• Continuous hydride generation in the presence of L- cysteine for the determination of arsenic, bismuth, antimony and tin in steels by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

      Chanvaivit, Sirirat.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1998-07-09)
      Arsenic, bismuth, germanium, antimony and tin were simultaneously determined by continuous hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry . I Hydrides were introduced into four different types of gas-liquid separators. Two of the gas-liquid separators were available in-house. A third was developed for this project and a fourth was based on a design used by CET AC. The best signal intensity was achieved by the type II frit-based gas-liquid separator, but the modified Cetac design gave promise for the future, due to low relative standard deviation. A method was developed for the determination of arsenic, bismuth, antimony and tin in low-alloy steels. Four standard reference materials from NIST were dissolved in 10 mL aqua regia without heat. Good agreement was obtained between experimental values and certified values for arsenic, bismuth, antimony and tin. The method was developed to provide the analyst with the opportunity to determine the analytes by using simple aqueous standards to prepare calibration lines. Within the limits of the samples analyzed, the method developed is independent of matrix.
    • The crystal and molecular structure of 18-Crown-6 HgC12 and 18-Crown-6 Cdc12

      Paige, Christopher Robin.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1982-07-09)
      Hg(18-Crown-6)C12 and Cd(18-Crown-6)C12 are isostructura1, space group Cl~ Z = 2. For the mercury compound, a = 10.444(2) A° , b = 11. 468(1) A° , c = 7.754(1) A° , a = 90.06(1)°, B = 82.20(1)°, Y = 90.07(1)°, Dobs = 1.87, Dca1c = 1.93, V = 920.05 13, R = 4.66%. For the cadmium compound, 000 a = 10.374(1) A, b = 11.419(2) A, c = 7.729(1) A, a = 89.95(1)°, B = 81.86(2)°, Y = 89.99(1)°, Dobs = 1.61, Dcalc = 1.64, V = 906.4613, R = 3.95%. The mercury and cadmium ions exhibit hexagonal bipyramidal coordination, with the metal ion located on a centre of symmetry in the plane of the oxygen atoms. The main differences between the two structures are an increase in the metal-oxygen distance and a reduction in the metalchloride distance when the central ion changes from Cd2+ to Hg2+. These differences may be explained in terms of the differences in hardness or softness of the metal ions and the donor atoms.
    • The crystal and molecular structure of bis (pyridoxamine) copper (II) dinitrate monohydrate

      Franklin, Kenneth James.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      The crystal structure of Cu(PM)2(N03hoH20 (where PM is pyridoxamine, CSHI2N202) has been determined from three dimensional x-ray diffraction data. The crystals are triclinic, space group pI, a = 14.248 (2), b = 8.568 (1), c = 9.319 (1) 1, a = 94.08 (1), e = 89.73 (1), y~~ 99.18 (1)°, z = 2, jl(MoK) = 10.90 em-I, Po = 1.61 g/cm3 and Pc = 1.61 g/em3• The structure a was solved by Patterson techniques from data collected on a Picker 4-circle diffractometer to 26max = 45°. All atoms, including hydrogens, have been located. Anisotropic thermal parameters have been refined for all nonhydrogen atoms. For the 2390 independent reflections with F ? 3cr(F) , R = 0.0408. The results presented here provide the first detailed structural information of a metal complex with PM itself. The copper atoms are located on centres of symmetry and each is chela ted by two PM zwitterions through the amino groups and phenolate oxygen atoms. The zwitterionic form found in this structure involves the loss of a proton from the phenolate group and protonation of the pyridine ring nitrogen atoms. The two independent Cu(PM)2 moieties are symmetrically bridged by a single oxygen atom from one of the nitrate groups. The second nitrate group is not coordinated to the copper atoms but is central to an extensive hydrogen bonding network involving the water molecule and uncoordinated functional groups of PM.
    • The crystal and molecular structure of thiamine hydroiodide /|nWilliam Edward Lee. -- 260 St. Catharines [Ont.] : Dept. of Chemistry, Brock University,

