• Aryl hydroxamic acid analogues as potential therapeutic agents /

      Tays, Kevin.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      A new synthetic pathway to analogues of the aglucones of naturally occurring cyclic hydroxamic acids (2,4-dihydroxy-l,4-benzoxazin-3-ones) has been developed. The new pathway involves the coupling of substituted nitrophenols wdth /-propyl-abromo- O-methoxymethylglycolate. These materials were reductively cyclised to reveal the hydroxamic acid functionality. Removal of the C-2 0-methoxymethyl protecting group was achieved chemoselectively using boron trichloride. The analogue 7-methoxy-2,4-dihydroxy-l,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) was assayed with papain and a semilog plot of activity of papain in the presence of excess DIMBOA was found to be linear. A single exponential equation was suggested as the model for kinetic analysis. '^ Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of a couple of hydroxamates were acquired as reference standards for future mechanistic studies of these compounds as thiol protease inhibitors. A 10% '^-labeled sample ofDIMBOA was also prepared for future mechanistic studies using NMR techniques.
    • An aryne route to aporphine alkaloids and related topics / |nIjaz Ahmad Chanda. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Chanda, Ijaz Ahmad.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-07-09)
      This research was directed towards the investigation and development of an aryne route to the syntheses of aporphi ne and dibenzopyrrocolinium (dibenzoindolizinium) alkaloids and to the stability of the latter under the conditions used for aryne formation. The work c an be divided into three main sections . i) - Synthesis of Glaucine 6-Bromo-3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetic acid, prepared by the action of bromine i n acetic acid on3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetic a cid, was converted into its acid chloride by t he action of thionyl chloride. This on treatment with 3,4- dimethoxyphenylethylamine pr ovided N-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenylethyl)- 2-(2-bromo-4,S-dimethoxyphenyl)-acetamide which on dehydration with phosphoryl chloride (Bischler Napieralski reaction) in dry benzene afforded l -(2-bromo-4,S-dimethoxybenzyl)- 3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline, isolated as hydrochl oride. A new method o f destroying the excess of phosphoryl chloride was developed which proved to be quite useful. Methylation of the dihydroisoquinoline'with methyl iodide in methanol , and subsequent reduction with sodium borohydride provided (±)-6-bromolaudanosine. Act ion of potassamide or sodamide in anhydrous liquid ammonia on (±)-6-bromolaudanosine yielded the corresponding amino derivative along with other products. Diazotization and ring closure of (±)-6-aminolaudanosine then a f forded (±)-glaucine which was isolated as methiodide. ii) - Intramolecular Capture of Aryne During Glaucine Synthesis, and Subsequent Reactions . This section deals with the by-products formed under the conditions of the aryne stage of t he glaucine synthesis. The crude product, obtained in the reaction of potassamide or sodamide in liquid ammonia on (±)-6-bromolaudanosine, was s eparated by chromatography, Three products were separated and identified. a ) - 5,6-Dimethoxy-2-( 3,4-dimethoxy-6-ethylphenyl)-lmethylindole. Two mechanisms are proposed for the formation of this interesting product. This compound also was prepared by the action of potassamide in l,iquid ammonia on 5,6 ,l2,l2atetrahydro- 2,3,9,lO-tetramethoxy-7-methyldibenz[b,g]indolizinium i odide . b) - 5,6-Dimethoxy-2-(3,4-dimethoxy-6-vinylphenyl)-lmethylindoline. Its formation represented a new method of Hofmann degradation . Further confirmation of structure was done by performing the normal Hofmann reaction on 5, 6,12,12a-tetrahydro -2/3,9,lO-tetramethoxy ~7-methyldibe nz[ b,g]indolizinium iodide. The indoline prepared i n this way was identical in all respects with that prepared above . c) - 1- (2-amino-4,5-dimethoxybenzyl ) -l,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2- methyl-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline, was converted t o glaucine as stated in section 1 . iii) - Attempt:,ed Sxnthesis of Liriodenine Piperonal was converted into 3,4-methylenedioxyinitrostyrene which on reduction with lithium aluminium hydride provided 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylethylamine. The method of extraction after the reduction was improved t o some extent. The amine on condensation with m-chlorophenylacetyl chloride, prepared by the action of oxalyl chloride on 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylacetic acid, provided N-[ ~ -(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)- e thyl)-3-chlorophenylacetamide. This on dehydration with phosphoryl chloride in dry benzene followed by air oxidation afforded l-(3-chlorobenzoyl)-6,7-methylenedioxyi soquinoline. This compound on r eaction with potassamide in liquid ammonia afforded a crude product from which. one product was separated by chromatography i n a pure condition . This yellow compound analysed as,c17Hl ON2021 and was t he main product i n the reaction ; a t entative structure is proposed. A second compound, not obtained in pure condition, was submitted to Pschorr reaction in the hope of obtaining liriodenine, but without success.
    • Assessing the Reproducibility of Clustering of Molecular Dynamics Conformations on Self-Organizing Maps

