• The importance of hydrogen bonding in the alkylation of phenols

      Alauddin, Mian Mohannad.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1982-07-09)
      Hydrogen bond assisted alkylation of phenols is compared with the classical base assisted reactions. The influence of solvents on the fluoride assisted reactions is discussed,· with emphasis on the localization of hydrogen bond charge density. Polar aprotic solvents such as DMF favour a-alkylation, and nonpolar aprotic solvents such as toluene favourC-alkylation of phenol. For more reactive and soluble fluorides, such as tetrabu~ylammoniumfluoride, the polar aprotic solvent favours a-alkylation and nonpolar aprotic solvent favours fluorination. Freeze-dried potassium fluoride is a better catalytic agent in hydrogen bond assisted alkylation reactions of phenol than the oven-dried fluoride. The presence of water in the alkylation reactions reduces the expected yield drastically. The tolerance of the reaction to water has also been studied. The use ofa phase transfer catalyst such as tetrabutylammonium bromide in the alkylation reactions of phenol in the presence of potassium fluoride is very effective under anhydrous conditions. Sterically hindered phenols such as 2,6-ditertiarybutyl-4-methyl phenol could not be alkylated even by using the more reactive fluorides, such as tetrabutylammonium fluoride in either polar or nonpolar aprotic solvents. Attempts were also made to alkylate phenols in the presence of triphenylphosphine oxide.
    • Intramolecular carbenoid insertion : reactions of [alpha] -diazoketones derived from benzothienyl, pyrolyl and indolyl alkanoic acids with rhodium (II) acetate

      Salim, Mohamed Abdulla.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1999-07-09)
      Recent studies have shown that the rhodium (II) acetate decomposition chemistry observed for a-diazoketones tethered to thienyl, furanyl, and benzofuranyl moieties is dependent not only on the nature of the heteroatom but also on the length of the aliphatic tether linking the diazoketone moiety with the aromatic fragment. The present thesis expands on these results and focuses on a-diazoketones tethered to benzothiophenes, pyrroles and indoles by a methylene linker. In the case of benzothiophenes, it was shown that the rhodium catalyst decomposition of I-diazo-4-(3-benzothienyl)-2-butanone (146) and 1-diazo-4-(3benzothienyl)- 2-butanone (152) allow for the isolation of 1,2,3a,3b-tetrahydro-3Hbenzo[ b]cyclopenta[1,3]cyclopropa- [1 ,2-d]thiophen-3-one (147) and 1,2,3a,3btetrahydro- 3H-benzo[b]cyclopenta[1,3]cyclopropa[1,2-d]thiophen-3-one (153). However treatment of 1-diazo-3-(3-Benzothienyl)-2-Propanone (165) with Rh(II) acetate results in the formation of 2,3-Dihydro-1H-benzo[b]cyclopenta[d]thiophen-2-one (159), while 1diazo- 3-(2-Benzothienyl)-2-Propanone with the same condition gives 5,5-bis( 1benzothiophen- 2-ylmethyl)-2(5H)-furanone (166) along with the tricycle 159. The chemistry of the pyrrolyl and the indolyl moieties linked to terminal adiazoketone systems was also investigated. The decomposition of I-diazo-(2-pyrrolyl)-2propanone (173) results in the formation of two products; the N-H insertion product IHpyrrolizin- 2(3H)-one (176) and the alkylation product 4,6-dihydrocyclopenta[b]pyrrol5( 1 H)-one (180). When 1-Diazo-3-(3-indoly)-3-propanone (194) is treated with catalytic amount of Rh (II) 3,4-dihydrocyclopenta[b]indol-2(1H)-one (193) is isolated quantitatively. The later reaction when monitored using IH NMR the intermediate 200 can be seen whose structure was confirmed by the comparison to series of model compounds. The mechanisms underlying these reactions as well as their synthetic utility is discussed.
    • Intramolecular carbenoid insertions : the reactions of [alpha]-diazoketones derived from furanyl, thienyl, benzofuranyl and benzothienyl acetic acids with rhodium (II) acetate /

      Yong, Kelvin Hin-Yeong.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1998-05-21)
      A number of synthetically useful ring systems can be prepared via the intramolecular insertion of a metal-stabilized carbenoid into a heteroaromatic systems. The chemical outcome of these reactions are dependent not only on the nature of the heteroatom but also on the length of the aliphatic tether linking the carbenoid moiety with the aromatic fragment. Our work with furanyl and thienyl systems containing a single methylene tether have allowed for some rather atypical chemistry. For example, treatment of l-diazo-3-(2-thienyl)-2-propanone (6) with catalytic rhodium (II) acetate yields 5,6- dihydro-4^-cyclopenta[Z>]thiophen-5-one (3) while, the isomeric l-diazo-3-(3-thienyl)-2- propanone(15) gives a spiro-disulphide (20). Novel chemistry was also exhibited in the analogous furanyl systems. While treatment of l-diazo-3-(3-furanyl)-2-propanone (52) with Rh2(OAc)4 resulted in the expected 2-(4-Oxo-2-cyclopentenyliden)acetaldehyde (54), isomeric l-diazo-3-(2- furanyl)-2-propanone (8) undergoes vinylogous Wolff rearrangement to give a mixture of 6a-methyl-2,3,3a,6a-tetrahydrofuro[2,i-^>]furan-2-one (44) and 2-(2-methyl-3-furyl)acetic acid (43). Rhodium acetate catalyzed decomposition of l-diazo-3-(3-benzofuranyl)-2- propanone (84) and l-diazo-3-(2-benzofuranyl)-2-propanone (69)also allows for vinylogous Wolff rearrangement, a chemistry unseen in benzofuranyl systems with longer tethers. A number of interesting products were isolated from the trapping of intermediate ketenes. Decomposition of l-diazo-3-(3-benzothienyl)-2-propanone (100) resulted in the formation of 2,3-dihydro-l//-benzo[^]cyclopenta[^thiophen-2-one (102). However, in addition to (102), a dimer was also generated from the decomposition of l-diazo-3-(2- benzothienyl)-2-propanone (109). The insight into the mechanistic underpinnings of the above reactions are provided by molecular modeling at a PM3 level.
    • An investigation into fungal metabolism of halogenated and related steroids