      Lee, William Edwards.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-07-09)
      The x-ray crystal structure of thiamine hydroiodide,C1ZH18N40S12' has been determined. The unit cell parameters are a = 13.84 ± 0.03, o b = 7.44 ± 0.01, c = 20.24 ± 0.02 A, 8 = 120.52 ± 0.07°, space group P2/c, z = 4. A total of 1445 reflections having ,2 > 2o(F2), 26 < 40° were collected on a Picker four-circle diffractometer with MoKa radiation by the 26 scan technique. The structure was solved by the heavy atom method. The iodine and sulphur atoms were refined anisotropically; only the positional parameters were refined for the hydrogen atoms. Successive least squares cycles yielded an unweighted R factor of 0.054. The site of protonation of the pyrimidine ring is the nitrogen opposite the amino group. The overall structure conforms very closely to the structures of other related thiamine compounds. The bonding surrounding the iodine atoms is distorted tetrahedral. The iodine atoms make several contacts with surrounding atoms most of them at or near the van der Waal's distances A thiaminium tetrachlorocobaltate salt was produced whose molecular and crystal structure was j~dged to be isomorphous to thiaminium tetrachlorocadmate.
    • Design and synthesis of new monoterpenoid derived ligands for asymmetric catalysis /

      Millar, Monte J.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1999-05-21)
      The work to be presented herein illustrates several important facts. First, the synthesis of BIBOL (19), a 1,4-diol derived from the monoterpene camphor has allowed us to demonstrate that oxidative dimerizations of enolates can, and do proceed with nearly complete diastereoselectivity under kinetically controlled conditions. The yield of BIBOL is now 50% on average, with a 10% yield of a second diastereomer, which is likely the result of a non-kinetic hydride reduction, thereby affording the epimeric alcohol, 20, coupled on the exo face of camphor. This implies the production of 60% of a single coupling diastereomer. No other diastereomers from the reduction were observed. The utility of BEBOL has been illustrated in early asymmetric additions of diethylzinc to aryl aldehydes, with e.e.'s as high as 25-30%. '^' To further the oxidative coupling work, the same methodology which gave rise to BIBOL was applied to the chiral pool ketone, menthone. Interestingly, this gave an excellent yield of the a-halohydrin (31), which is the result of a chlorination of menthone. This result clearly indicates the high stereoselectivity of the process regardless of the outcome, and has illustrated an interesting dichotomy between camphor and menthone. The utility of the chlorination product as a precursor other chiral ligands is currently being investigated. > ' Finally, a new series of 1,3-diols as well as a new aminoalcohol have successfully been synthesized from highly diastereoselective aldol/mannich reactions. Early studies have indicated their potential in asymmetric catalysis, while employing pi-stack interactions as a means of controlling enantioselective aldol reactions.
    • The design, synthesis and characterization of new building blocks for the preparation of molecule-based magnetic materials /