      Eisner, Michelle; Department of Chemistry
      The goal of most clustering algorithms is to find the optimal number of clusters (i.e. fewest number of clusters). However, analysis of molecular conformations of biological macromolecules obtained from computer simulations may benefit from a larger array of clusters. The Self-Organizing Map (SOM) clustering method has the advantage of generating large numbers of clusters, but often gives ambiguous results. In this work, SOMs have been shown to be reproducible when the same conformational dataset is independently clustered multiple times (~100), with the help of the Cramérs V-index (C_v). The ability of C_v to determine which SOMs are reproduced is generalizable across different SOM source codes. The conformational ensembles produced from MD (molecular dynamics) and REMD (replica exchange molecular dynamics) simulations of the penta peptide Met-enkephalin (MET) and the 34 amino acid protein human Parathyroid Hormone (hPTH) were used to evaluate SOM reproducibility. The training length for the SOM has a huge impact on the reproducibility. Analysis of MET conformational data definitively determined that toroidal SOMs cluster data better than bordered maps due to the fact that toroidal maps do not have an edge effect. For the source code from MATLAB, it was determined that the learning rate function should be LINEAR with an initial learning rate factor of 0.05 and the SOM should be trained by a sequential algorithm. The trained SOMs can be used as a supervised classification for another dataset. The toroidal 10×10 hexagonal SOMs produced from the MATLAB program for hPTH conformational data produced three sets of reproducible clusters (27%, 15%, and 13% of 100 independent runs) which find similar partitionings to those of smaller 6×6 SOMs. The χ^2 values produced as part of the C_v calculation were used to locate clusters with identical conformational memberships on independently trained SOMs, even those with different dimensions. The χ^2 values could relate the different SOM partitionings to each other.
    • Asymmetric cyclopropanation via catalysts incorporating the 1,4-diol ligands and the newly designed dioxaborolane /

      Ye, Feng.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2000-07-14)
      The development of new methodology for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral organic compounds is a major focus in modem organic chemistry. The use of chiral catalysts is replacing chiral auxiliaries as a new tool for synthetic chemists. An efficient chiral catalyst allows for large quantities of optically active product to be obtained on use of relatively small amount of enantiopure material, without the need for the removal and recovery of a chiral auxiliary. Furthermore, the most practical catalytic methods utilize an inexpensive and readily available chiral ligand that can provide high and predictable enantioselectivity across a wide range of substrates. In our project, two type of versatile, upgraded chiral ligands have been designed and synthesized. Their application in Simmons-Smith type cyclopropanation is investigated, and the pleasing results suggest that they are the potential catalytic enantioselective candidates to build C-C bonds.
    • Asymmetric hydrogenation of alkenes with cationic iridium(I) complexes of 2-phosphino-1-aminoferrocene ligands

