• The preparation and reactions of some 1, 2-dipolar species /|nI. D. Brindle. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Brindle, Ian. D.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-07-09)
      This research was directed mainly towards the investigation of the reactions of allylic amineimides. The work can be divided into two main sections. Section 1 of the thesis deals mainly with thermolysis studies of amineimides. Sections 1a and 1b represent a comprehensive survey of amineimide literature up to 1971. N-A1ly1-N,N-dirnethylarnine-benzirnide was prepared and rearranged at 1400 to l-allyl-1-benzoyl-2,2-dimethylhydrazine. A tentative mechanism involving an initial migration to the carbonyl oxygen was disproved by incorporating the amineimide system into a five-membered ring. N,N~Dimethyl-N-propargylamine-benzimidedid not rearrange on heating; but the hydrobromide, on heating, disproportionated to give 1-benzoyl~2,2,2-trimethylhydraziniumbromide and I-benzoyl-2,2~ dimethylhydrazine. l-Ally'l--l, I-dimethyl-2-benzoy-lhydrazinium bromide and 1~benzoy-1-2,2, 2-trimethy-lhydrazinium iodide both disproportionated to give l~benzoyl-2,2-dimethylhydrazine. Section 1 concludes with a discussion of the mechanisms of ally'lic migrations in amineimides proposed by J. E. Baldwin. Section 2 deals with the formation of five-membered heterocyclic compounds from amineimides by bromination. 1,1-Dimethyl-2benzoyl- 4-bromopyrazolidinium bromide was formed from N-allyl-N,Ndime thy-lamtne-benzimide , 1,1-dimethyl-2-benzoyl-4-bromopyrazol-3enium bromide from N,N~dimethyl-N-propargylamine~benzimidevia the unusual acetylenic "bromonium" ion. Hydrogenolysis of both heterocyclic compounds gave the same product. The preparation was extended by forming 2,2-dimethyl-4-bromoisoxazolinium bromide from N-allylN, N-dimethylamine-N-oxide. Sections 3 and 4 cover a number of unsuccessful attempts to synthesise other amineimides and l,2-dipolar species.
    • Quantum Monte Carlo : some theoretical and numerical studies

      Gordon, Heather Louise.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1983-07-09)
      In Part I, theoretical derivations for Variational Monte Carlo calculations are compared with results from a numerical calculation of He; both indicate that minimization of the ratio estimate of Evar , denoted EMC ' provides different optimal variational parameters than does minimization of the variance of E MC • Similar derivations for Diffusion Monte Carlo calculations provide a theoretical justification for empirical observations made by other workers. In Part II, Importance sampling in prolate spheroidal coordinates allows Monte Carlo calculations to be made of E for the vdW molecule var He2' using a simplifying partitioning of the Hamiltonian and both an HF-SCF and an explicitly correlated wavefunction. Improvements are suggested which would permit the extension of the computational precision to the point where an estimate of the interaction energy could be made~
    • Racemic and Enantioselective Total Syntheses of Mosquito Oviposition Pheromone from a Naturally Available Unsaturated Fatty Acid

      Hurem, David; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2014-09-11)
      The unnatural threo-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide and the natural mosquito oviposition pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide were synthesized in a diastereodivergent fashion in 44% and 33% overall yield respectively from 5-bromovaleric acid and undecanal. The key step utilized a chemoenzymatic epoxidation-lactonization of a naturally available fatty acid to form the 6-hydroxy-5-hexadecanolide core.17 The epoxidation strategy was later adapted to allow for an asymmetric synthesis. Shi epoxidation afforded highly enantioenriched (5R, 6R)-6-hydroxyhexadecanolide (er = 10) in 70 % overall yield. Other derivatives of the chiral ketone catalyst were also screened. Finally, attempts were made to obtain the correct stereochemistry at C(6) of the target with a dynamic kinetic transformation using lipase and a transfer hydrogenation catalyst. Epimerization of the lactol with the transfer hydrogenation catalyst was successful, but lipase mediated reactions halted at <10 % conversion.
    • Reactions of polyhalogenated aromatic compounds and related ethers with metal/ammonia solutions

