• The preparation and reactions of some 1, 2-dipolar species /|nI. D. Brindle. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Brindle, Ian. D.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-07-09)
      This research was directed mainly towards the investigation of the reactions of allylic amineimides. The work can be divided into two main sections. Section 1 of the thesis deals mainly with thermolysis studies of amineimides. Sections 1a and 1b represent a comprehensive survey of amineimide literature up to 1971. N-A1ly1-N,N-dirnethylarnine-benzirnide was prepared and rearranged at 1400 to l-allyl-1-benzoyl-2,2-dimethylhydrazine. A tentative mechanism involving an initial migration to the carbonyl oxygen was disproved by incorporating the amineimide system into a five-membered ring. N,N~Dimethyl-N-propargylamine-benzimidedid not rearrange on heating; but the hydrobromide, on heating, disproportionated to give 1-benzoyl~2,2,2-trimethylhydraziniumbromide and I-benzoyl-2,2~ dimethylhydrazine. l-Ally'l--l, I-dimethyl-2-benzoy-lhydrazinium bromide and 1~benzoy-1-2,2, 2-trimethy-lhydrazinium iodide both disproportionated to give l~benzoyl-2,2-dimethylhydrazine. Section 1 concludes with a discussion of the mechanisms of ally'lic migrations in amineimides proposed by J. E. Baldwin. Section 2 deals with the formation of five-membered heterocyclic compounds from amineimides by bromination. 1,1-Dimethyl-2benzoyl- 4-bromopyrazolidinium bromide was formed from N-allyl-N,Ndime thy-lamtne-benzimide , 1,1-dimethyl-2-benzoyl-4-bromopyrazol-3enium bromide from N,N~dimethyl-N-propargylamine~benzimidevia the unusual acetylenic "bromonium" ion. Hydrogenolysis of both heterocyclic compounds gave the same product. The preparation was extended by forming 2,2-dimethyl-4-bromoisoxazolinium bromide from N-allylN, N-dimethylamine-N-oxide. Sections 3 and 4 cover a number of unsuccessful attempts to synthesise other amineimides and l,2-dipolar species.
    • Attempted asymmetric synthesis of Lactobacillic acid / |nFawzy F. Z. Georges. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Georges, Fawzy Fayez Zaky.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1973-07-09)
      This research work has been planned with the intention of proving the absolute configuration of lactobacillc acid. During the course of this work, attempts have been made to synthesize cis-2-carboxycyclopropane- l-.acetic acid as,v,a suitable resolvable material. As the results were not satisfactory, the synthesis of ci,s-2-carboxycyclopropane-l-propionic acid has been alternatively attempted by ring opening of bicyclo- [4.1.~-heptan-2-onewithout much success. Attempts to resolve or prepare bicyclo[ 4.1.~-hePtan-2-one optically active are also reported. On the other hand, a complete scheme is described for the possible synthesis of optically active lactobacillic acid. If only bicyclo- ~.1.~ -heptan-2-one can be resolved or prepared optically active, this described scheme can be applied smoothly to the synthesis of enant~omeric lactobacillic acid.
    • Miniature Wulff-type generator for improving feed to fuel cells /|nT.-S. Tan. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Tan, T. S.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1973-07-09)
      The original objective of this work was to provide a simple generator w.hich would produce hydrogen torLfuel-cell feed and which could be operated under remote or northern conditions. A secondary objective was to maximize the yield of hydrogen and carbon monoxide from available feed-stocks. A search of the patent literature has indicated that the concept of a small Wulff-type generator is essentially sound and that hydrogen may be recovered from a wide variety of hydrocarbon feed-stocks. A simple experimental set-up has been devised, patterned after ~~t originally used by R. G. Wulff for producing acetylene. This provides a supply of feed-stock, with or Without a carrier gas, which may be passed directly through a heated tube, which may contain a catalyst. A suitable procedure has been devised for analysi~ effluent gases for hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, methane and carbon monoxide by gas chromatography with the column packed with .Molecular .:>ieve .5 4. Athanol with air a.s carrier gas and at the same time as oxidant o was thermolyzed at temperatures in the ra~e 700-1100 C, with or Wi~lout catalyst. Methanol with or without nitrogen as a carrier gas was also cracked with • the same type of reactor refractory tube, but the temperature range was lower t down to ,300 " C when a catalyst was used. The problems of converting methane to hydrogen and carbon monoxide effiCiently, using air and/or water as oxidants were also studied.