      Wang, Jian.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2007-06-29)
      Two new families of building blocks have been prepared and fully characterized and their coordination chemistry exploited for the preparation of molecule-based magnetic materials. The first class of compounds were prepared by exploiting the chemistry of 3,3'-diamino-2,2'-bipyridine together with 2-pyridine carbonyl chloride or 2-pyridine aldehyde. Two new ligands, 2,2'-bipyridine-3,3'-[2-pyridinecarboxamide] (Li, 2.3) and N'-6/s(2-pyridylmethyl) [2,2'bipyridine]-3,3'-diimine (L2, 2.7), were prepared and characterized. For ligand L4, two copper(II) coordination compounds were isolated with stoichiometrics [Cu2(Li)(hfac)2] (2.4) and [Cu(Li)Cl2] (2.5). The molecular structures of both complexes were determined by X-ray crystallography. In both complexes the ligand is in the dianionic form and coordinates the divalent Cu(II) ions via one amido and two pyridine nitrogen donor atoms. In (2.4), the coordination geometry around both Cu11 ions is best described as distorted trigonal bipyramidal where the remaining two coordination sites are satisfied by hfac counterions. In (2.5), both Cu(II) ions adopt a (4+1) distorted square pyramidal geometry. One copper forms a longer apical bond to an adjacent carbonyl oxygen atom, whereas the second copper is chelated to a neighboring Cu-Cl chloride ion to afford chloride bridged linear [Cu2(Li)Cl2]2 tetramers that run along the c-axis of the unit cell. The magnetic susceptibility data for (2.4) reveal the occurrence of weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the copper(II) ions. In contrast, variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements for (2.5) reveal more complex magnetic properties with the presence of ferromagnetic exchange between the central dimeric pair of copper atoms and weak antiferromagnetic exchange between the outer pairs of copper atoms. The Schiff-base bis-imine ligand (L2, 2.7) was found to be highly reactive; single crystals grown from dry methanol afforded compound (2.14) for which two methanol molecules had added across the imine double bond. The susceptibility of this ligand to nucleophilic attack at its imine functionality assisted via chelation to Lewis acidic metal ions adds an interesting dimension to its coordination chemistry. In this respect, a Co(II) quaterpyridine-type complex was prepared via a one-pot transformation of ligand L2 in the presence of a Lewis acidic metal salt. The rearranged complex was characterized by X-ray crystallography and a reaction mechanism for its formation has been proposed. Three additional rearranged complexes (2.13), (2.17) and (2.19) were also isolated when ligand (L2, 2.7) was reacted with transition metal ions. The molecular structures of all three complexes have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The second class of compounds that are reported in this thesis, are the two diacetyl pyridine derivatives, 4-pyridyl-2,6-diacetylpyridine (5.5) and 2,2'-6,6'-tetraacetyl-4,4'-bipyridine (5.15). Both of these compounds have been designed as intermediates for the metal templated assembly of a Schiff-base N3O2 macrocycle. From compound (5.15), a covalently tethered dimeric Mn(II) macrocyclic compound of general formula {[Mn^C^XJCl-FkO^Cl-lO.SFbO (5.16) was prepared and characterized. The X-ray analysis of (5.16) reveals that the two manganese ions assume a pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry with the macrocycle occupying the pentagonal plane and the axial positions being filled by a halide ion and a H2O molecule. Magnetic susceptibility data reveal the occurrence of antiferromagnetic interactions between covalently tethered Mn(II)-Mn(II) dimeric units. Following this methodology a Co(II) analogue (5.17) has also been prepared which is isostructural with (5.16).
    • The determination of sinigrin in Brassica, and investigations into the use of allyl-isothiocyanate as a nematicide