      Cater, Stephen R.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1982-07-09)
      This work contains the results of a series of reduction studies on polyhalogenated aromatic compounds and related ethers using alkali metals in liquid ammonia. In general, polychlorobenzenes were reduced to t he parent aromatic hydrocarbon or to 1 ,4-cyc1ohexadiene, and dipheny1ethers were cleaved to the aroma tic hydrocarbon and a phenol. Chlorinated dipheny1ethers were r eductive1y dechlorinated in the process. For example, 4-chlorodipheny1- ether gave benzene and phenol. Pentach1orobenzene and certain tetrachlorobenzenes disproportionated to a fair degree during the reduction process if no added proton source was present. The disproportionation was attributed to a build-up of amide ion. Addition of ethanol completely suppressed the formation of any disproportionation products. In the reductions of certain dipheny1ethers , the reduction of one or both of the dipheny1ether rings occurred, along with the normal cleavage. This was more prevalent when lithium was the metal used . As a Sidelight, certain chloropheno1s were readily dechlorinated. In light of these results, the reductive detoxification of the chlorinated dibenzo-1,4-dioxins seems possible with alkali metals in l iquid ammonia.
    • Reactions of some non-enolisable chloroketones with amide ion and a new synthesis of acridones /|nGuo-shyoung John Chen. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Chen, John Guo-shyoung.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1973-07-09)
      This research was directed mainly towards the investigation of the reacti.ons of· substituted chlorobenziophenones under strongly basi,c conditions. The work 'can be divided into two main sections. The Introduction deals mainly with historical studies on aryne chemistry and the Haller-Bauer reaction. Secti.on I i.s concerned with syntheses of 2-benzamido-2'chlorobenzophenone and 2-benzamido~3'-chlorobenzophenone,and with thei,r respective reactions wi.th potassium amide in ammonia. o-Chlorophenylacetic acid was converted to the acid chloride and then by Friedel-Craftsreaction with benzene to w-(o-chlorophenyl)acetophenone. Reaction wi.th phenylhydrazine and Fischer cyclization gave 3- (0chlorophenyl)- 2-phenylindole, which was ozonized to 2-benzamido-2'chlorobenzophenone. The isomeric 3' -chlor,..o ke: tone was similarly synthesised from m-chlorophenylacetic acid. Both the 2'- and 3' -ch.loroketones gave N-benzoylacridone on treatment with potassium amide in ammonia; an aryne mechanism is involved for the 3'-chloroketone but aryne and nucleophilic substitution mechanisms are possible for the 2'-chloroketone. Hydrolysis of the 2'- and 3'-chloroketones gave 2-amino-2'chlorobenzophenone and 2-amino-3'-chlorobenzophenone respectively. A second new acridone synthesis is given in the Appendix involving reactions of these two ketones with potassium t-butoxide in t-butylbenzene. i Section 2 deals with the investigation of the reaction of some tricyclic ch1orobenzophenones with potassium amide in liquid ammonia. These were 1-ch1orof1uorenone; which was pr~pared in several steps from f1uoranthene, and 1- and 2-ch1oroanthraquinones. 1-Ch1orof1uorenone gave 1-aminof1uorenone ; 1-ch1oroanthraquinone gave 1- and 2-aminoanthraquinones; 2-ch1oroanthraquinone was largely recovered from the attempted reaction.
    • Reactions of steroidal epoxides with strong organic bases and an investigation into the syntheses of some labelled pregnane derivatives