      Van Belle, Lori; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      Iridium complexes with bidentate P,N ligands represent a class of catalysts that significantly expand the application range of asymmetric hydrogenation. New substrate classes, for which there have previously been no suitable catalysts, can now be efficiently hydrogenated in high conversion and enantioselectivity. These substrates are often of synthetic importance, thus iridium catalysis represents a significant advance in the field of asymmetric catalysis. Planar chiral ferrocenyl aminophosphine ligands in which both heteroatoms were directly bound to the cyclopentadienyl ring were prepared by BF3-activated lithiationsubstitution in the presence of a chiral diamine in 49-59% yield and 75-85% enantiomeric excess. Some of these ligands were recrystallized to enantiomeric purity via ammonium fluoroborate salt formation of the phosphine sulfide. A crystal structure of one of these compounds was obtained and features an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the nitrogen, hydrogen, and sulfur atoms. Neutralization, followed by desulfurization, provided the free ligands in enantiomeric purity. Iridium complexes with these ligands were formed via reaction with [Ir(COD)Clh followed by anion exchange with NaBArF. These complexes were successfully applied in homogeneous hydrogenation of several prochiral substrates, providing products in up to 92% enantiomeric excess. Variation of the dimethyl amino group to a pyrrolidine group had a negative effect on the selectivity of hydrogenation. Variation of the substituents on phosphorus to bulkier ortho-tolyl groups had a positive effect, while variation to the more electron rich dicyclohexyl phosphine had a negative effect on selectivity.
    • Attemped asymmetric dehydration with chiral carbodiimides /|nMin-jen Shiao. -- 260 0 St. Catharines [Ont. : s. n.],

      Shiao, Min-jen.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      This research work has been planned with the intention of synthesizing optically active bicyclo[3,l,0]-hexan-2-one using chiral carbodiimides. Several carbodiimides have been prepared for practice and for attempts at asymmetric induction. The total synthesis of dibenzo[e,g]- (l:3)diazonine and the partial synthesis of l:13-dimethyldibenzo[e,g]- (l:3)diazonine are reported. Attempts to resolve 6,6f-dimethyl-2,2t-diphenic acid were not successful. The NMR spectra of carbodiimides and the related thioureas are compared. The reaction transition state of the 4-hydroxycyclohexanone with optically pure R,R(+)-di(a-phenylethyl)-carbodiimide has been considered. The ORD application to chiral cyclohexanones is discussed.
    • Attempted asymmetric synthesis of Lactobacillic acid / |nFawzy F. Z. Georges. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Georges, Fawzy Fayez Zaky.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1973-07-09)
      This research work has been planned with the intention of proving the absolute configuration of lactobacillc acid. During the course of this work, attempts have been made to synthesize cis-2-carboxycyclopropane- l-.acetic acid as,v,a suitable resolvable material. As the results were not satisfactory, the synthesis of ci,s-2-carboxycyclopropane-l-propionic acid has been alternatively attempted by ring opening of bicyclo- [4.1.~-heptan-2-onewithout much success. Attempts to resolve or prepare bicyclo[ 4.1.~-hePtan-2-one optically active are also reported. On the other hand, a complete scheme is described for the possible synthesis of optically active lactobacillic acid. If only bicyclo- ~.1.~ -heptan-2-one can be resolved or prepared optically active, this described scheme can be applied smoothly to the synthesis of enant~omeric lactobacillic acid.
    • A Bicyclic L-Proline Derived Chiral Auxiliary for Asymmetric Synthesis

      Emberson, Kassandra; Department of Chemistry
      This thesis describes the use of an L−proline-derived chiral auxiliary for diastereoselective lithiation and ligand synthesis. Such compounds have been utilized in the Metallinos research group previously for the synthesis of N−substituted planar chiral ferrocenes. The first project describes the use of this chiral auxiliary as a directing group for N−benzyl substitution, providing products in up to 10:1 diastereomeric ratio (dr). These derivatives may serve as chiral ylidene precursors to serve as ligands in transition metal catalysis. In addition, an N−substituted planar chiral ferrocene ylidene ligand derived from the same chiral auxiliary was used to prepare rhodium complexes that were explored as potential catalysts for asymmetric hydroformylation.
    • Biosynthesis of benzyliasoquinoline alkaloids