      Thomas, Everton M.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      Fungal metabolism of halogenated and related steroids was investigated. The fungi Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142, Curvularia lunata NRRL 2380 and Rhizopus stolonifer ATCC6227b were studied in this regard. 2l-Fluoro-, 2l-chloro, 2l-bromo- and 2l-methyl-pregn-4-ene-3,20diones were prepared and incubated with ~ niger (a C-2l-hydroxylator) in order to observe the effect of the C-2l substituent on the metabolism of these substrates. In all four cases, the C-2l substituent prevented any significant metabolism of these substrates. llB-Fluoropregn-4-ene-3,20-dione was prepared and incubated with C. lunata (an llB-hydroxylator) and ~ stolonifer (an lla-hydroxylator). With ~ lunata, the ll-fluoro- substituent prevent hydroxylation at the 11 position, but diverted it to a site remote from the fluorine atom. In contrast, with ~ stolonifer the llB-fluoro- substituent, although slowing the apparent rate of hydroxylation, did not prevent its occurrence at the 11a- position. llB-Hydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione was also incubated with R. stolonifer. The llB-hydroxy-;group did not appear to have any significant effect on hydroxylation at the lla- position. The incubation of a substrate, unsaturated at a favoured site of hydroxylation with Rhizopus arrhizus ATCC 11145 provided a complex mixture of products; among them were both the a and S epoxides. The formation of these products is rationalized as arising because of the lack of regio- and stereospecificity of the hydroxylase enzyme(s) involved.
    • An investigation into some mechanistic aspects of estrogen biosynthesis

      Taylor, Gregg Jarvis.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      The mechanistic aspects of the 19-hydroxy1ation and aromatization of androgens were investigated. Fungal, bacterial and mammalian enzymatic activities were studied in this regard . The fungus Pell i cular~ fi1amentosa metabolized androst-4-ene-3 , 17-dione to the corresponding 110<' , 11 f and 14 0( hydroxylated derivatives. No ~19- hydroxylated products were isolated, although this transformation was previously observed for the C21-steroids . The intestinal bacterium Clostridi um paraputrific~ had been reported to aromatize androsten-4-ene-3,17-dione. In the present study, however, only the ring A reduced products , 17(3 - hydroxy-5f -andro8tane- 3-one and 5f-androstane-3,17-dione , were recovered . Human placental microsomes contain substantial aromatase activity and were employed in an effort to elucidate some of the mechanistic details of aromatization. Selectively deuterated steroidal substrates were employed as a probe in order to distinguish b'!tween certain of the mechanisms proposed for aromatization . Retention of deuterium at C4 and C6 was observed. It was concluded that no free intermediates allowing for loss of hydrogen from either of these two positions are implicated in this process . The involvement of a Schiff base enzyme-sup strate complex in aromatization was examined using the substrate 17f - hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3-one- 3_ 1BO. Since no loss of label was ob~erved, the implication of a Schiff base was discounted . Mixed label1ir~ studies were performed in order to determine if hydroxylation at C19 is a rate-determining process in aromatization . Isotope effects of 2 .1 and 1.7 were determined for the conversion of 17f - hydroxyandrost-4-ene-J-one-19,19,19-dJ and -19-dl respectively to estrogens. It was concluded from this that 19-hydroxylation is at l east a partially rate-determinjng process in aromatization. A homoenb~ation mechanism for 19-hydroxylation was not supported by the data obtained in this s tudy. In vitro 1JC NMR monitoring using l7f-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-Jone- 19-l3C was found not to be a successful approach in the study of steroid transformations, owing in part t o their low solubility in the incubation medium.
    • Investigation into the determination of arsenic by direct current plasma atomic emission spectrometer

      Boampong, Charles.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1983-07-09)
      Improvements have been made on the currently available hydride generator system manufactured by SpectraMetrics Incorporated, because the system was found to be unsatisfactory with respect to the following: 1. the drying agent, anhydrous calcium chloride, 2. the special sample tube, 3. the direction of argon flow through the Buchner funnel when it came to dealing with real sample, that is, with reference only to aqueous extracts of soil samples. Changes that were made on the system included the replacement of anhydrous calcium chloride with anhydrous calcium sulphate and the replacement of the special sample tube with a modified one made from silica. Re-directing the flow of argon through the top of the Buchner funnel appeared to make the system compatible with aqueous extracts of soil samples. The interferences from 1000 ~g/mL of nickel(II) , cobalt(II), iron(III), copper(II) have been eliminated with the aid of 1.4 M hydrochloric acid and 1% (weight/volume) L-cystine. Greater than 90% recovery of 0.3 ~g/mL arsenic signal was achieved in each case. Furthermore, 103% of arsenic signal was accomplished in the presence of 1000 ~g/mL cadmium with 5 M Hel. tVhen each of the interferents was present in solution at 1000 ppm, a recovery of 85% was achieved by using 5 M hydrochloric acid and 3% (weight/volume) L-cystine. Without L-cystine and when 1.4 M hydrochloric acid was used, the recoveries were 0% (Ni), 0% (Co), 88% (Fe), 15% (Cu), 18% (Cd). Similarly, a solution containing 1000 ppm of each interferent gave a zero percent recovery of arsenic. The reduction of trivalent and pentavalent arsenic at a pH less than one has also been investigated and shown to be quantitative if peak areas are measured. The reproducibility determination of a 0.3 Vg/mL standard arsenic solution by hydride generation shows a relative standard deviation of 3.4%. The detection limits with and without Porapak Q have been found to be 0.6 ng/mL and 1.0 ng/mL, respectively.
    • An investigation into the oxidation of organic sulphides, organic selenides and simple hydrocarbons by Mortierella isabellina NRRL 1757