      Jahangir.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1982-10-02)
      Reactions of 5,6- and 4,5-epoxycholestane derivatives with strong bases were investigated. Epoxidation of 3a-acetoxycholest-5-ene also gave a new compound along with the anticipated epoxides. Interconversions of the latter were observed. Some possible mechanisms of its formation and rearrangements have been pIioposed. No reaction was observed with any of the 5,6- and 4,5-steroidal epoxides employed in the present study, using potassium tertiary butoxide under refluxing conditions. n-Butyllithium reacted only with 5,6-epoxycholestanes bearing a ketal moiety at the C3 carbon. Opening of the ketal group was observed with n-butyllithium in the case of a ~-epoxide. The reaction was also investigated in the absence of epoxide functionality. A possible mechanism for the opening of ketal group has been proposed. Lithium diethylamide (LDEA) was found effective in rearranging 5,6- and 4,5-epoxides to their ~orresponding allylic alcohols. These rearrangements presumably proceed via syn-eliminations, however the possibility of a corresponding anti-elimination has not been eliminated. A substituent effect of various functional groups (R = H, OH, OCH2CH20) at C3 has-been observed on product distribution in the LDEApromoted rearrangements of the corresponding epoxides. No reaction of these epoxides was observed with lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) • In the second part of the project, several attempts were made towards the sYRthesis of deoxycorticoste~one~17,2l,2l~d3' a compound desirable for the 2l-dehydroxylation studies of deoxycorticosterone. Several routes were investigated, and some deuterium labelled pregnane derivatives were prepared in this regard. Microbial 21-hydroxylation of progesteronel7,21,21,2l- d4 by ~ niger led to loss of deuterium from C21 of the product. An effort was made to hydroxylate progesterone microbially under neutral condtions.
    • Reactions of various aromatic nitro-compounds and anthraquinones with selected bases and nucleophiles

      Kaldas, Magdy Labib.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1974-10-02)
      The Introducti on deals mainly with hi storical studies on aryne chemi stry and ring closure via arynes , hydride replacement from aromatic rings by nucleophi les, c l eavage of anthr aquinones in basic medium and the Leuckart reaction . This work can be divided into two main s ect i ons. Section I is concerned with the investigation of t he reaction of some aromatic ni t ro-compounds with potassamide in l iquid ammonia. 3-Amino-4- nitrobenzophenone was obtained from the reacti on of 4-nitrobenzophenone with t his reagent, toge t her with benzoic acid formed in a competing Haller-Bauer reaction. Nitrobenzene under these conditions gave a complex mixture from which 2-phenylphenol was isolated; a reaction i nvolving benzyne may be i nvo l ved. 4-Nitrodiphenyl sulfone gave 4-aminodiphenyl sulfone and 4-nitroani l ine. 4-Ethoxydiphenyl sulfone and 4-ethoxynitrobenzene were isolated when ethanol was used as a co-solvent in the reaction. Oxidative coupling reactions were observed with nitrotoluenes. 4-Nitrotoluene gave 4,4t-dinitrobibenzyl which i n a pro longed reaction gave 4,4t-dinitros t ilbene . 2-Nitrotoluene gave 2 , 2 t-dinitrobibenzyl, but not the corresponding stilbene derivative even after a longer time . A rather i nteresting result was obtained with 1-nitro-2,4,6- trimethylbenzene which gave a stilbene derivative only. Also the corresponding stilbene was obtained from bis-(4-nitrophenyl)-methane in a rather slow r eaction with this reagent . Section II deals wi th (i) the preparation of 5-chloro- 1-N-methyl aminoanthraquinone and a new synthesis of N-methyl acridones and (ii) treatment of chloro-anthraquinones with fo rmamide and a new synthesis of chloro-anthracenes . 5-Chloro-1 -N-methylaminoanthraqui none was synthesised f rom 1,5-dichloroanthraquinone by treatment with N-methylformamide. Treatment of 5-chloro-1-N-methylaminoanthraquinone with potassamide in liquid ammonia or with potassium t-butoxide i n t-butylbenzene gave N-methylacridone-1-carboxylic acid. This pleasing result, t he outcome of r i ng opening and alter native ring closure, is being extended to related ring systems.
    • Reduced local energy calculations on X¹Sigmaâ ½gHâ and 1¹S He /|nGerald F. Thomas. -- 260 St. Catharines [Ont.] : Dept. of Chemistry, Brock University,