    • Reactions of some non-enolisable chloroketones with amide ion and a new synthesis of acridones /|nGuo-shyoung John Chen. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Chen, John Guo-shyoung.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1973-07-09)
      This research was directed mainly towards the investigation of the reacti.ons of· substituted chlorobenziophenones under strongly basi,c conditions. The work 'can be divided into two main sections. The Introduction deals mainly with historical studies on aryne chemistry and the Haller-Bauer reaction. Secti.on I i.s concerned with syntheses of 2-benzamido-2'chlorobenzophenone and 2-benzamido~3'-chlorobenzophenone,and with thei,r respective reactions wi.th potassium amide in ammonia. o-Chlorophenylacetic acid was converted to the acid chloride and then by Friedel-Craftsreaction with benzene to w-(o-chlorophenyl)acetophenone. Reaction wi.th phenylhydrazine and Fischer cyclization gave 3- (0chlorophenyl)- 2-phenylindole, which was ozonized to 2-benzamido-2'chlorobenzophenone. The isomeric 3' -chlor,..o ke: tone was similarly synthesised from m-chlorophenylacetic acid. Both the 2'- and 3' -ch.loroketones gave N-benzoylacridone on treatment with potassium amide in ammonia; an aryne mechanism is involved for the 3'-chloroketone but aryne and nucleophilic substitution mechanisms are possible for the 2'-chloroketone. Hydrolysis of the 2'- and 3'-chloroketones gave 2-amino-2'chlorobenzophenone and 2-amino-3'-chlorobenzophenone respectively. A second new acridone synthesis is given in the Appendix involving reactions of these two ketones with potassium t-butoxide in t-butylbenzene. i Section 2 deals with the investigation of the reaction of some tricyclic ch1orobenzophenones with potassium amide in liquid ammonia. These were 1-ch1orof1uorenone; which was pr~pared in several steps from f1uoranthene, and 1- and 2-ch1oroanthraquinones. 1-Ch1orof1uorenone gave 1-aminof1uorenone ; 1-ch1oroanthraquinone gave 1- and 2-aminoanthraquinones; 2-ch1oroanthraquinone was largely recovered from the attempted reaction.
    • The kinetics and mechanism of the thermal decomposition of bis diphenyl methyl and related peroxides in liquid phase /|nby C. Thankachan. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Thankachan, C.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1973-07-09)
      Rates and products have been determined for the thermal decomposition of bis diphenyl methyl peroxide and diphenyl methyl tert* butyl peroxide at 110@~145@C* The decomposition was uniformly unimolecular with activation energies for the bis diphenyl methyl peroxide in tetrachloroethylene* toluene and nitrobenzene 26,6* 28*3f and 27 Kcals/mole respectively. Diphenyl methyl tert* butyl peroxide showed an activation energy of 38*6 Kcals/mole* About 80-90% of the products in the case of diphenyl methyl peroxide could be explained by the concerted process, this coupled with the negative entropies of activation obtained is a conclusive evidence for the reaction adopting a major concerted path* All the products in the case of diphenyl methyl peroxide could be explained by known reactions of alkoxy radicals* About 80-85% of tert butanol and benzophenone formed suggested far greater cage disproportionation than diffusing apart* Rates of bis triphenyl methyl peroxide have been determined in tetrachloroethylene at 100-120@C* The activation energy was found to be 31 Kcals/mole*
    • An anharmonic contribution to the Helmholtz free energy O(lambda 6)