      Sultana, Nighat.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      This research was carried out to obtain a convenient route for the synthesis of [7_ 14C]-p-hydroxy benzaldehyde. Section 1 of the thesis includes a route involving intermediates with protecting groups like benzyl and methyl ethers of the phenols. The benzyl ethers afforded the product in relatively better yield. The overall synthesis involves four steps. Section 2 describes the reactions carried out directly on phenols, and a three step pathway is obtained for the synthesis of p-hydroxy benzaldehyde, which was repeated on labelled compounds to obtain [7_14C]p- hydroxy benzaldehyde. The synthesis involves the reaction of p-bromophenol with Cu14CN to yield [7_ 14C]-p-cyano phenol, which is then reduced to the aldehyde by means of a simple and clean photolysis method. The same route was tried out to get 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and was found to work equally well for the synthesis of this compound. Section 3 deals with the isolation of labelled alkaloids, corydaline, protopine and reticu1ine from [2-3H,1-14C]-dopamine (3H/ 14C ratio = 4) fed Corydalis solida. 3H/14C ratios in the labelled alkaloids were determined. The uncorrected values showed almost 50% loss of 3H relative to 14C in reticuline, and roughly 75% loss of the 3H relative to 14C in corydaline and protopine.
    • Biotransformation of aromatic hydrocarbons and organic sulphides by fungi

      Munoz, Benito; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1987-10-02)
      Toluene is converted to benzyl alcohol by the fungi Mortierella isabellina and Helminthosporium species; in the latter case, the product is further metabolized. Toluene-a -d 1 , toluene-a,a-d2, and toluene-a,a,a-d 3 have been used with Mortierellaisabellina in a series of experiments to determine both primary and secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effects for the enzymic benzylic hydroxylation reaction. The values obtained, intermolecular primary kH/kD = intramolecular p rim a r y kH r kD = 1. 0 2 + O. 0 5, and sec 0 n dar y k H I kD = 1. 37 .:!. 0.05, suggest a mechanism for the reaction involving benzylic proton removal from a radical intermediate in a non-symmetrical transition state. 2H NMR (30.7 MHz) studies using ethylbenzene-l,1-d 2 , 3 -fluoroethylbenzene-l,1-d 2 , 4 -fluoroethylbenzene-l,1-d 2 , and toluene-dB as substrates with Mortierella isabellina suggest, based on the observable differences in rates of conversion between the substrates, that the hydroxylation of hydrocarbons at the benzylic position proceeds via a one electron abstraction from the aromatic ring, giving a radical cation. A series of 1,3-oxathiolanes (eight) were incubated with Mortierella isabellina , Helminthosporium , Rhizopus arrhizus , and Aspergillus niger . Sulphoxides were obtained from Mortierella isabellina and Rhizopus arrhizus using the substrates 2-phenyl-, 2-methyl-2-phenyl-, and 2-phenyl-2-tert. butyl-l,3-oxathiolane. The relative stereochemistry of 2-methyl-2-phenyl-l,3-oxathiolan-l-oxide was assigned based on lH decoupling, n.O.e, 1 and H NMR experiments. The lH NMR (200 MHz) of the methylene protons of 2-methyl-2-phenyl-l,3-oxathiolan-l-oxide was used as a diagnostic standard in assigning the relative stereochemistry of 2-phenyl-l,3-oxathiolan-l-oxide and 2-phenyl-2-tert. butyl-l,3-oxathiolan-l-oxide. The sulphoxides obtained were consistent with an oxidation occurring from the opposite side of the molecule to the phenyl substituent.
    • Biotransformation of polycylic aromatic compounds by fungi and an investigation into the oxidation of alkylbenzenes by Mortierella isabellina NRRL 1757