      Thomas, G. F.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-07-09)
      The one-electron reduced local energy function, t ~ , is introduced and has the property < tL)=(~>. It is suggested that the accuracy of SL reflects the local accuracy of an approximate wavefunction. We establish that <~~>~ <~2,> and present a bound formula, E~ , which is such that where Ew is Weinstein's lower bound formula to the ground state. The nature of the bound is not guaranteed but for sufficiently accurate wavefunctions it will yield a lower bound. ,-+ 1'S I I Applications to X LW Hz. and ne are presented.
    • Residues in soils : a gas chromatography - mass spectrometry study

      Singh, Jaspal.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1974-10-02)
      Combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry has been used to identify unknown residues in soils (especially pesticides). The effect of U.V. light on DDT and linuron and quantitative estimation of elemental sulfur in different soils has also been carried out.
    • Sample preparation and heavy metal determination by atomic spectrometry /

      Xiao, Jing.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2004-06-29)
      Microwave digestions of mercury in Standards Reference Material (SRM) coal samples with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in quartz vessels were compared with Teflon® vessel digestion by using flow injection cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Teflon® vessels gave poor reproducibiUty and tended to deliver high values, while the digestion results from quartz vessel show good agreement with certificate values and better standard deviations. Trace level elements (Ag, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sn, Ti, V and Zn) in used oil and residual oil samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Different microwave digestion programs were developed for each sample and most of the results are in good agreement with certified values. The disagreement with values for Ag was due to the precipitation of Ag in sample; while Sn, V and Zn values had good recoveries from the spike test, which suggests that these certified values might need to be reconsidered. Gold, silver, copper, cadmium, cobalt, nickel and zinc were determined by continuous hydride generation inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The performance of two sample introduction systems: MSIS™ and gas-liquid separator were compared. Under the respective optimum conditions, MSIS^"^ showed better sensitivity and lower detection limits for Ag, Cd, Cu, Co and similar values for Au, Ni and Zn to those for the gas-liquid separator.
    • The satellite band patterns in the near ultraviolet absorption spectra of isotopic compounds of acetaldehyde

      Ng, Kim Hok-kin.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      The 3700 A - 3000 A absorption spectra of CH3CHO and its isotopic compounds such as CH3CDO, CD3CHO and CD3CDO were studied in the gas phase at room temperature and low temperatures. The low resolution spectra of the compounds were recorded by a 1.5 m Baush and Lomb grating spectrograph. The high resolution spectra were recorded by a Ebert spectrograph with the Echelle grating and the holographic grating separately. The multiple reflection cells were used to achieve the long path length. The pressure-path length used for the absorption spectrum of CH 3CHO was up to 100 mm Hg )( 91 . 43mo The emission spectrum and the excitation spectrum of CH3CHO were also recorded in this research. The calculated satellite band patterns \vhich were ob-tailied by the method of Lewis were used to compare with the observed near UV absorption spectrum of acetaldehyde. These calculated satellite band patterns belonged to two cases: namely, the barriers-in-phase case and the barriers- out-of-phase case. Each of the calculated patterns corresponded to a stable conformation of acetaldehyde in the excited state . The comparisons showed that the patterns in the observed absorption spectra corresponded to the H-H eclipsed conformations of acetaldehyde in the excited state . The least squares fitting analysis showed that the barrier heights in the excited state were higher than in the ground state. Finally, the isotopic shifts for the isotopic compounds of acetaldehyde were compared to the compounds with the similar deuterium substitution.
    • Selected topics in fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry a)specially designed probe tips and ion generation, b)structures of vitamin B6 schiff base complexes

