 6.0 pg for fluorene t9 83.6 pg for benzo(a)pyrene. The effect of the initial column temperature on the peak shape and the separation efficiency of the PARs was also studied using DB1 and DB5 columns. Fronting or splitting of the peaks was obseIVed at very low initial column temperature. When high initial column temperature was used, tailing of the peaks appeared. Great difference between DB! and.DB5 columns in the range of the initial column temperature in which symmetrical.peaks of PAHs can be obtained is observed. Wider ranges were shown using DB5 column. Resolution of the closely-eluted PAHs was also affected by the initial column temperature depending on the stationary phase employed. In the case of DB5, only the earlyeluted PAHs were affected; whereas, with DB1, all PAHs were affected. An analytical procedure utilizing solid phase extraction with bonded phase silica (C8) cartridges combined with GC/MS was developed to analyze PAHs in water as an alternative method to those based on the extraction with organic solvent. This simple procedure involved passing a 50 ml of spiked water sample through C8 bonded phase silica cartridges at 10 ml/min, dried by passing a gentle flow of nitrogen at 20 ml/min for 30 sec, and eluting the trapped PAHs with 500 Jll of p-xylene at 0.3 ml/min. The recoveries of PAHs were greater than 80%, with less than 10% relative standard deviations of nine determinations. No major contaminants were present that could interfere with the recognition of PAHs. It was also found that these bonded phase silica cartridges can be re-used for the extraction of PAHs from water.
    • Investigations of 2-alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines in three ladybug species and wine /

      Cudjoe, Erasmus.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2005-06-15)
      Investigations of 2-alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines (2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyra2ine, 2- secbutyl-3-methoxypyrazine and 2-isobutyl-3-niethoxypyrazine) in ladybug species {Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and wine samples have been conducted. Headspace sampling coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine amounts of 2-alkyl-3-methoxypyra2ines in the ladybug species. Hippodamia convergens had the highest amount of alkybnethoxypyrazines, followed by Harmoma axyridis and the least in Coccinella septempunctata. Using a solvent extraction method, the precoccinelline alkaloid was found present in Hippodamia convergens and Coccinella septempunctata but not Harmonia axyridis. Steam distillation followed by a soHd phase extraction method as a sample preparation technique, enhanced detection while the isotope dilution method afforded accurate quantitation of the alkyknethoxypyrazines in the wine samples. Both ladybug-tainted and commercial wine samples were found to contain the 2- alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines. Wine samples prepared in 2001 generally contained higher levels than the corresponding 2003 samples. Levels of the 2-alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines found in the commercial wines ranged from a minimum value of 6 ng/L to 260 ±10 ng/L. Analyses revealed that for both ladybug species and wine samples, the 2- isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine had the highest concentration, followed by 2-isobutyl- 3-methoxypyrazine and the least being the 2-secbutyl-3-methoxypyrazine. Possible contamination of the wine samples by ladybugs is thoroughly discussed. Furthermore, attempts to remove or reduce the levels of the alkylmethoxypyrazines with molecularly imprinted polymers from wine samples are presented in detail.
    • Investigations towards the synthesis of isotope labelled analogues of tocopherols and tocotrienols /

      Gu, Fan.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      Vitamin E is considered as the most effective lipophilic chain breaking antioxidant. a-Tocopherol and its analogues have been studied thoroughly with regards to its biokinetics and bioavailabily. Deuterated tocopherols have been synthesized and utilized in such studies. Tocotrienols are arousing more and more interest because of their high efficiency as antioxidants. However, to date, there is no effective synthetic method reported for deuterated tocotrienols. This thesis is focused on the investigation of the synthetic methods of deuterated tocotrienols and their analogues: 5-trideuteromethyl-a-tocotrienol, 5- trideuteromethyl-p-tocotrienol, tocotrienol acetate, silyl tocotrienol ether, etc. Several synthetic procedures for the preparation of poly-deuterated tocopherols are known. Mainly the deuterium is introduced by use of labelled formaldehyde and deuterated hydrogen chloride under Lewis acid catalysis. However, these methods are not effective in tocotrienols due to exchange of protons for deuterium at other sites under the acidic conditions. We developed several different approaches to generate polydeuterated tocotrienols by using both morpholinomethylation followed by reduction with NaCNBDs as deuterated reducing reagents and transmetalation strategy. The 5-trideuteromethyl-a-tocotrienol was finally obtained in a satisfactory yield of 60%. In addition, this thesis also discussed the study of structural comparison and the chemical property difference of tocopherols and tocotrienols, which provides hints to explain the reactivity difference of them towards oxidation at the C3-C4 positions.Furthermore, the methodology of halogenation and dehydrohalogenation of tocotrienol was explored to prepare a hexaene tocotrienol derivative as a florescent reporter of tocopherol.
    • Iridium(I) complexes of phenanthroline-derived benzimidazolylidenes : synthetic, structural and catalytic studies