      Carter, Ian M.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1983-07-09)
      The work presented in this thesis is divided into three separate sections 4!> Each' 'section is involved wi th a different problem, however all three are involved with a microbial oxidation of a substrate~ A series of 'aryl substituted phenyl a.nd be,nzyl methyl sulphides were oxidized to the corre~pondi~g sulphoxides by 'Mo:rtierellai's'a'b'e'llina NRR.L17'S7 @ For this enzymic Qxidation, based on 180 labeled experiments, the oxygen atom is derived fr'orn the atmosphere and not from water. By way of an u~.traviolet analysis, the rates of oxidation, in terms of sulphox~ de appearance, were obtained and correlated with the Hatnmett p s~grna constants for the phenyl methyl sulphide series. A value of -0.67 was obtained and, is interpreted in terms of a mechanism of oxidation that involves an electrophilic attack on the sulphide sulphur by an enzymic ironoxygen activated complex and the conversion of the resulti!lg sulphur cation to sulphoxide. A series of alkyl phenyl selen~des have been incubated with the fu~gi, Aspergillus niger ATCC9l42, Aspergillus fO'etidus NRRL 337, MIIJisabellina NF.RLl757 and'He'lminth'osparium sp'ecies NRRL 4671 @l These fu?gi have been reported to be capable of carrying out the efficient oxidation of sulphide to sulphoxide, but in no case was there any evidence to supp'ort the occurrence of a microbialox,idation. A more extensive inves·t~gation was carried out with'M,e 'i's'a'b'e'l'l'i'na, this fu~gus was capable of oxidizing the correspondi~g sulphides to sulphoxi.de·s·$ Usi:ng a 1abel.edsubstra.te, [Methyl-l4c]-methyl phenyl selenide, the fate of this compound was invest~gated followi!lg an i'ncubation wi th Me isabellina .. BeSUldes th. e l4C-ana1YS1Q S-,'. a quant"ltta"lve selen'lum ana1Y"S1S was carried out with phenyl methyl selenide. These techniques indicate that thesel'enium was capable of enteri!1g thefu!1gal cell ef'ficiently but that s'ome metabolic cleav~ge of the seleni'um-carbon bond' may take plac'e Ie The l3c NMR shifts were assigned to the synthesized alkyl phenyl sulphides and selenides@ The final section involved the incubation ofethylben~ zene and p-e:rtr.hyltoluene wi th'M ~ 'isab'e'llina NRRL 17574b Followi~ g this incubation an hydroxylated product was isolated from the medium. The lH NMR and mass spectral data identify the products as I-phenylethanol and p-methyl-l-phenylethanol. Employi!lg a ch'iral shift re~gent,tri~ (3-heptafluorobutyl-dcamphorato)'- europium III, the enantiomeric puri ty of these products was invest~gated. An optical rotation measurement of I-phenylethanol was in ~greement with the results obtained with the chiral shift re~gen,te 'M.isabe'l'lina is capable of carryi~g out an hydroxylation of ethylbenzene and p-ethyltoluene at the ~ position.
    • Investigation of molecular polarizabilities and derivatives in halomethanes

      Sharma, Gulshan M.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      The research undertaken was to obtain absolute Raman intensities for the symmetric stretching vibrations of the methyl halides, CH3X with (X=F, CI, Br), by experiment and theory. The intensities were experimentally measured using the Ar+ ion gas laser as excitation source, a Spex 14018 double monochromator and a RCA C-31034 photomultiplier tube as detector. These intensities arise from changes in the derivative of the polarizability (8 a'), with respect to vibration along a normal coordinate (8qi). It was intended that these derivatives obtained with respect to normal coordinates would be converted to derivatives with respect to internal coordinates, for a quantitative comparison with theory. Theoretical numerical polarizability derivatives for the stretching vibrations are obtained using the following procedure. A vibration was simulated in the molecule by increasi.ng and decreasing the respective bond by the amount ±o.oosA for the C-H bonds and ±o.oIA for the C-X (X=F, CI, Br) bond. The derivative was obtained by taking the difference in the polarizability for the equilibrium geometry and the geometry when a particular bond is changed. This difference, when divided by the amount of change in each bond and the number of bonds present results in the derivative of the polarizability with respect to internal coordinate i.e., !1u/!1r. These derivatives were obtained by two methods: I} ab initio molecular orbital calculation and 2} theory of atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis. Due to errors in the experimental setup only a qualitative analysis of the results was undertaken relative to the theory. Theoretically it is predicted that the symmetric carbonhalogen stretch vibrations are more intense than the respective carbon-hydrogen stretch, but only for the methyl chloride and bromide. The carbon fluorine stretch is less intense than the carbon-hydrogen stretch, a fact which is attributed to the small size and high electronegativity of the fluorine atom. The experimental observations are seen to agree qualitatively with the theory results. It is hoped that when the experiment is repeated, a quantitative comparison can be made. The analysis by the theory of atoms in molecules, along with providing polarizabilities and polarizability derivatives, gives additional information outlined below. The theory provides a pictorial description of the main factors contributing to the molecular polarizability and polarizability derivative. These contributions are from the charge transfer and atomic dipole terms i.e., transfer of charge from one atom to another and the reorganization of atomic electronic charge distribution due to presence of an electric field. The linear relationship between polarizability and molecular volume was also observed.
    • Investigation of regio- and sterochemistries of microbial biotransformation /