      Zawadzki, Michael A.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      The goal of this thesis was to study factors related to the development of Brassica juncea as a sustainable nematicide. Brassica juncea is characterized by the glycoside (glucosinolate) sinigrin. Various methods were developed for the determination of sinigrin in Brassica juncea tissue extracts. Sinigrin concentrations in plant tissues at various stages of growth were monitored. Sinigrin enzymatically breaks down into allylisothiocyanate (AITC). AITC is unstable in aqueous solution and degradation was studied in water and in soil. Finally, the toxicity of AITC against the root-lesion nematode (Pratylenchus penetrans) was determined. A method was developed to extract sinigrin from whole Brassica j uncea tissues. The optimal time of extraction wi th boiling phosphate buffer (0.7mM, pH=6.38) and methanol/water (70:30 v/v) solutions were both 25 minutes. Methanol/water extracted 13% greater amount of sinigrin than phosphate buffer solution. Degradation of sinigrin in boiling phosphate buffer solution (0.13%/minute) was similar to the loss of sinigrin during the extraction procedure. The loss of sinigrin from boiling methanol/water was estimated to be O.Ol%/minute. Brassica juncea extract clean up was accomplished by an ion-pair solid phase extraction (SPE) method. The recovery of sinigrin was 92.6% and coextractive impurities were not detected in the cleaned up extract. Several high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were developed for the determination of sinigrin. All the developed methods employed an isocratic mobile phase system wi th a low concentration of phosphate buffer solution, ammonium acetate solution or an ion-pair reagent solution. A step gradient system was also developed. The method involved preconditioning the analytical column with phosphate buffer solution and then switching the mobile phase to 100% water after sample injection.Sinigrin and benzyl-glucosinolate were both studied by HPLC particle beam negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HPLCPB- NCI-MS). Comparison of the mass spectra revealed the presence of fragments arising from the ~hioglucose moiety and glucosinolate side-chain. Variation in the slnlgrin concentration within Brassica juncea plants was studied (Domo and Cutlass cuItivars). The sinigrin concentration in the top three leaves was studied during growth of each cultivar. For Cutlass, the minimum (200~100~g/g) and maximum (1300~200~g/g) concentrations were observed at the third and seventh week after planting, respectively. For Domo, the minimum (190~70~g/g) and maximum (1100~400~g/g) concentrations were observed at the fourth and eighth week after planting, respectively. The highest sinigrin concentration was observed in flower tissues 2050±90~g/g and 2300±100~g/g for Cutlass and Domo cultivars, respectively. Physical properties of AITC were studied. The solubility of AITC in water was determined to be approximately 1290~g/ml at 24°C. An HPLC method was developed for the separation of degradation compounds from aqueous AITC sample solutions. Some of the degradation compounds identified have not been reported in the literature: allyl-thiourea, allyl-thiocyanate and diallyl-sulfide. In water, AITC degradation to' diallyl-thiourea was favored at basic pH (9.07) and degradation to diallyl-sulfide was favored at acidic pH (4 . 97). It wap necessary to amend the aqueous AITC sample solution with acetonitrile ?efore injection into the HPLC system. The acetonitrile amendment considerably improved AITC recovery and the reproducibility of the results. The half-life of aqueous AITC degradation at room temperature did not follow first-order kinetics. Beginning with a 1084~g/ml solution, the half-life was 633 hours. Wi th an ini tial AITC concentration of 335~g/ml the half-life was 865 hours. At 35°C the half-life AITC was 76+4 hours essentially independent of the iiisolution pH over the range of pH=4.97 to 9.07 (1000~g/ml). AITC degradation was also studied in soil at 35°C; after 24 hours approximately 75% of the initial AITC addition was unrecoverable by water extraction. The ECso of aqueous AITC against the root-lesion nematode (Pratylenchus penetrans) was determined to be approximately 20~g/ml at one hour exposure of the nematode to the test solution. The toxicological study was also performed with a myrosinase treated Brassica juncea extract. Myrosinase treatment of the Brassica juncea extract gave nearly quantitative conversion of sinigrin into AITC. The myrosinase treated extract was of the same efficacy as an aqueous AITC solution of equivalent concentration. The work of this thesis was focused upon understanding parameters relevant to the development of Brassica juncea as a sustainable nematicide. The broad range of experiments were undertaken in support of a research priority at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.
    • The determination of the helium discharge detector response to fixed gases

      Hishon, Michael Francis.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1984-07-09)
      The Beckman Helium Discharge Detector has been found to be sensitive to the fixed gases oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen at detection levels 10-100 times more sensitive than possible with a Bow-Mac Thermal Conductivity Detector. Detection levels o~ approximately 1.9 E-4 ~ v/v oxygen, 3.1 E-4 ~ v/v nitrogen, and 3.0 E-3 ~ v/v hydrogen are estimated. Response of the Helium Discharge Detector was not linear, but is useable for quantitation over limited ranges of concentration using suitably prepared working standards. Cleanliness of the detector discharge electrodes and purity of the helium carrier and discharge gas were found to be critical to the operation of the detector. Higher sensitivities of the Helium Discharge Detector may be possible by the design and installation of a sensitive, solid-state electrometer.
    • Development and characterization of concentric capillary nebulizer used in inductively coupled plasma analysis /