      Gad El-Rab, Shenouda; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1973-10-02)
      The anharmonic contributions of order A6 to the Helmholtz free energy for a crystal in which every atom is on a site of inversion symmetry, have been evaluated The cor~esponding diagrams in the various orders of the perturbation theory have been presented The validity of the expressions given is for high temperatures. Numerical calculations for the diagrams which contribute to the free energy have been worked out for a nearest-n~ighbour central-force model of a facecentered cubic lattice in the high-temperature limit and in the leading term and the Ludwig approximations. The accuracy of the Ludwig approximation in evaluating the Brillouin-zone sums has been investigated. Expansion for all diagrams in the high-temperature limit has been carried out The contribution to the specific heat involves a linear as well as cubic term~ We have applied Lennard-Jones, Morse and Exponential 6 types of potentials. A comparison between the contribution to the free energy of order A6 to that of order A4 has been made.
    • A study of thermal decompositions of an allylic hydroperoxide /|nby Thomas A. McCarrick. -- 260 St. Catharines [Ont.] : Dept. of Chemistry, Brock University,

      McCarrick, Thomas A.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1974-07-09)
      The thermal decomposition of 2,3-di~ethy l - J-hydr operox y- 1 - butene , p r epared f rol") singl e t oxygen, has been studied i n three solvents over the tempe r a ture r ange from 1500e to l o00e and t!1e i 111 t ial ~oncentrfttl nn r Ange from O. 01 M to 0.2 M. Analys i s of the kine tic data ind ica te s i nduced homolysis as the n ost probRble mode of d e composition, g iving rise to a 3/2 f S order dependence upon hy d.roperoxide concent :r8.tl on . Experimental activation e nergies for the decomposition were f ound to be between 29.5 kcsl./raole and 30.0 k cal./mole .• \,iith log A factors between 11 . 3 and 12.3. Product studies were conducted in R variety of solvents a s well as in the pr esence of a variety of free r adical initiators . Investigation of the kinetic ch a in length indicated a chain length of about fifty. A degenerat i ve chain branching mechanism 1s proposed which predicts the multi t ude of products which Rre observed e xperimentally as well as giving activation energies and log A factors si~il a r to those found experimentally .
    • Residues in soils : a gas chromatography - mass spectrometry study

      Singh, Jaspal.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1974-10-02)
      Combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry has been used to identify unknown residues in soils (especially pesticides). The effect of U.V. light on DDT and linuron and quantitative estimation of elemental sulfur in different soils has also been carried out.
    • Reactions of various aromatic nitro-compounds and anthraquinones with selected bases and nucleophiles

      Kaldas, Magdy Labib.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1974-10-02)
      The Introducti on deals mainly with hi storical studies on aryne chemi stry and ring closure via arynes , hydride replacement from aromatic rings by nucleophi les, c l eavage of anthr aquinones in basic medium and the Leuckart reaction . This work can be divided into two main s ect i ons. Section I is concerned with the investigation of t he reaction of some aromatic ni t ro-compounds with potassamide in l iquid ammonia. 3-Amino-4- nitrobenzophenone was obtained from the reacti on of 4-nitrobenzophenone with t his reagent, toge t her with benzoic acid formed in a competing Haller-Bauer reaction. Nitrobenzene under these conditions gave a complex mixture from which 2-phenylphenol was isolated; a reaction i nvolving benzyne may be i nvo l ved. 4-Nitrodiphenyl sulfone gave 4-aminodiphenyl sulfone and 4-nitroani l ine. 4-Ethoxydiphenyl sulfone and 4-ethoxynitrobenzene were isolated when ethanol was used as a co-solvent in the reaction. Oxidative coupling reactions were observed with nitrotoluenes. 4-Nitrotoluene gave 4,4t-dinitrobibenzyl which i n a pro longed reaction gave 4,4t-dinitros t ilbene . 2-Nitrotoluene gave 2 , 2 t-dinitrobibenzyl, but not the corresponding stilbene derivative even after a longer time . A rather i nteresting result was obtained with 1-nitro-2,4,6- trimethylbenzene which gave a stilbene derivative only. Also the corresponding stilbene was obtained from bis-(4-nitrophenyl)-methane in a rather slow r eaction with this reagent . Section II deals wi th (i) the preparation of 5-chloro- 1-N-methyl aminoanthraquinone and a new synthesis of N-methyl acridones and (ii) treatment of chloro-anthraquinones with fo rmamide and a new synthesis of chloro-anthracenes . 5-Chloro-1 -N-methylaminoanthraqui none was synthesised f rom 1,5-dichloroanthraquinone by treatment with N-methylformamide. Treatment of 5-chloro-1-N-methylaminoanthraquinone with potassamide in liquid ammonia or with potassium t-butoxide i n t-butylbenzene gave N-methylacridone-1-carboxylic acid. This pleasing result, t he outcome of r i ng opening and alter native ring closure, is being extended to related ring systems.
    • An analysis of the photoelectron and Rydberg states of formaldehyde /|nby Carol R. Lessard. -- 260 St. Catharines [Ont.] : Dept. of Chemistry, Brock University,