      Khan, Shaheer Hasan.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1985-07-09)
      Incubations of several polycyclic heteroaromatic compounds and two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with a series of common fungi have been performed. The fungi Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 26269, Rhizopus arrhizus ATCC 11145, and Mortierella isabellina NRRL 1757 were studied in this regard. Of the aza heteroaromatics, only dibenzopyrrole gave a ring hydroxylated product following the incubation with C. elegans. From the thio heteroaromatics studied, dibenzothiophene was metabolized by all the three fungi and thioxanthone by C. elegans and M. isabellina giving sulfones and sulphoxides. Thiochromanone was metabolized stereoselectively to the corresponding sulphoxide by C. elegans. Methyl substituted thioxanthones on incubation with C. elegans produced oxidative products, arising from S -oxidation and hydroxylation at the methyl group. Of the cyclic ketones studied, only fluorenone was reduced to hydroxyfluorene and this metabolism is compared with that reported with cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases of hepatic microsomes. A series of para-substituted ethylbenzenes has been transformed stereoselectively to the 1-phenylethanols by incubation with M. isabellina. Comparisons of the enantiomeric purities obtained from products with their respective para substituent of the same steric size but different electronic properties indicate that the stereoselectivity of hydroxylation at benzylic carbon may be susceptible to electron donating or withdrawing factors in some cases, but that observation is not va lid in all the comparisons. The stereochemistry of the reaction is discussed in terms of three possible steps, ethylbenzene ---) 1-phenylethanol ---) acetophenone ---) 1-phenylethanol. This metabolic pathway could account for the inconsistencies observed in the comparisons of optical purities and electronic character of para substituents. Furthermore, formation of 2-phenylethanol (in some cases), l-(p-acetylphenyl)ethanol from p-diethylbenzene, and N-acetylation of p-ethylaniline was observed. n-Propylbenzene was also converted to optically active 1-phenylpropanol. Acetophenone, p-ethylacetophenone, and o(,~,~-trifluoroacetophenone were transformed to 1-phenylethanol, l-(p-ethylphenyl)ethanol, and 1-phenyl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, respectively, with high chemical and excellent optical yields. The 13 C NMR spectra of several substrates and metabolic products have been reported and assigned for the first time.
    • Biotransformations of water insoluble substrates in aqueous, two-phase and encapsulated systems /

      Iezzi, Diana.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1999-05-21)
      The biotransformation of water insoluble substrates by mammalian and bacterial cells has been problematic, since these whole cell reactions are primarily performed in an aqueous environment The implementation of a twophase or encapsulated system has the advantages of providing a low water system along with the physiological environment the cells require to sustain themselves. Encapsulation of mammalian cells by formation of polyamide capsules via interfacial polymerization illustrated that the cells could not survive this type of encapsulation process. Biotransformation of the steroid spironolactone [3] by human kidney carcinoma cells was performed in a substrate-encapsulated system, yielding canrenone [4] in 70% yield. Encapsulation of nitrile-metabolizing Rhodococcus rhodochrous cells using a polyamide membrane yielded leaky capsules, but biotransformation of 2-(4- chlorophenyl)-3-methylbutyronitrile (CPIN) [6] in a free cell system yielded CPIN amide [7] in 40% yield and 94% ee. A two-phase biotransformation of CPIN consisting of a 5:1 ratio of tris buffer, pH 7.2 to octane respectively, gave CPIN acid [8] in 30% yield and 97% ee. It was concluded that Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 17895 contained a nonselective nitrile hydratase and a highly selective amidase enzyme.
    • Bis-and tris (amidine) fluoroboron cations and related systems studies by Multinuclear NMR and fast atom bombardment mass spectometry