      Wang, Renjin.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2000-07-14)
      A simple, low-cost concentric capillary nebulizer (CCN) was developed and evaluated for ICP spectrometry. The CCN could be operated at sample uptake rates of 0.050-1.00 ml min'^ and under oscillating and non-oscillating conditions. Aerosol characteristics for the CCN were studied using a laser Fraunhofter diffraction analyzer. Solvent transport efficiencies and transport rates, detection limits, and short- and long-term stabilities were evaluated for the CCN with a modified cyclonic spray chamber at different sample uptake rates. The Mg II (280.2nm)/l\/lg 1(285.2nm) ratio was used for matrix effect studies. Results were compared to those with conventional nebulizers, a cross-flow nebulizer with a Scott-type spray chamber, a GemCone nebulizer with a cyclonic spray chamber, and a Meinhard TR-30-K3 concentric nebulizer with a cyclonic spray chamber. Transport efficiencies of up to 57% were obtained for the CCN. For the elements tested, short- and long-term precisions and detection limits obtained with the CCN at 0.050-0.500 ml min'^ are similar to, or better than, those obtained on the same instrument using the conventional nebulizers (at 1.0 ml min'^). The depressive and enhancement effects of easily ionizable element Na, sulfuric acid, and dodecylamine surfactant on analyte signals with the CCN are similar to, or better than, those obtained with the conventional nebulizers. However, capillary clog was observed when the sample solution with high dissolved solids was nebulized for more than 40 min. The effects of data acquisition and data processing on detection limits were studied using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The study examined the effects of different detection limit approaches, the effects of data integration modes, the effects of regression modes, the effects of the standard concentration range and the number of standards, the effects of sample uptake rate, and the effect of Integration time. All the experiments followed the same protocols. Three detection limit approaches were examined, lUPAC method, the residual standard deviation (RSD), and the signal-to-background ratio and relative standard deviation of the background (SBR-RSDB). The study demonstrated that the different approaches, the integration modes, the regression methods, and the sample uptake rates can have an effect on detection limits. The study also showed that the different approaches give different detection limits and some methods (for example, RSD) are susceptible to the quality of calibration curves. Multicomponents spectral fitting (MSF) gave the best results among these three integration modes, peak height, peak area, and MSF. Weighted least squares method showed the ability to obtain better quality calibration curves. Although an effect of the number of standards on detection limits was not observed, multiple standards are recommended because they provide more reliable calibration curves. An increase of sample uptake rate and integration time could improve detection limits. However, an improvement with increased integration time on detection limits was not observed because the auto integration mode was used.
    • Development and Investigation of the Fluorescence of Cyclopropenium Ions

      Guest, Matt; Department of Chemistry
      The work presented herein employs cyclopropenium ions as a central design element towards the goal of developing fluorescent, superbasic and boronium-substituted compounds. A novel guanidine-cyclopropenimine proton sponge with exceptional basicity is reported that was further utilized to develop a stable tetracoordinate boronium-substituted proton sponge. A large focus of this thesis was also placed on the development of the recently discovered fluorescence of cyclopropenium ions leading to a new class of small molecule organic fluorophores. Among this new platform of fluorescent compounds, a specific fluorophore featured an impressive photophysical profile that bodes well for future applications in fluorescent imaging techniques. Insight into the structure, electronics, bonding and photophysical properties of these derivatives is offered.
    • Development of a Class of Cyclopropenimine Based Compounds for Application in Catalysis