      Lessard, Carol R.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-07-09)
      Although it is generally accepted that Rydberg orbitals are very large and diffuse, and that electron promotion to a Rydberg orbital is not too different from ionization of the molecule, analysis of the two types of transitions proves otherwise. The photoelectron spectrum of the 2B2 (n) ion has very little vibrational structure attached to the origin band; on the other hand, several of the Rydberg transitions which involve the promotion of the n(bZ) electron exhibit a great deal of vibrational activity. In particular, the members of the n=3 Rydberg\ series interact with and perturb each other through pseudo-Jahn-Teller vibronic coupling. The vacuum ultraviolet spectrum contains a number of features which are difficult to explain, and two unusually sharp bands can only be identified as representing some form of electron promotion in formaldehyde.
    • Reduced local energy calculations on X¹Sigmaâ ½gHâ and 1¹S He /|nGerald F. Thomas. -- 260 St. Catharines [Ont.] : Dept. of Chemistry, Brock University,

      Thomas, G. F.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-07-09)
      The one-electron reduced local energy function, t ~ , is introduced and has the property < tL)=(~>. It is suggested that the accuracy of SL reflects the local accuracy of an approximate wavefunction. We establish that <~~>~ <~2,> and present a bound formula, E~ , which is such that where Ew is Weinstein's lower bound formula to the ground state. The nature of the bound is not guaranteed but for sufficiently accurate wavefunctions it will yield a lower bound. ,-+ 1'S I I Applications to X LW Hz. and ne are presented.
    • The crystal and molecular structure of thiamine hydroiodide /|nWilliam Edward Lee. -- 260 St. Catharines [Ont.] : Dept. of Chemistry, Brock University,

      Lee, William Edwards.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-07-09)
      The x-ray crystal structure of thiamine hydroiodide,C1ZH18N40S12' has been determined. The unit cell parameters are a = 13.84 ± 0.03, o b = 7.44 ± 0.01, c = 20.24 ± 0.02 A, 8 = 120.52 ± 0.07°, space group P2/c, z = 4. A total of 1445 reflections having ,2 > 2o(F2), 26 < 40° were collected on a Picker four-circle diffractometer with MoKa radiation by the 26 scan technique. The structure was solved by the heavy atom method. The iodine and sulphur atoms were refined anisotropically; only the positional parameters were refined for the hydrogen atoms. Successive least squares cycles yielded an unweighted R factor of 0.054. The site of protonation of the pyrimidine ring is the nitrogen opposite the amino group. The overall structure conforms very closely to the structures of other related thiamine compounds. The bonding surrounding the iodine atoms is distorted tetrahedral. The iodine atoms make several contacts with surrounding atoms most of them at or near the van der Waal's distances A thiaminium tetrachlorocobaltate salt was produced whose molecular and crystal structure was j~dged to be isomorphous to thiaminium tetrachlorocadmate.
    • A G. C./M. S. study of the reaction and decomposition products of pentafluorophenyl-grignard and lithium reagents