      Yuan, Cheng.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1988-10-02)
      The formation and the isolation of fluoroboron salts, (D2BF2+)(PF6-), (DD'BF2+)(PF6-) and (D3BF2+)(PF6-)2, have been carried out. 1,8-Diazabicyclo [5,4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) and 1,5-diazabicyclo[4,3,O]non-5-ene (DBN), extremely strong organic bases, were introduced into the fluoroboron cation systems and induced a complicated redistribution reaction in the D/BF3/BC13 systems. The result was the formation of all BFnCI4-n-, D.BFnCI3-n and fluoroboron cation species which were detected by 19p and 11B NMR spectrometry. The displacement reaction of CI- from these D.BFnCI3-n (n = 1 and 2) species by the second entering ligand is much faster than in other nitrogen donor containing systems which have been previously studied. Tetramethylguanidine, oxazolines and thiazolines can also produce similar reactions in D/BF3/BCI3 systems, but no significant BFnC4-n- species were observed. As well as influences of their basicity and their steric hindrance, N=C-R(X) (X = N, 0 or S) and N=C( X)2 (X = N or S) structures of ligands have significant effects on the fonnationof fluoroboron cations and the related NMR parameters. D3BF2+ and some D2BF2+ show the expected inertness, but (DBU)2BF2+ shows an interestingly high reactivity. (D2BF2+)(X-) formed from weak organic bases such as pyridine can react with stronger organic bases and form DD'BF2+ and D'2BF2+ in acetone or nitromethane. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry is doubly meaningful to this work. Firstly, FABMS can be directly applied to the complicated fluoroboron cation containing solution systems as an excellent complementary technique to multinuclear NMR. Secondly, the gas-phase ion substitution reaction of (D2BF2+)(PF6-) with the strong organic bases is successfully observed in a FABMS ion source when the B-N bond is not too strong in these cations.
    • The characterization of new benzimidazole fungicides /

      Lundrigan, John A.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      Extensive studies have been initiated to generate enough data to register the methyl homologue (MBC-MIC, see List of Abbreviations, page 14) of benomyl (MBC-BIC) as a commercial product through a joint effort between the federal government and Canadian industry. The objective of this study, as part of the whole project, was to generate fundamental data on the physical properties of the series of benomyl homologues (MBC-MIC, MBC-EIC, MBC-PIC and MBC-BIC). These data include the half lives of these compounds in water at the pH range from 2 to 12; they ranged from 0.7 to 10. 1 hours. Standard solutions of these compounds in concentrated acid were found to be stable for at least two weeks, and in the case of MBC-MIC it was stable at least 1 month. Another major goal of this study was to determine the solubility of each compound in water at different pHs in the range of 1 to 12. The solubility of the compounds ranged from 0.6 jig/mL to 396 fig/mL. In addition, it was possible to prepare stable stock solutions at concentrations > 1 000 |ig/mL in concentrated nitric acid. Several aspects of analytical methods have been improved to accurately assess the solubility and rate of degradation of benomyl and its homologues in alkaline conditions. The determination of melting points was attempted but all compounds decomposed before melting.To complement the studies of the benomyl homologue series attempts were made to explore the presence of any relationships between the structures of the compounds and their properties. Although there were some exceptions, the compound's solubility decreased and half life increased as the molecular size increased from the methyl to the butyl analogue.
    • Chelated fluoroboron cations : synthesis and multinuclear nmr studies