      Stoyanov, Petyo; Department of Chemistry
      The present thesis outlines our latest findings in the pursuit of novel bis(diisopropylamino)cyclopropenimine (DAC) compounds. Particular focus was placed on the synthesis and investigation of DAC-substituted proton sponges, as well as their application in organo-catalysis. Herein, we report the synthesis of a non-symmetric DAC-functionalized proton sponge coined “Janus” sponge. Theoretical and experimental investigation of this sponge provided a monoprotonated salt, without a N-HN intramolecular hydrogen bond and a relatively low freebase strain. Instead, DFT calculations and X-ray crystallography revealed the presence of a hydrogen bond to the Cl- counter ion, leading to the unprecedented ¬in-out geometry of the molecule. Furthermore, the salt of the Janus sponge was found to be highly fluorescent both in the solid state and solution. Its experimentally measured pKa of 23.8 was found to be in good agreement with the calculated value of 23.9. The use of Janus, as well as the previously synthesized DACN (a naphthalene DAC derivative) sponge in phase transfer catalysis was also explored. The DACN proton sponge was found to be a highly efficient bifunctional phase-transfer catalyst, facilitating the movement of charged intermediates from the interface to the organic layer via favourable partitioning of hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface areas.
    • The development of automated methods for the determination of trace concentrations of carbomate pesticides in water using solid sorbent pre-concentration methods and high performance liquid chromatography /

      Marvin, Christopher H.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1990-06-15)
      Several automated reversed-phase HPLC methods have been developed to determine trace concentrations of carbamate pesticides (which are of concern in Ontario environmental samples) in water by utilizing two solid sorbent extraction techniques. One of the methods is known as on-line pre-concentration'. This technique involves passing 100 milliliters of sample water through a 3 cm pre-column, packed with 5 micron ODS sorbent, at flow rates varying from 5-10 mUmin. By the use of a valve apparatus, the HPLC system is then switched to a gradient mobile phase program consisting of acetonitrile and water. The analytes, Propoxur, Carbofuran, Carbaryl, Propham, Captan, Chloropropham, Barban, and Butylate, which are pre-concentrated on the pre-column, are eluted and separated on a 25 cm C-8 analytical column and determined by UV absorption at 220 nm. The total analytical time is 60 minutes, and the pre-column can be used repeatedly for the analysis of as many as thirty samples. The method is highly sensitive as 100 percent of the analytes present in the sample can be injected into the HPLC. No breakthrough of any of the analytes was observed and the minimum detectable concentrations range from 10 to 480 ng/L. The developed method is totally automated for the analysis of one sample. When the above mobile phase is modified with a buffer solution, Aminocarb, Benomyl, and its degradation product, MBC, can also be detected along with the above pesticides with baseline resolution for all of the analytes. The method can also be easily modified to determine Benomyl and MBC both as solute and as particulate matter. By using a commercially available solid phase extraction cartridge, in lieu of a pre-column, for the extraction and concentration of analytes, a completely automated method has been developed with the aid of the Waters Millilab Workstation. Sample water is loaded at 10 mL/min through a cartridge and the concentrated analytes are eluted from the sorbent with acetonitrile. The resulting eluate is blown-down under nitrogen, made up to volume with water, and injected into the HPLC. The total analytical time is 90 minutes. Fifty percent of the analytes present in the sample can be injected into the HPLC, and recoveries for the above eight pesticides ranged from 84 to 93 percent. The minimum detectable concentrations range from 20 to 960 ng/L. The developed method is totally automated for the analysis of up to thirty consecutive samples. The method has proven to be applicable to both purer water samples as well as untreated lake water samples.
    • Development of Field-deployable Nucleic Acid Testing Platforms