      Du, Xiangdong.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2009-02-16)
      N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have undergone rapid development in recent years. Due to their strong a-electron donation and structural variability properties, NHCs are becoming a major class of ligands in organometallic chemistry. Compared with the other two types of NHCs (imidazolylidenes and imidazolinylidenes), benzimidazolylidenes have not been well represented. Limited synthetic approaches may impede the development ofbenzimidazolylidenes. This thesis is focused on the synthesis of phenanthroline-derived benzimidazolylidene ligands and their metal complexes. A series of benzimidazolylidene-iridium complexes were synthesized and characterized spectroscopically and crystallographic ally. All of the new complexes showed varying degrees of catalytic activity and enantioselectivity toward transfer hydrogenation and asymmetric hydrogenation. The best results were achieved in hydrogenation of methyl-2-acetamidoacrylate, which afforded (-)-(R)-methyl-2-acetamidopropanoate in 97% yield and 81 % ee.
    • Kinetic and mechanistic studies for the molybdenum- catalyzed oxidation of organic sulfides and olefins by t- DuO2H

      Koseoglu, Omer Refa; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1982-07-09)
      This research was focussed on the effects of light, solvent and substituents in the molybdenum-catalyzed oxidation of phenylmethyl sulfides with t-Bu02H and on the effect of light in the molybdenum-catalyzed epoxidation of l-octene with t-Bu02H. It was shown that the Mo(CO)6-catalyzed oxidation of phenylmethyl sulfide with t-Bu02H~ at 35°C, proceeds 278 times faster underUV light than under laboratory lighting, whereas the Mo02(acac)2-catalyzed oxidation proceeds only 1.7 times faster under UV light than under normal laboratory lighting. The difference between the activities of both catalysts was explained by the formation of the catalytically active species, Mo(VI). The formation of the Mo(VI) species, from Mo(CO)6 was observed from the IR spectrum of Mo(CO)6 in the carbonyl region. The Mo(CO)6-catalyzed epoxidation of l-octene with t-Bu02H showed that the reaction proceeded 4.6 times faster under UV light than in the dark or under normal laboratory lighting; the rates of epoxidations were found to be the same in the dark and under normal laboratory lighting. The kinetics of the epoxidations of l-octene with t-Bu02H, catalyzed by Mo02(acac)2 were found to be complicated; after fast initial rates, the epoxidation rates decreased with time. The effect of phenylmethyl sulfide on the Mo(CO)6-catalyzed epoxidation of l-octene waS studied. It was shown that instead of phenylmethyl sulfide, phenylmethyl sulfone, which formed rapidly at 85°C, lowered the reaction rate. The epoxidation of l-octene was found to be 2.5 times faster in benzene than in ethanol. The substituent effect on the Mo02(acac)2-catalyzed oxidations of p-OH, p-CHgO, P-CH3' p-H, p-Cl, p-Br, p-CHgCO, p-HCO and P-N02 substituted phenylmethyl sulfides were studied. The oxidations followed second order kinetics for each case; first order dependency on catalyst concentration was also observed in the oxidation of p-CHgOPhSMeand PhSMe. It was found that electron-donating groups on the para position of phenylmethyl sulfide increased the rate of reaction, while electronwithdrawing groups caused the reaction rate to decrease. The reaction constants 0 were determined by using 0, 0- and 0* constants. The rate effects were paralleled by the activation energies for oxidation. The decomposition of t-Bu02H in the presence of M.o (CO)6, Mo02 (acac)2 and VO(acac)2 was studied. The rates of decomposition were found to be very small compared to the oxidation rates at high concentration of catalysis. The relative rates of the Mo02(acac)2-catalyzed oxidation of p-N02PhSMe by t-Bu02H in the presence of either p-CH30PhSMe or PhSMe clearly show that PhSMe and p-CHgOPhSMe act as co-catalysts in the oxidation of p-N02PhSMe. Benzene, mesity1ene and cyclohexane were used to determine the effect of solvent in the Mo02 (acac)2 and Mo(CO)6-catalyzed oxidation of phenylmethyl sulfide. The results showed that in the absence of hydroxylic solvent, a second molecule of t-Bu02H was involved in the transition state. The complexation of the solvent with the catalyst could not be explained.The oxidations of diphenyl sulfoxide catalyzed by VO(acac)2, Mo(CO)6 and Mo02(acac)2 showed that VO(acac)2 catalyzed the oxidation faster than Mo(CO)6 and Mo02 (acac)2_ Moreover, the Mo(CO)6-catalyzed oxidation of diphenyl sulfoxide proceeded under UV light at 35°C.
    • Kinetic and product studies for the oxidtion of organic sulfides and sulfoxides in the presence of transition metal complexes