      Lin, Sechoing.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-10-02)
      Decomposition and side reactions of, and the synthetic use of, pentafluorophenylmagnesium bromide and pentafluorophenyllithium have been investigated using G,C9/M.S, techniques• Their reactions with reagents such as CgF^X (X - H, F, CI, Br, 1), C6F4X2 (X - H, CI)f C6F3C13, C6H6. (CgX5)3P (X = H, F), (C6X5)3P=0 (X = H, F), (CgX5)Si (CH3)3 (X = H, F) and (CH0K SiCl , n = 1,2, in ether or ether/n-hexane were studied• In addition to the principal reaction of synthetic use, namely the replacement of a halogen by a pentafluorophenyl group, two types of side reactions were observed* These were (i) intermolecular loss of LiF via a nucleophilic substitution, and (ii) intramolecular loss of LiF, followed by the addition of either inorganic salts such as lithium or magnesium halides, or organometal compounds such as organolithium or organo-Grigaard* G.C«/M.S. techniques were routinely employed to study complicated reaction mixtures. Although mass spectrometry alone has disadvantages for the identification of isomers, deduction of the most probable pathway often helps overcome this problem.
    • Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of boron trihalide complexes of 1,1-BIS (dimethylamino) ethylene and related bases

      Yetman, Ronald R.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-10-02)
      Boron tribalide complexes of 1,1-bis(dimethylamino)ethylene (DME) , t etramethylurea (TMU), tetramethylguanidine (TMG) , and pentamethylguanidine (PMG) and also mixed boron t r ihalide adducts of DME have been investigated by 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopy. Both nitrogen and the C-Q-H carbon of DME are possible donor a toms to boron trihal ides but complexation has been found to occur only at carbon of DME. The initial adduct acts as a Bronsted acid and gives up a proton to free DME in solut ion. A side reaction in the DME-BF, system gives rise to trace amounts of a complex aSSigned as (DME)2BF2+. (DME)2BF2+ is produced in much larger quantities in t he DME-BF3-BC13 and DME-BF,-BBr, systems by reaction of free DME with DME:BF2X (X = Cl, Br). Restricted r otation about the C-N bonds of TMUlBC13 and n1U:BBr3 has been observed at low temperatures. This complements previous work in this system and confirms oxygen donation of TMU to boron trihalides . Restricted rotation at low temperatures also has been observed in DMEboron trihalide systems
    • Studies in the mass spectra of perfluoroaromatic derivatives of phosphorus and some selected transition metals

      Jones, Timothy R. B.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-10-02)
      The mass spectra and fragmentation of a variety of fluoroaromatic compounds of Group V and some selected transition elements are discussed in some detail, aided by data from metastable defocussed experiments. Results of ,studies on the coupling reaction using unstable organotitanium chloride intermediate species are reported. The preparation of some 5-substituted octafluorodibenzophospho1es is also discussed. Rearrangements under electron bombardment resulting in the loss of heteroatom-fluoride fragments are discussed in the light of presently accepted mechanisms for these processes as are rearrangements observed in compounds involving thionophosphoryl bonds ( p=s ).
    • The kinetics and solvent effects on the thermal decomposition of isopropyl peroxide and 1, 2-dioxane

      Rahimi, P. Mashhadi.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-10-02)
      Rates of H2 formation have been determined for the thermal decomposition of isopropyl peroxide at l30o-l50oC in toluene and methanol and at l400C in isopropyl alcohol and water. Product studies have been carried out at l400C in these solvents. The decomposition of isopropyl peroxide was shown to be unimolecular with energies of activation in toluene, and methanol of 39.1, 23.08 Kcal/mole respectively. It has been shown that the rates of H2 formation in decomposition of isopropyl peroxide are solvent dependent and that the ~ vs "'2';' values (parameters for solvent polarity) givesastraight line. Mechanisms for hydrogen production are discussed which satisfactorily explain the stabilization of the six-centered transition state by the solvent. One possibility is that of conformation stabilization by solvent and the other, a transition state with sufficient ionic character to be stabilized by a polar solvent. Rates of thermal decomposition of 1,2-dioxane in tert-butylbenzene at l40o-l70oC have been determined. The activation energy was found to be 33.4 Kcal/mole. This lower activation energy, compared to that for the decomposition of isopropyl peroxide in toluene (39.1 Kcal/mole) has been explained in terms of ring strain. Decomposition of 1,2 dioxane in MeOH does not follow a first order reaction. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the products observed for decomposition of 1;2-dioxane in toluene and methanol.
    • The mechanism of formation of the mixed boron trihalide adducts of trimenthylamine