      Zabic, Mirjana.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      Epoxides can be hydrolyzed by fungi to produce chiral diols. The first part of this thesis presents an investigation of the microbial hydrolysis of aziridines comparable in structure to epoxide biotransformation substrates. Biotransformation of the aziridines 1 -methyl-2-phenyl aziridine, 2- phenylaziridine and N-methyl-7-aza bicyclo[4.1.0] heptane was studied using Beauveria sulfurescens, Aspergillus niger and Diplodia gossypina but no evidence for enzymic hydrolysis was obtained. The hydroxylation reaction performed by the fungus Beauveria sulfurescens ATCC 7159 has been studied for many years and several models describing the hydroxylating pattern exhibited by this fungus have been proposed. The second part of this thesis presents a test of the proposed models. The ability of Beauveria sulfurescens to hydroxylate thirty potential substrates was examined, and the data suggest that none of the earlier proposed models accounts for all of the bioconversion results. A possible explanation is proposed, suggesting that there is more than one enzyme responsible for the hydroxylation reactions performed by Beauveria sulfurescens.
    • Investigation of single tryptophan proteins encapsulated in TEOS-derived sol-gel matrices by fluorescence spectroscopy /

      Zheng, Lili.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      In the work reported here, optically clear, ultrathin TEOS derived sol-gel slides which were suitable for studies of tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence from entrapped proteins were prepared by the sol-gel technique and characterized. The monitoring of intrinsic protein fluorescence provided information about the structure and environment of the entrapped protein, and about the kinetics of the interaction between the entrapped protein and extemal reagents. Initial studies concentrated on the single Trp protein monellin which was entrapped into the sol-gel matrices. Two types of sol-gel slides, termed "wet aged", in which the gels were aged in buffer and "dry-aged", in which the gels were aged in air , were studied in order to compare the effect of the sol-gel matrix on the structure of the protein at different aging stages. Fluorescence results suggested that the mobility of solvent inside the slides was substantially reduced. The interaction of the entrapped protein with both neutral and charged species was examined and indicated response times on the order of minutes. In the case of the neutral species the kinetics were diffusion limited in solution, but were best described by a sum of first order rate constants when the reactions occurred in the glass matrix. For charged species, interactions between the analytes and the negatively charged glass matrix caused the reaction kinetics to become complex, with the overall reaction rate depending on both the type of aging and the charge on the analyte. The stability and conformational flexibility of the entrapped monellin were also studied. These studies indicated that the encapsulation of monellin into dry-aged monoliths caused the thermal unfolding transition to broaden and shift upward by 14°C, and causedthe long-term stability to improve by 12-fold (compared to solution). Chemical stability studies also showed a broader transition for the unfolding of the protein in dry-aged monoliths, and suggested that the protein was present in a distribution of environments. Results indicated that the entrapped proteins had a smaller range of conformational motions compared to proteins in solution, and that entrapped proteins were not able to unfold completely. The restriction of conformational motion, along with the increased structural order of the internal environment of the gels, likely resulted in the improvements in themial and long-term stability that were observed. A second protein which was also studied in this work is the metal binding protein rat oncomodulin. Initially, the unfolding behavior of this protein in aqueous solution was examined. Several single tryptophan mutants of the metal-binding protein rat oncomodulin (OM) were examined; F102W, Y57W, Y65W and the engineered protein CDOM33 which had all 12 residues of the CD loop replaced with a higher affinity binding loop. Both the thermal and the chemical stability were improved upon binding of metal ions with the order apo < Ca^^ < Tb^"^. During thermal denaturation, the transition midpoints (Tun) of Y65W appeared to be the lowest, followed by Y57W and F102W. The placement of the Trp residue in the F-helix in F102W apparently made the protein slightly more thermostable, although the fluorescence response was readily affected by chemical denaturants, which probably acted through the disruption of hydrogen bonds at the Cterminal end of the F-helix. Under both thermal and chemical denaturation, the engineered protein showed the highest stability. This indicated that increasing the number of metal ligating oxygens in the binding site, either by using a metal ion with a higher coordinatenumber (i.e. Tb^*) which binds more carboxylate ligands, or by providing more ligating groups, as in the CDOM33 replacement, produces notable improvements in protein stability. Y57W and CE)OM33 OM were chosen for further studies when encapsulated into sol-gel derived matrices. The kinetics of interaction of terbium with the entrapped proteins, the ability of the entrapped protein to binding terbium, as well as thermal stability of these two entrapped protein were compared with different levels of Ca^"*^ present in the matrix and in solution. Results suggested that for both of the proteins, the response time and the ability to bind terbium could be adjusted by adding excess calcium to the matrix before gelation. However, the less stable protein Y57W only retained at most 45% of its binding ability in solution while the more stable protein CDOM33 was able to retain 100% binding ability. Themially induced denaturation also suggested that CDOM33 showed similar stability to the protein in solution while Y57W was destabilized. All these results suggested that "hard" proteins (i.e. very stable) can easily survive the sol-gel encapsulation process, but "soft" proteins with lower thermodynamic stability may not be able to withstand the sol-gel process. However, it is possible to control many parameters in order to successfully entrap biological molecules into the sol-gel matrices with maxunum retention of activity.
    • Investigation of the composition of linear alkylbenzenes with emphasis on the identification and quantitation of some trace compounds using GS/MS system in both electron impact and chemical ionization modes