      Koseoglu, Semih Sefa.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1980-10-02)
      Rates and products of the oxidation of diphenyl sulfide, phenyl methyl sulfide, p-chlorophenyl methyl sulfide and diphenyl sulfoxide have been determined. Oxidants included t-Bu02H alone, t-Bu02H plus molybdenum or vanadium catalysts and the molybdenum peroxo complex Mo0(02)2*HMPT. Reactions were chiefly carried out in ethanol at temperatures ranging from 20° to 65°C. Oxidation of diphenyl sulfide by t-Bu02H in absolute ethanol at 65°C followed second-order kinetics with k2 = 5.61 x 10 G M~1s"1, and yielded only diphenyl sulfoxide. The Mo(C0)g-catalyzed reaction gave both the sulfoxide and the sulfone with consecutive third-order kinetics. Rate = k3[Mo][t-Bu02H][Ph2S] + k^[Mo][t-Bu02H][Ph2S0], where log k3 = 12.62 - 18500/RT, and log k^ = 10.73 - 17400/RT. In the absence of diphenyl sulfide, diphenyl sulfoxide did not react with t-Bu02H plus molybdenum catalysts, but was oxidized by t-Bu02H-V0(acac)2. The uncatalyzed oxidation of phenyl methyl sulfide by t-Bu02H in absolute ethanol at 65°C gave a second-order rate constant, k = 3.48 x 10~"5 M^s""1. With added Mo(C0)g, the product was mainly phenyl methyl sulfoxide; Rate = k3[Mo][t-Bu02H][PhSCH3] where log k3 = 22.0 - 44500/RT. Both diphenyl sulfide and diphenyl sulfoxide react readily with the molybdenum peroxy complex, Mo0(02)2'HMPT in absolute ethanol at 35°C, yielding diphenyl sulfone. The observed features are mainly in agreement with the literature on metal ion-catalyzed oxidations of organic compounds by hydroperoxides. These indicate the formation of an active catalyst and the complexation of t-Bu02H with the catalyst. However, the relatively large difference between the activation energies for diphenyl sulfide and phenyl methyl sulfide, and the non-reactivity of diphenyl sulfoxide suggest the involvement of sulfide in the production of an active species.
    • Kinetic studies of the effect of organic sulphides on the oxidation of other sulphides /

      Aryitey, George Tetteh Magnus.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1984-06-04)
      The rates of oxidation of three Organic sulphides viz. methyl phenyl sulphide, (P), p -me thoxyphenyl methyl sulphide (M) and methyl p-nitrophenyl sulphide (N). have been obtained in ethanol using MoO-(acac)- as catalyst and Bu OOH as the oxidizing agent. A Hammett plot gave a rho value of -2.1 and the activation energies for the oxidation of P, M and N were estimated to be 63.60, 40.12 and 197.46 Kj mol respectively. The effect of organic sulphide on the oxidation of another sulphide was also ascertained. Positive and negative deviations were observed from the expected slope.
    • The kinetics and induced decomposition on the thermal decomposition of hydroperoxides /