      Shoemaker, James A. Winston.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1999-07-09)
      The preparation of chelated difluoroboron cations (DD)BF2+, where DD is a saturated polydentate tertiary-amine or polydentate aromatic ligand, has been systematically studied by using multinuclear solution and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Three new methods of synthesis of (DD)BF2+ cations are reported, and compared with the previous method of reacting a chelating donor with Et20.BF3. The methods most effective for aromatic donors such as 1,1O-phenanthroline are ineffective for saturated polydentate tertiary-amines like N,N,N' ,Nil ,Nil-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine. Polydentate tertiary-amine donors that form 5-membered rings upon bidentate chelation were found to chelate effectively when the BF2 source contained two leaving groups (a heavy halide and a Lewis base such as pyridine =pyr or isoxazole =ISOX), i.e., pyr.BF2X (X = CI or Br), ISOX.BF2X and (pyr)2BF2+. Those that would form 6membered rings upon chelation do not chelate by any of the four methods. Polydentate aromatic ligands chelate effectively when the BF2 source contained a weak Lewis base, e.g., ISOX.BF3, ISOX.BF2X and Et20.BF3. Bidentate chelation by polydentate tertiaryamine and aromatic donors leads to nmr parameters that are significantly different then their (D)2BF2+ relatives (D =monod~ntate t-amines or pyridines). The chelated haloboron cations (DD)BFCI+, and (DD)BFBr+ were generated from D.BFX2 adducts for all ligands that form BF2+ cations above. In addition, the (DD)BCI2+ and (DD)BBr2+ cations were formed from D.BX3 adducts by the chelating aromatic ligands, except for the aromatic ligand 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene, which formed only the (DD)BF2+ cation, apparently due to its extreme steric hindrance. Chelation by a donor is a two-step reaction. For polydentate tertiary-amine ligands, the two rates appear to be very dependent on the two possible leaving groups on the central boron atom. The order of increasing ease of displacement for the donors was: pyr < Cl < Br < ISOX. The rate of chelation by polydentate aromatic ligands appears to be dependent on the displacement of the first ligand from the boron. The order of increasing ease of displacement for the donors was: pyr < CI < ISOX ~ Br < Et20.
    • Chemical synthesis of glycosylated oligoribonucleotides for siRNA development

      Zhao, Yuyan.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      In this study, an efficient methodology for the preparation of carbohydrate-RNA conjugates was established, which involved the use of 3,4~diethoxy-3-cyclobutene-l,2- dione (diethyl squarate) as the linking reagent. First, a glycan moiety containing an amino group reacted with diethyl squarate to form an activated glycan, which further reacted with an amino modified oligoribonucleotide to form a glycoconjugate under slightly basic conditions. The effect of glycosylation on the stability of RNA molecules was evaluated on two glycoconjugates, monomannosyl UlO-mer and dimannosyl UlO-mer. In the synthesis of aromatic fluorescent ribosides, perbenzylated ribofuranosyl pyrene and phenanthrene were synthesized from perbenzylated ribolactone. Deprotection of benzyl-protected ribofuranosyl phenanthrene and pyrene by boron tribromide gave ribofuranosyl phenanthrene and ribopyranosyl pyrene, respectively. UV/vis and fluorescent properties of the ribosides were characterized.
    • The chemistry of heterocyclic methine bases and of their acyl and thioacyl derivatives

      Gupta, Ajay.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1987-07-09)
      The work described in this thesis has been dtvided into six sections . The first section involves the reaction of 3,5-diphenyl-2-methyl-l,3,4-oxadiazolium perchlorate with acetic and benzoic anhydrides. The second section deals with the preparation and reactions of 1,3,4-thia diazolium salts. Some monomeric 1,3,4-thiadiazoline methine bases have also been prepared by reacting 1,3,4-thia d iaz ol ium s al t s with concen trated ammonium hydroxide solution. Variable temperature p.m.r. of 2-(3-acetylacetonylidene)-3,5-diphenyl-A4 -1,3,4-thiadiazoline has also been described. The third section deals with prepar a tion and reactions of some compounds in benzoxazole series. The fourth section deals with the prep a ration and reactions of N-alkyl-2-methylbenzothi azolium salts with base , a nd with some a cetylating and thioacetylating agents. Treatment of 2,3-dimethylbenzothiazolium iodide and of 3-ethyl-2-methylbenzothia zolium iodide with base wa s found to give the corresponding dimeric methine b a ses and evidence supporting their structure is also given. Thiol acetic acid was found to exchange 0 for S in its reactions with 2-acetonylidene-3-methylbenzothiazoline and 2-acetophenonylidene-3-methylbenzothi a zoline. (ii) In th e fifth section, the r eactions of 2,3-dimethylbenzselenazolium iodide with a variety of ac e tylating and thioacetylating agents has been described. The treatment of 2,3-dimethylbenzselenazolium iodide with base was found to give rise to a dimeric methine base and evidence supporting its structure is also given. The reactions of this dimeric methine b a se with benzoic anhydride and phenylisothiocyanate have also been described. The sixth section deals with the preparation and reactions of l-alkyl-2-methylquinolinium salts. Treatment of 1,2-dimethylquinolinium iodide and l-ethyl-2-methylquinolinium iodide was found to give the corresponding monomeric methine bases and evidence supporting their structure is also given. The E-type geometry of the olefinic bond in 2-acetonylidene-l-methylquinoline has been established on the basis of an N.O.E. experiment.
    • Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of ent-Neopinone