      Benton-Jones, B. W.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-10-02)
      Boron trihalide and mixed boron trihalide adducts of trimethylamine have been prepared, and characterized by proton and fluorine N.M.R. spectroscopy. The acceptor power of the boron trihalides was seen to increase in the order BF3 < BC13 < BBr3 < BI3, corroborating previous evidence. The mixed boron trihalides had intermediate Lewis acidities. Solution reactions between adducts and free boron trihalides rapidly led to the formation of mixed adducts when the free boron trihalide is a stronger Lewis acid than that in the adduct. A slower reaction is observed when the free BX3 is a weaker Lewis aoid than that complexed. The mechanism of halogen exchange leading to the mixed (CH3)3NBX3 adducts was investigated. 10B labelling experiments precluded B-N bond rupture as a possible mechanism in solution; results are discussed in terms of halogen-bridged intermediates. Pre-ionization may be important for some systems. At higher temperatures, during gas phase reactions,B-N coordinate bond rupture may be the initial step of reaction. Two mixed adduots, namely (CH3)3NBClBr2 and (CH3)3NBHOIBr were prepared and characterized by Mass Spectrometry
    • The kinetics and induced decomposition on the thermal decomposition of hydroperoxides /

      Tse, K. M.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1976-06-09)
      This project is focussed on the thermsLl decomposition of t-butyl hydroperoxide and sec-butyl hydroperoxide at 120°C to 160°C in three alcohol solvents. These are methanol, ethajiol and isopropyl alcohol. The aim of the project was to examine the process of induced decomposition. Thermal decomposition of t-hutyl hydroperoxide and sec-butyl hydroperoxide indicate that these reactions have first-order kinetics with activation energies on the order of 20 to 28 K cal/mole, Styrene was used as a free radical trap to inhibit the induced decomposition. The results permitted calculation of how much induced decomposition occurred in its absence. The experimental resvilts indicate that the induced decomposition is important for t-butyl hydroperoxide in alcohol solvents, as shown by both the reaction rate suid product studies. But sec-butyl hydroperoxide results show that the concerted mechanism for the interaction of two sec-butylperoxy radicals occurs in addition to the induced decomposition. Di-sodium E.D,T.A. was added to reduce possible effects of trace transition metal ion .impurities. The result of this experiment were not as expected. The rate of hydroperoxide decomposition was about the same but was zero-order in hydroperoxide concentration.
    • A study of the thermal decomposition of allyl t-butyl peroxide and 3-hydroperoxy-1-propene (allyl hydroperoxide) in toluene /|nby Krishnankutty Nair V. G. -- 260 St. Catharines [Ont. : s. n.],

      Nair, Krishnankutty V. G.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1976-07-09)
      Kinetics and product studies of the decompositions of allyl-t-butyl peroxide and 3-hydroperoxy- l-propene (allyl hydroperoxide ) in tolune were investigated. Decompositions of allyl-t-butyl peroxide in toluene at 130-1600 followed first order kinetics with an activation energy of 32.8 K.cals/mol and a log A factor of 13.65. The rates of decomposition were lowered in presence of the radical trap~methyl styrene. By the radical trap method, the induced decomposition at 1300 is shown to be 12.5%. From the yield of 4-phenyl-l,2- epoxy butane the major path of induced decomposition is shown to be via an addition mechanism. On the other hand, di-t-butYl peroxyoxalate induced decomposition of this peroxide at 600 proceeded by an abstraction mechanism. Induced decomposition of peroxides and hydroperoxides containing the allyl system is proposed to occur mainly through an addition mechanism at these higher temperatures. Allyl hydroperoxide in toluene at 165-1850 decomposes following 3/2 order kinetics with an Ea of 30.2 K.cals per mole and log A of 10.6. Enormous production of radicals through chain branching may explain these relatively low values of E and log A. The complexity of the reaction is indicated a by the formation of various products of the decomposition. A study of the radical attack of the hydro peroxide at lower temperatures is suggested as a further work to throw more light on the nature of decomposition of this hydroperoxide.
    • Electrical properties of some single crystal dodecaborides /|nby Jyoti Burte. -- 260 St. Catharines [Ont. : s. n.],