      Zalewski, Teresa Maria.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      Linear alkylbenzenes, LAB, formed by the Alel3 or HF catalyzed alkylation of benzene are common raw materials for surfactant manufacture. Normally they are sulphonated using S03 or oleum to give the corresponding linear alkylbenzene sulphonates In >95 % yield. As concern has grown about the environmental impact of surfactants,' questions have been raised about the trace levels of unreacted raw materials, linear alkylbenzenes and minor impurities present in them. With the advent of modem analytical instruments and techniques, namely GCIMS, the opportunity has arisen to identify the exact nature of these impurities and to determine the actual levels of them present in the commercial linear ,alkylbenzenes. The object of the proposed study was to separate, identify and quantify major and minor components (1-10%) in commercial linear alkylbenzenes. The focus of this study was on the structure elucidation and determination of impurities and on the qualitative determination of them in all analyzed linear alkylbenzene samples. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, (GCIMS) study was performed o~ five samples from the same manufacturer (different production dates) and then it was followed by the analyses of ten commercial linear alkylbenzenes from four different suppliers. All the major components, namely linear alkylbenzene isomers, followed the same elution pattern with the 2-phenyl isomer eluting last. The individual isomers were identified by interpretation of their electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectra. The percent isomer distribution was found to be different from sample to sample. Average molecular weights were calculated using two methods, GC and GCIMS, and compared with the results reported on the Certificate of Analyses (C.O.A.) provided by the manufacturers of commercial linear alkylbenzenes. The GC results in most cases agreed with the reported values, whereas GC/MS results were significantly lower, between 0.41 and 3.29 amu. The minor components, impurities such as branched alkylbenzenes and dialkyltetralins eluted according to their molecular weights. Their fragmentation patterns were studied using electron impact ionization mode and their molecular weight ions confirmed by a 'soft ionization technique', chemical ionization. The level of impurities present i~ the analyzed commercial linear alkylbenzenes was expressed as the percent of the total sample weight, as well as, in mg/g. The percent of impurities was observed to vary between 4.5 % and 16.8 % with the highest being in sample "I". Quantitation (mg/g) of impurities such as branched alkylbenzenes and dialkyltetralins was done using cis/trans-l,4,6,7-tetramethyltetralin as an internal standard. Samples were analyzed using .GC/MS system operating under full scan and single ion monitoring data acquisition modes. The latter data acquisition mode, which offers higher sensitivity, was used to analyze all samples under investigation for presence of linear dialkyltetralins. Dialkyltetralins were reported quantitatively, whereas branched alkylbenzenes were reported semi-qualitatively. The GC/MS method that was developed during the course of this study allowed identification of some other trace impurities present in commercial LABs. Compounds such as non-linear dialkyltetralins, dialkylindanes, diphenylalkanes and alkylnaphthalenes were identified but their detailed structure elucidation and the quantitation was beyond the scope of this study. However, further investigation of these compounds will be the subject of a future study.
    • The investigation of the reduction mechanism of the 5a-reductase enzyme of Penicillium decumbens /

      Hsü, Wei-li.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1990-05-21)
      The 5a-reductase of Penicillium decumbens ATCC 10436 was used as a model for the mammalian enzyme to investigate the mechanism of reduction of testosterone to 5adihydrotestosterone . The purpose of this study was to search for specific 5a-reductase inhibitors which antagonize prostate cancer . In a whole-cell biotransformation mode, this organism reduced testosterone (1) to 5a-dihydrosteroids (8) and 5aandrostane- 3, 17-dione (9) in yields of 28% and 37% respectively. Control experiments have shown that 5aandrostane- 3, 17-dione (9) can be produced from the corresponding alcohol (8) in a subsequent reaction separate from that catalysed by the 5a-reductase enzyme . Androst-4- ene-3, 17-dione (2) is reduced to give only (9) with a recovery of 80% The stereochemistry of the reduction was determined by 500 MHz ^H NMR analysis of the products resulting from the deuterium labelled substrates. The results were obtained by an analysis of the NOE difference spectra, double-quantum filtered phase sensitive COSY 2-D spectra, and ^^c-Ir 2-D shift correlation spectra of deuterium labelled products. According to the unambiguous assignment of the signals due to H-4a and H-4Ii in 5a-dihydro steroids, the NMR data show clearly that addition of hydrogen to the 4{5)K bond has occurred in a trans manner at positions 413 and 5a. To Study the reduction mechanism of this enzyme, several substrates were prepared as following; 3-methyleneandrost-4-en- 17fi-ol(3), androst-4-en-17i5-ol(5) , androst-4-en-3ii, 17fi-diol (6) and 4, 5ii-epoxyandrostane-3, 17-dione (7) . Results suggest that this enzyme system requires an oxygen atom at the 3-position of the steroid in order to bind the substrate. Furthermore, the mechanism of this 5a-reductase may proceed via direct addition of hydrogen at the 4,5 position without involvement of a carbonyl group as an intermediate.
    • Investigations in flow injection analysis (FIA): conventional FIA determination of chloride in water; sequential injection (SI)-FIA determination of mercury in water