      Piercy, T. Graeme; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2013-04-11)
      The present thesis describes the chemoenzymatic synthesis of ent-neopinone. The total synthesis of neopinone was accomplished in 14 steps from B-bromoethylbenzene. The synthesis began with a microbial oxidation of bromobenzene by Escherichia coli JM109(pDTG601) and features a Heck reaction, aldol condensation and a 1,6-conjugate addition.
    • Comparative electron impact and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric studies of some HMPA adducts of phenyltin and phenyllead halides and studies of strong hydrogen bonding by FAB-MS

      Mondal, Humayun.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1984-07-09)
      The fragmentation patterns and mass spectra of some phenyl tin and -lead halide adducts with hexamethylphosphoramide are compared by subjecting them t~ electron impact and fast atom bombardment ionization in a mass spectrometer. This comparison is restricted to the metal-containing ions. Ligand-exchange mechanisms of some of the metal-containing species are explored by FAB-MS. Several moisturesensitive organo-metallics and H-bonded systems have been examined by FAB for attempted characterization, but without any success. Scavenging and trapping of water molecules by complex aggregates in solutions of quaternary ammonium fluorides and hydroxides are investigated by FAB to complement previous NMR-studies.
    • Conformational analysis of antibody binding site using EDMA methods /

      Chen, Xiaohong.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2008-06-15)
      Euclidean distance matrix analysis (EDMA) methods are used to distinguish whether or not significant difference exists between conformational samples of antibody complementarity determining region (CDR) loops, isolated LI loop and LI in three-loop assembly (LI, L3 and H3) obtained from Monte Carlo simulation. After the significant difference is detected, the specific inter-Ca distance which contributes to the difference is identified using EDMA.The estimated and improved mean forms of the conformational samples of isolated LI loop and LI loop in three-loop assembly, CDR loops of antibody binding site, are described using EDMA and distance geometry (DGEOM). To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time the EDMA methods are used to analyze conformational samples of molecules obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Therefore, validations of the EDMA methods using both positive control and negative control tests for the conformational samples of isolated LI loop and LI in three-loop assembly must be done. The EDMA-I bootstrap null hypothesis tests showed false positive results for the comparison of six samples of the isolated LI loop and true positive results for comparison of conformational samples of isolated LI loop and LI in three-loop assembly. The bootstrap confidence interval tests revealed true negative results for comparisons of six samples of the isolated LI loop, and false negative results for the conformational comparisons between isolated LI loop and LI in three-loop assembly. Different conformational sample sizes are further explored by combining the samples of isolated LI loop to increase the sample size, or by clustering the sample using self-organizing map (SOM) to narrow the conformational distribution of the samples being comparedmolecular conformations. However, there is no improvement made for both bootstrap null hypothesis and confidence interval tests. These results show that more work is required before EDMA methods can be used reliably as a method for comparison of samples obtained by Monte Carlo simulations.