      Burte, Jyoti.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1976-07-09)
      PreVi011.3 ':i or~ : indicat e('. tk~t ho t~)rE's sed ~-Al B 12 1i~2, ~' a semiconductor. r:Toreove r , the s i mpl.(~ electronic t heory also indi cates that ~ -AIB1 2 should be a semico nductor, since thf're is one nonbonding e 'Le ctrofl per AlB12- uni t. JPor these reasons, we decided to measure t he electrical n ropert i ~ s of ~ -AlB1 2 single crystal s . Singl e crystal s of¥- AIB 12 ab ou t 1 x 1 r1n1 . size were grown from a copper mel t at 12500 C. The melt technique coupled. 1,vi th slow cooling vilas used because of i ts advantages such as : siTYInle set- up of the expe rimon t ; only e ;l.sil y available c hemi cals are required and it i s a c omparatively strair::bt forvvard y,le t hod still yielding crystal s big enouGh for OtU' purpose . Copper rms used as a solvent , i nst8ad of previOl.wly used aluminum , because it allows c.l.'ystal growth at hig he r t emneratures. HovlGver, the cry s tals of ] -AlB12 shm'red very hi gh res i s t ance a t r oom temperature . From our neasureJ'lents we conclude that the r esistivity of j3- Al B12 is, at least, given as ~ = 4. x 107 oblD .em •• Those results are inc ons i s t ent wi 'uh the ones .. reported by IIiss Khin fo r bot- pressed j3-AlB12 g i ven a s = 7600 ohm . em . or I e s s . ' Since tbe hot pressing was done at about 800 - ' 9000C i n ~ rap hi te moul ds 1,7i th 97% AlB12- p oVJder, vie thi nk there is pas s ib i 1 i ty th a.t lower borides or borot] carbide are , being formed, ':.Jhich are k11 own to be good semiconductors . v7e tried to ro-pe r-AlB12 by addi'J,'?: agents s uch as l:Ig , IG.-InO 4. ' HgS04 , KI12PO 4·' etc. to t he melt .. However , all these re age 11 t eel either reduced the yield and size of t lJe crystals or r;ave crystals of high r esis'can ce again. We think tba t molten copper keeps t he i mpurities off . There is also a pos s i bil i ty t hc:!,t these doping agents get oxidi~::;ed at '1 250°C • Hence, we co ~ clud e that J -AIB12 has v~ ry high r es i stance at r oom temperature . This was a l s o C011 - fi rmed by checki ng the siYlgle and. polycrystals of .~-AIB12 from Norton Co., Ontario and Cooper Nletallurgical Association. Boron carbide has been reported to be a semiconductor with ~ - 0.3 to 0.8 ohm . cm. for hotpres sed s araples. Boron carbide b e inq: struct urally related to ¥-AIB12 , we de cided to study the electrical prone rties of it~ Single crystals. These crystals were cut from a Single melt grovvn crystal a t Norton Co., Ontario. The resistivity of th," se crystal s was measured by the Van der Pam-v' s ~ nethod, which \vas very c onvenient fo r our crystal sha-pp.s. Some of the crystals showed resistivity ~ == 0.50 ob,Tn.cr] . i n agreement with the previously reported results . However , a few crystals showed lower resistivity e.g . 0 .13 and 0.20 ohm.cra • • The Hall mobility could .not be measured and th8reiore i s lower than 0 .16 em 2 v - 1 sec -1 • This is in agreement \vith t he re1)orted Hall mobility for pyrolytic boron . _ 2 -1 -1 carbide as 0.13 cm v sec • We also studied the orientation of the boron carbide crystals by the Jjaue-method. The inclination of c-axis with res pect to x-ray be81Il was det ermined . This was found to be 100 t o 20° f or normal resistivity sarnples (0.5 ohm . cm.) and 27 - 30° for t he lower r esistivity samples (0.1 ~5 to 0.20 ohm.cm .). This indica tes the possibility that th.e r es if.1tivity of B13C3 i s orientation dependent.