      Cirello-Egamino, Joanne.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1994-10-02)
      Flow injection analysis (FIA) was applied to the determination of both chloride ion and mercury in water. Conventional FIA was employed for the chloride study. Investigations of the Fe3 +/Hg(SCN)2/CI-,450 nm spectrophotometric system for chloride determination led to the discovery of an absorbance in the 250-260 nm region when Hg(SCN)2 and CI- are combined in solution, in the absence of iron(III). Employing an in-house FIA system, absorbance observed at 254 nm exhibited a linear relation from essentially 0 - 2000 Jlg ml- 1 injected chloride. This linear range spanning three orders of magnitude is superior to the Fe3+/Hg(SCN)2/CI- system currently employed by laboratories worldwide. The detection limit obtainable with the proposed method was determin~d to be 0.16 Jlg ml- 1 and the relative standard deviation was determined to be 3.5 % over the concentration range of 0-200 Jig ml- 1. Other halogen ions were found to interfere with chloride determination at 254 nm whereas cations did not interfere. This system was successfully applied to the determination of chloride ion in laboratory water. Sequential injection (SI)-FIA was employed for mercury determination in water with the PSA Galahad mercury amalgamation, and Merlin mercury fluorescence detection systems. Initial mercury in air determinations involved injections of mercury saturated air directly into the Galahad whereas mercury in water determinations involved solution delivery via peristaltic pump to a gas/liquid separator, after reduction by stannous chloride. A series of changes were made to the internal hardware and valving systems of the Galahad mercury preconcentrator. Sequential injection solution delivery replaced the continuous peristaltic pump system and computer control was implemented to control and integrate all aspects of solution delivery, sample preconcentration and signal processing. Detection limits currently obtainable with this system are 0.1 ng ml-1 HgO.
    • Investigations into phosphorus removal by constructed wetlands : root bed media modifications /

      McLaughlin, Roger.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      A study has been conducted focusing on how the phosphorus renrx)val efficiency of a constructed wetland (CW) can be optimized through the selective enrichment of the substratum. Activated alumina and powdered iron were examined as possible enrichment compounds. Using packed glass column trials it was found that alumina was not suitable for the renx)val of ortho-phosphate from solution, while mixtures of powdered iron and quartz sand proved to be very efficient. The evaluation of iron/sand mixtures in CWs planted with cattails was performed in three stages; first using an indoor lab scale wetland, then an outdoor lab scale wetland, and finally in a small scale pilot project. For the lab scale tests, three basic configurations were evaluated: using the iron/sand as a pre-filter, in the root bed. and as a post filter. Primary lagoon effluent was applied to the test cells to simulate actual CW conditions, and the total phosphorus and iron concentrations of the influent and effluent were nfK)nitored. The pilot scale trials were limited to using only a post filter design, due to in-progress research at the pilot site. The lab scale tests achieved average renrK>val efficiencies greater than 91% for all indoor configurations, and greater than 97% for all outdoor configurations. The pilot scale tests had an average renK)val efficiency of 60%. This relatively low efficiency in the pilot scale can be attributed to the post filters being only one tenth the size of the lab scale test in terms of hydraulic loading (6 cm/day vs. 60 cm/day).
    • Investigations into the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by capillary gas chromatography

      Li, Xing-Fang.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1989-11-04)
      Factors involved in the determination of PAHs (16 priority PAHs as an example) and PCBs (10 PCB congeners, representing 10 isomeric groups) by capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS, for PAHs) and electron capture detection (GC/ECD , for PCBs) were studied, with emphasis on the effect of solvent. Having various volatilities and different polarities, solvent studied included dichloromethane, acetonitrile, hexan e, cyclohexane, isooctane, octane, nonane, dodecane, benzene, toluene, p-xylene, o-xylene, and mesitylene. Temperatures of the capillary column, the injection port, the GC/MS interface, the flow rates of carrier gas and make-up gas, and the injection volume were optimized by one factor at a time method or simplex optimization method. Under the optimized conditions, both peak height and peak area of 16 PAHs, especially the late-eluting PAHs, were significantly enhanced (1 to 500 times) by using relatively higher boiling point solvents such as p-xylene and nonane, compared with commonly used solvents like benzene and isooctane. With the improved sensitivity, detection limits of between 4.4 pg for naphthalene and 30.8 pg for benzo[g,h,i]perylene were obtained when p-xylene was used as an injection solvent. Effect of solvent on peak shape and peak intensity were found to be greatly dependent on temperature parameters, especially the initial temperature of the capillary column. The relationship between initial temperature and shape of peaks from 16 PAHs and 10 PCBs were studied and compared when toluene, p-xylene, isooctane, and nonane were used as injection solvents. If a too low initial temperature was used, fronting or split of peaks was observed. On the other hand, peak tailing occurred at a too high initial column temperature. The optimum initial temperature, at which both peak fronting and tailing were avoided and symmetrical peaks were obtained, depended on both solvents and the stationary phase of the column used. On a methyl silicone column, the alkane solvents provided wider optimum ranges of initial temperature than aromatic solvents did, for achieving well-shaped symmetrical GC peaks. On a 5% diphenyl: 1% vinyl: 94% dimethyl polysiloxane column, when the aromatic solvents were used, the optimum initial temperature ranges for solutes to form symmetrical peaks were improved to a similar degree as those when the alkanes were used as injection solvents. A mechanism, based on the properties of and possible interactions among the analyte, the injection solvent, and the stationary phase of the capillary column, was proposed to explain these observations. The effect of initial temperature on peak height and peak area of the 16 PAHs and the 10 PCBs was also studied. The optimum initial temperature was found to be dependent on the physical properties of the solvent used and the amount of the solvent injected. Generally, from the boiling point of the solvent to 10 0C above its boiling point was an optimum range of initial temperature at which cthe highest peak height and peak area were obtained.
    • Investigations into the determinations of hydride-forming elements