      Dong, Tianyu; Department of Chemistry
      This thesis is focused on the development of field-deployable nucleic acid testing platforms to allowed rapid detection and quantification of nucleic acids. Two distinct platforms suitable for nucleic acid testing in resource-limited settings were developed. First, a paper-based diagnostic device was developed. The principle of this paper-based device was based on the unique interfacial interaction of DNA and the DNA intercalating dye with cellulose on chromatographic paper. Second, a colorimetric reader was developed. The principle of the reader was based on measuring the absorbance change of a chromogenic substrate which is triggered by DNA and DNA intercalating dyes under light illumination. The performance of both devices was tested using synthetic DNA, nucleic acid amplicons, and actual parasites nucleic acid samples collected from school-age children in rural areas of Honduras.
    • Development of thermally stable versions of the Burgess Reagent : approaches to the chemoenzymatic total synthesis of morphine

      Metcalf, Thomas A.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2011-10-14)
      The present studies describe our recent work on expanding the use of the Burgess reagent and its reaction with oxiranes. Several new variants of the Burgess reagent and its chiral auxiliary version were evaluated for their thermal stability by NMR spectroscopy. Three new versions of the reagent were synthesized and their stability was determined. The reactivity of all five Burgess reagents was compared in a dehydration reaction and reactions with epoxides and diols. Progress toward a chemoenzymatic synthesis of morphine is also included in this report. The synthesis began with the whole cell oxidation of bromobenzene by Escherichia coli JMI09(pDTG601). The preparation of several precursors for a key step involving the lohnson-Claisen rearrangement and progress toward the total synthesis are described.
    • Development of Universal Biosensing Platforms Based on CRISPR/Cas12a systems

      Li, Yongya; Department of Chemistry
      CRISPR/Cas technologies possess the promising potential to affect biosensing field by providing a sensitive, precise, rapid, versatile and cost-effective method for diverse target detections. This thesis focusses on the development of CRISP/Cas12a based biosensing platforms for nucleic acid and protein detection. Two distinct CRISPR/Cas based diagnostic methods were developed. The first developed method is a plasmonic CRISPR Cas12a assay for colorimetric detection of viral nucleic acid. This assay generates colorimetric signals for nucleic acid amplicons by combining the unique target-induced collateral cleavage activity of Cas12a with plasmon coupling of DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles. The practical applications of this assay were successfully demonstrated through the nucleic acid detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Grapevine Red-Blotch Virus (GRBV). The second developed method is a universal proximity CRISPR Cas12a assay for ultrasensitive detection of nucleic acids and proteins. The target recognition is achieved through proximity binding rather than direct CRISPR/Cas 12a recognition, allows the flexible assay design and expansion to target diverse targets. This assay was successfully adapted to detect nucleic acids and antibodies in both buffer and diluted human serum.
    • DFT Studies of the Organocatalytic Aldol Reaction and a Frustrated Lewis Pair

      Movahedi, Shahab; Department of Chemistry
      The computational study, and in particular the density functional theory (DFT) study of the organocatalytic α-chlorination-aldol reaction and the chiral backbone Frustrated Lewis Pair (FLP) system served as a valuable tool for experimental purposes. This thesis describes methods to consider different transition states of the proline- catalyzed α-chlorination aldol reaction to determine the reasonable transition state in the reaction between the enamine and α-chloro aldehydes. Moreover, the novel intramolecular Frustrated Lewis pair based on a chiral backbone for the asymmetric hydrogenation of imines and enamines was designed and the ability of hydrogen splitting by this new FLP system was examined by computational modeling and calculating the hydrogen activation energy barrier.
    • Diastereoselective Lithiation-Substitution of N-Silyl-Protected-(S)-Tetrahydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazole-3(2H)-ones and Applications of Their Derivatives

      Sadraei, Seyed Iraj; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2014-09-10)
      This thesis describes a method involving the preparation of an L-proline-derived imidazolone protected with an N-triethylsilyl group that undergoes diastereoselective lithiation followed by electrophile quench to give C5-substituted products with syn stereochemistry. The N-silylated derivatives may be more easily N-deprotected as compared to previous N-t-Bu analogues to give secondary ureas. These may serve as precursors to N-phenyl chiral bicyclic guanidines or as NHC precursors for synthesis of corresponding complexes.
    • Diastereoselective Lithiation-Substitution of N-Silyl-Protected-(S)-Tetrahydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazole-3(2H)-ones and Applications of Their Derivatives