      Tse, K. M.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1976-06-09)
      This project is focussed on the thermsLl decomposition of t-butyl hydroperoxide and sec-butyl hydroperoxide at 120°C to 160°C in three alcohol solvents. These are methanol, ethajiol and isopropyl alcohol. The aim of the project was to examine the process of induced decomposition. Thermal decomposition of t-hutyl hydroperoxide and sec-butyl hydroperoxide indicate that these reactions have first-order kinetics with activation energies on the order of 20 to 28 K cal/mole, Styrene was used as a free radical trap to inhibit the induced decomposition. The results permitted calculation of how much induced decomposition occurred in its absence. The experimental resvilts indicate that the induced decomposition is important for t-butyl hydroperoxide in alcohol solvents, as shown by both the reaction rate suid product studies. But sec-butyl hydroperoxide results show that the concerted mechanism for the interaction of two sec-butylperoxy radicals occurs in addition to the induced decomposition. Di-sodium E.D,T.A. was added to reduce possible effects of trace transition metal ion .impurities. The result of this experiment were not as expected. The rate of hydroperoxide decomposition was about the same but was zero-order in hydroperoxide concentration.
    • The kinetics and mechanism of the thermal decomposition of bis diphenyl methyl and related peroxides in liquid phase /|nby C. Thankachan. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Thankachan, C.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1973-07-09)
      Rates and products have been determined for the thermal decomposition of bis diphenyl methyl peroxide and diphenyl methyl tert* butyl peroxide at 110@~145@C* The decomposition was uniformly unimolecular with activation energies for the bis diphenyl methyl peroxide in tetrachloroethylene* toluene and nitrobenzene 26,6* 28*3f and 27 Kcals/mole respectively. Diphenyl methyl tert* butyl peroxide showed an activation energy of 38*6 Kcals/mole* About 80-90% of the products in the case of diphenyl methyl peroxide could be explained by the concerted process, this coupled with the negative entropies of activation obtained is a conclusive evidence for the reaction adopting a major concerted path* All the products in the case of diphenyl methyl peroxide could be explained by known reactions of alkoxy radicals* About 80-85% of tert butanol and benzophenone formed suggested far greater cage disproportionation than diffusing apart* Rates of bis triphenyl methyl peroxide have been determined in tetrachloroethylene at 100-120@C* The activation energy was found to be 31 Kcals/mole*
    • The kinetics and mechanism of the thermal decomposition of sec-Butyl peroxide in liquid phase /|nby Sandor Szilagyi. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Szilágyi, Sándor.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1969-07-09)
      Re~tes artd pJ~oducts of tllerma]. d,ecom.position of sec-butyl peroxide at 110 - 150°C i.n four solvents h,ave been determined. The d,ecompos i tion vJas sb.o\'\Tn to be tlnlmolecl.llar wi tho energies of activation in toluene, benzene, and cyclohexane of 36 .7-+ 1.0, 33.2 +- 1..0, 33.t~) +.. 1.0 I'(:cal/mol respectively. The activation energy of thermal decomposition for the d,et.1terated peroxide was found to be 37.2 4:- 1.0 KC8:1/1TIol in toluene. A.bo1J.t 70 - 80/~ ol~ tJJ.e' pl~od.1..1CtS could, be explained by kn01rJ11 reactions of free allcoxy raclicals J and very littJ...e, i.f allY, disPl"Opox~tiol'lation of tll10 sec-butoxy radica.ls in t116 solvent cage could be detected. The oth,er 20 - 30% of the peroxide yielded H2 and metb.:'ll etb..yl 1{etol1e. Tl1.e yield. o:f H2 "'lIas unafJ:'ected by the nature or the viscosity of the solvent, but H2 was not formed when s-t1U202 lrJaS phctolyzed. in tolttene at 35°C nor 'tl!Jrl.en the peroxide 1;'JaS tl1.ermally o..ecoJnposed. in the gas p11ase. ~pC-Dideutero-~-butYlperoxide was prepared and decomposed in toluene at 110 - 150°C. The yield of D2 was about ·•e1ne same 248 the yield. of I{2 from s-Bu202, bU.t th.e rate of decomposition (at 135°C) 1iJas only 1/1.55 as fast. Ivlecl1.anisms fOl') J:1ydrogen produ.ction are discussed, but none satisfactorily explains all the evidence.
    • The kinetics and solvent effects on the thermal decomposition of isopropyl peroxide and 1, 2-dioxane

      Rahimi, P. Mashhadi.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-10-02)
      Rates of H2 formation have been determined for the thermal decomposition of isopropyl peroxide at l30o-l50oC in toluene and methanol and at l400C in isopropyl alcohol and water. Product studies have been carried out at l400C in these solvents. The decomposition of isopropyl peroxide was shown to be unimolecular with energies of activation in toluene, and methanol of 39.1, 23.08 Kcal/mole respectively. It has been shown that the rates of H2 formation in decomposition of isopropyl peroxide are solvent dependent and that the ~ vs "'2';' values (parameters for solvent polarity) givesastraight line. Mechanisms for hydrogen production are discussed which satisfactorily explain the stabilization of the six-centered transition state by the solvent. One possibility is that of conformation stabilization by solvent and the other, a transition state with sufficient ionic character to be stabilized by a polar solvent. Rates of thermal decomposition of 1,2-dioxane in tert-butylbenzene at l40o-l70oC have been determined. The activation energy was found to be 33.4 Kcal/mole. This lower activation energy, compared to that for the decomposition of isopropyl peroxide in toluene (39.1 Kcal/mole) has been explained in terms of ring strain. Decomposition of 1,2 dioxane in MeOH does not follow a first order reaction. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the products observed for decomposition of 1;2-dioxane in toluene and methanol.