      Le, Xiao-chun.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1988-07-09)
      Analytical methods for the determination of trace amounts of germanium, tin and arsenic were established using hydride generation coupled with direct current plasma atomic emission spectrometry. A continuous gas flowing batch system for the hydride generation was investigated and was applied to the determination of germanium(Ge), tin(Sn), antimony(Sb) and lead(Pb) (Preliminary results suggest that it is also applicable to arsenic)As) ). With this system, the reproducibility of signals was improved and the determination was speeded up, compared with the conventional batch type hydride generation system. Each determination was complete within one minute. Interferences from a number of transition metal ions, especially from Pd(II), Pt(IV), Ni(II), Cu(II), Co(II), and Fe(II, III), have proven to be very serious under normal conditions, in the determination of germanium, tin, and arsenic. These interference effects were eliminated or significantly reduced in the presence of L-cystine or L-cysteine. Thus, a 10-1000 fold excess of Ni(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(II), Pt(IV), Pd(II), etc. can be tolerated without interference, In the presence of L-cystine or L-cysteine, compared with absence of interference reducing agent. The methods for the determination of Ge, Sn, and As were examined by the analyses of standard reference materials. Interference effects from the sample matrix, for example, in transition metal-rich samples, copper, iron and steel, were eliminated by L-cystine (for As and Sn) and by LI cysteine (for Ge). The analysis of a number of standard reference materials gave excellent results of As and Sn contents in agreement with the certified values, showing there was no systematic interference. The detection limits for both germanium and tin were 20 pg ml- I . Preliminary studies were carried out for the determination of antimony and lead. Antimony was found to react with NaBH4, remaInIng from the previous determinations, giving an analytical signal. A reversed injection manner, i.e., injection of the NaBH4 solution prior to the analyte solution was used to avoid uncertainty caused by residual NaBH4 present and to ensure that an excess of NaB H4 was available. A solution of 0.4% L-cysteine was found to reduce the interference from selected transition metal ions, Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pt(IV). Hydrochloric acid - hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid - ammonium persulphate, and potassium dichromate malic acid reaction systems for lead hydride generation were compared. The potassium dichromate - malic acid reaction medium proved to be the best with respect to reproducibility and minimal interference. Cu(II), Ni(II), and Fe(II) caused strong interference In lead determinations, which was not reduced by L-cysteine or Lcystine. Sodium citrate, ascorbic acid, dithizone, thiosemicarbazide and penicillamine reduced interferences to some extent. Further interference reduction studies were carried out uSIng a number of amino acids, glycine, alanine, valine, leucine and histidine, as possible interference reducing agents in the determination of germanium. From glycine, alanine, valine to leucine, the interference reduction effect in germanium determinations decreased. Histidine II was found to be very promising In the reduction of interference. In fact, histidine proved more efficient than L-cystine and L-cysteine In the reduction of interference from Ni(II) in the determination of germanium. Signal enhancement by easily ionized elements (EIEs), usually regarded as an interference effect in analysis by DCP-AES, was studied and successfully applied to advantage in improving the sensitivity and detection limit in the determination of As, Ge, Sn, Sb, and Pb. The effect of alkali and alkaline-earth elements on the determination of the above five hydride forming elements was studied. With the appropriate EIE, a signal enhancement of 40-115% was achieved. Linear calibration and good reproducibility were also obtained in the presence of EIEs. III
    • Investigations into the extraction and the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water by solid-phase extraction and capillary gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry

      Elrutb, Mohamed.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      Factors affecting the detennination of PAHs by capillary GC/MS were studied. The effect of the initial column temperature and the injection solvent on the peak areas and heights of sixteen PAHs, considered as priority pollutants, USillg crosslinked methyl silicone (DB!) and 5% diphenyl, 94% dimethyl, 1% vinyl polysiloxane (DBS) columns was examined. The possibility of using high boiling point alcohols especially butanol, pentanol, cyclopentanol, and hexanol as injection solvents was investigated. Studies were carried out to optimize the initial column temperature for each of the alcohols. It was found that the optimum initial column temperature is dependent on the solvent employed. The peak areas and heights of the PAHs are enhanced when the initial column temperature is 10-20 c above the boiling point of the solvent using DB5 column, and the same or 10 C above the boiling point of the solvent using DB1 column. Comparing the peak signals of the PAHs using the alcohols, p-xylene, n-octane, and nonane as injection solvents, hexanol gave the greatest peak areas and heights of the PAHs particularly the late-eluted peaks. The detection limits were at low pg levels, ranging from 6.0 pg for fluorene t9 83.6 pg for benzo(a)pyrene. The effect of the initial column temperature on the peak shape and the separation efficiency of the PARs was also studied using DB1 and DB5 columns. Fronting or splitting of the peaks was obseIVed at very low initial column temperature. When high initial column temperature was used, tailing of the peaks appeared. Great difference between DB! and.DB5 columns in the range of the initial column temperature in which symmetrical.peaks of PAHs can be obtained is observed. Wider ranges were shown using DB5 column. Resolution of the closely-eluted PAHs was also affected by the initial column temperature depending on the stationary phase employed. In the case of DB5, only the earlyeluted PAHs were affected; whereas, with DB1, all PAHs were affected. An analytical procedure utilizing solid phase extraction with bonded phase silica (C8) cartridges combined with GC/MS was developed to analyze PAHs in water as an alternative method to those based on the extraction with organic solvent. This simple procedure involved passing a 50 ml of spiked water sample through C8 bonded phase silica cartridges at 10 ml/min, dried by passing a gentle flow of nitrogen at 20 ml/min for 30 sec, and eluting the trapped PAHs with 500 Jll of p-xylene at 0.3 ml/min. The recoveries of PAHs were greater than 80%, with less than 10% relative standard deviations of nine determinations. No major contaminants were present that could interfere with the recognition of PAHs. It was also found that these bonded phase silica cartridges can be re-used for the extraction of PAHs from water.
    • Investigations of 2-alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines in three ladybug species and wine /