      Sadraei, Seyed Iraj; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2014-06-25)
      This thesis describes a method involving the preparation of an L-proline-derived imidazolone protected with an N-triethylsilyl group that undergoes diastereoselective lithiation followed by electrophile quench to give C5-substituted products with syn stereochemistry. The N-silylated derivatives may be more easily N-deprotected as compared to previous N-t-Bu analogues to give secondary ureas. These may serve as precursors to N-phenyl chiral bicyclic guanidines or as NHC precursors for synthesis of corresponding complexes.
    • A dimensional analysis of the benzylic hydroxylase active site in mortierella isabellina

      Chernishenko, Michael J.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      The spatial limits of the active site in the benzylic hydroxylase enzyme of the fungus Mortierella isabellina were investigated. Several molecular probes were used in incubation experiments to determine the acceptability of each compound by this enzyme. The yields of benzylic alcohols provided information on the acceptability of the particular compound into the active site, and the enantiomeric excess values provided information on the "fit" of acceptable substrates. Measurements of the molecular models were made using Cambridge Scientific Computing Inc. CSC Chem 3D Plus modeling program. i The dimensional limits of the aromatic binding pocket of the benzylic hydroxylase were tested using suitably substituted ethyl benzenes. Both the depth (para substituted substrates) and width (ortho and meta substituted substrates) of this region were investigated, with results demonstrating absolute spatial limits in both directions in the plane of the aromatic ring of 7.3 Angstroms for the depth and 7.1 Angstroms for the width. A minimum requirement for the height of this region has also been established at 6.2 Angstroms. The region containing the active oxygen species was also investigated, using a series of alkylphenylmethanes and fused ring systems in indan, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene and benzocycloheptene substrates. A maximum distance of 6.9 Angstroms (including the 1.5 Angstroms from the phenyl substituent to the active center of the heme prosthetic group of the enzyme) has been established extending directly in ii front of the aromatic binding pocket. The other dimensions in this region of the benzylic hydroxylase active site will require further investigation to establish maximum allowable values. An explanation of the stereochemical distributions in the obtained products has also been put forth that correlates well with the experimental observations.
    • DNA Walkers: Emerging Analytical Applications, Biomolecular-Nanomaterial Probes and Biomolecule Sensors

      Mason, Sean; Department of Chemistry
      DNA walkers are a unique class of dynamic DNA devices that move nucleic acid walkers processively along designated one-, two-, or three-dimensional tracks. Because of the unique mechanical motion, dynamic interaction, and capabilities for signal amplification, programmable signal transduction, high directionality, and predictable analytical performance on the basis of Watson-Crick base paring rules, this class of dynamic DNA nanodevice has gained great attention from the analytical community in the recent years. This includes bioanalytical applications that range from nucleic acid sensing, to protein detection and to cellular imaging and analysis. The research described herein focuses on improving the understanding of biophysical processes involved in the design and operation of DNA walkers. Specifically, we developed a series of stochastic DNA walkers capable of probing dynamic interactions occurring at the biomolecule-nanoparticle (bio-nano) interface. By monitoring dynamics of DNA walkers on spherical nucleic acid (SNA) tracks, we systematically investigated effects of varying interfacial factors, including intramolecular interactions, orientation, cooperativity, steric effect, multivalence, and binding hindrance on enzymatic activities at the bio-nano interface. Leveraging the newly gained knowledge at the interface, we also fabricated ultrasensitive biosensors for amplified detection of nucleic acids and antibodies. Our study revealed critical roles of interfacial factors to enzyme activities and performance of enzyme-driven nanodevices. We also demonstrate that improvement in understanding bio-nano interfaces will facilitate the design and operation of biosensors and inspire new sensing mechanisms.