      Cudjoe, Erasmus.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2005-06-15)
      Investigations of 2-alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines (2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyra2ine, 2- secbutyl-3-methoxypyrazine and 2-isobutyl-3-niethoxypyrazine) in ladybug species {Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and wine samples have been conducted. Headspace sampling coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine amounts of 2-alkyl-3-methoxypyra2ines in the ladybug species. Hippodamia convergens had the highest amount of alkybnethoxypyrazines, followed by Harmoma axyridis and the least in Coccinella septempunctata. Using a solvent extraction method, the precoccinelline alkaloid was found present in Hippodamia convergens and Coccinella septempunctata but not Harmonia axyridis. Steam distillation followed by a soHd phase extraction method as a sample preparation technique, enhanced detection while the isotope dilution method afforded accurate quantitation of the alkyknethoxypyrazines in the wine samples. Both ladybug-tainted and commercial wine samples were found to contain the 2- alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines. Wine samples prepared in 2001 generally contained higher levels than the corresponding 2003 samples. Levels of the 2-alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines found in the commercial wines ranged from a minimum value of 6 ng/L to 260 ±10 ng/L. Analyses revealed that for both ladybug species and wine samples, the 2- isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine had the highest concentration, followed by 2-isobutyl- 3-methoxypyrazine and the least being the 2-secbutyl-3-methoxypyrazine. Possible contamination of the wine samples by ladybugs is thoroughly discussed. Furthermore, attempts to remove or reduce the levels of the alkylmethoxypyrazines with molecularly imprinted polymers from wine samples are presented in detail.
    • Investigations towards the synthesis of isotope labelled analogues of tocopherols and tocotrienols /

      Gu, Fan.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      Vitamin E is considered as the most effective lipophilic chain breaking antioxidant. a-Tocopherol and its analogues have been studied thoroughly with regards to its biokinetics and bioavailabily. Deuterated tocopherols have been synthesized and utilized in such studies. Tocotrienols are arousing more and more interest because of their high efficiency as antioxidants. However, to date, there is no effective synthetic method reported for deuterated tocotrienols. This thesis is focused on the investigation of the synthetic methods of deuterated tocotrienols and their analogues: 5-trideuteromethyl-a-tocotrienol, 5- trideuteromethyl-p-tocotrienol, tocotrienol acetate, silyl tocotrienol ether, etc. Several synthetic procedures for the preparation of poly-deuterated tocopherols are known. Mainly the deuterium is introduced by use of labelled formaldehyde and deuterated hydrogen chloride under Lewis acid catalysis. However, these methods are not effective in tocotrienols due to exchange of protons for deuterium at other sites under the acidic conditions. We developed several different approaches to generate polydeuterated tocotrienols by using both morpholinomethylation followed by reduction with NaCNBDs as deuterated reducing reagents and transmetalation strategy. The 5-trideuteromethyl-a-tocotrienol was finally obtained in a satisfactory yield of 60%. In addition, this thesis also discussed the study of structural comparison and the chemical property difference of tocopherols and tocotrienols, which provides hints to explain the reactivity difference of them towards oxidation at the C3-C4 positions.Furthermore, the methodology of halogenation and dehydrohalogenation of tocotrienol was explored to prepare a hexaene tocotrienol derivative as a florescent reporter of tocopherol.
    • Iridium(I) complexes of phenanthroline-derived benzimidazolylidenes : synthetic, structural and catalytic studies

      Du, Xiangdong.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2009-02-16)
      N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have undergone rapid development in recent years. Due to their strong a-electron donation and structural variability properties, NHCs are becoming a major class of ligands in organometallic chemistry. Compared with the other two types of NHCs (imidazolylidenes and imidazolinylidenes), benzimidazolylidenes have not been well represented. Limited synthetic approaches may impede the development ofbenzimidazolylidenes. This thesis is focused on the synthesis of phenanthroline-derived benzimidazolylidene ligands and their metal complexes. A series of benzimidazolylidene-iridium complexes were synthesized and characterized spectroscopically and crystallographic ally. All of the new complexes showed varying degrees of catalytic activity and enantioselectivity toward transfer hydrogenation and asymmetric hydrogenation. The best results were achieved in hydrogenation of methyl-2-acetamidoacrylate, which afforded (-)-(R)-methyl-2-acetamidopropanoate in 97% yield and 81 % ee.