      Fulcher, Adrian N.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1988-07-09)
      This thesis can be broken down into two sections. Section one is a study . of the ionization mechanisms and the ion source optimization for Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB) ionization. For this study, several specially designed probe tips were created and tested under various experimental conditions. The aIm of this section is to understand the operating characteristics of a FAB IOn source better. The second section involves the study of several Vitamin B6 Schiff Base complexes using both positive and negative ion FAB MS. This section is an exploration of the usefulness of FAB MS as a structure probe for the metalcoordination complexes of Vitamin B6.
    • The Smiles rearrangement in hydrazidic systems and related syntheses /|nG. A. Pawelchak. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Pawelchak, G. A.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1971-07-09)
      This research was directed towards the investigation of the Smiles rearrangement in hydrazidic systems and the synthesis of related heterocyclic compounds. The work can be conveniently divided into two main sections. Section 1 of the thesis relates to the synthesis and examination of the O+N migration of phenoxy- derivatives of hydrazidic halides. In general, hydrazidic halides were found to react with 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol to give corresponding a-nitrophenoxy- compounds. These a-nitrophenoxy- compounds were found to rearrange in warm base to give the corresponding N-benzoyl compounds via a proposed five-membered transition state. Experiments conducted in styrene revealed no radical contribution to the rearrangement. Cross-over product analysis indicated the rearrangement as intramolecular and consistent with the Smiles rearrangement. The preparation of N-a-chlorobenzylidene-N'-2-nitrophenyl- -N'-(2,4-dibromophenyl)hydrazine from N-benzoyl-N'-2-nitrophenyl- N'-(2,4-dibromophenyl)hydrazine was accomplished using phosphorus oxychloride. Examination of this hydrazidic chloride indicated a marked decrease .in reactivity as compared to the N-a-chlorobenzylidene-N'-phenylhydrazine case. Section 2 concerns itself with the preparation of heterocyclic compounds using an analogy of the five-membered transition state present in the Smiles rearrangement of a substituted benzylidene derivatives A new preparation of 2,4-phenyl1,3,4- oxadiazol-S-one using N-benzoyl-N'-phenylhydrazine and ethyl thiochloroformate is reported. Two new preparations of N-a-thiobenzoyl-N'-(2,4-dibromophenylhydrazine are reported using sodium hydrosulfide in conjunction with N-a-bromobenzylidene-N'-(2,4-dibromophenyl)hydrazine in the first, and phosphorus pentasulfide with N-benzoylN'-( 2,4-dibromophenyl)hydrazine in the second. The latter is preferred due to the formation of a sulfide co-product in the former. Two preparations of 2-phenyl-4-(2,4-dibromophenyl)-1,3,4- thiadiazol-S-one are reported using N-thiobenzoyl-N'-(2,4-dibromophenyl) hydrazine and ethyl chloroformate and ethyl thiochloroformate Two rapid and easy preparations of 2-phenyl-4-(2,4-dibromophenyl)- 1,3,4-triazol-S-one are reported using ethyl chloroformate and ethyl thiochloroformate. Sodium cyanate in conjunction with a-aminobenzylidene-N'-(2,4-dibromophenyl)hydrazine also provided 2-phenyl-4-(2,4-dibromophenyl)-1,3,4-triazol-S-one Section 2 concludes with an examination of two possible mechanistic routes to the prepared heterocycles.
    • Sol-gel routes to supported Friedel-Crafts alkylation catalysts

      Goodchild, Mary E.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1998-07-09)
      Aluminosilicate catalysts containing supported ZnCl2 and metal fluoride salts have been prepared using a sol-gel based route, tested and characterized. The activities of these ZnCl2 + metal fluoride catalysts, while greater than "Clayzic" (ZnCI2 supported on montmorillonite KIO) are not as good as supported ZnCl2 only supported on aluminosilicate. Alumina supports have also been prepared via a sol-gel route using various chemical additives to generate a mesoporous structure, loaded with ZnCl2 and tested for activity. The activities for these alumina-supported catalysts are also significantly higher than that of "Clayzic", an effective Friedel-Crafts catalyst. Characterizations of these two types of catalysts were done by magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR, diffuse reflectance infrared (DRIFT) spectroscopy and additionally for the alumina nitrogen adsorption studies were done. Supported aluminum trichloride was also investigated as an alternative to the traditional use of aluminum trichloride.
    • Solid state NMR chemical shifts as an alternative to diffraction data in the determination of SIC polytypic structures

      Guo, Degi.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1988-07-09)
      Silicon carbide, which has many polytypic modifications of a very simple and very symmetric structure, is an excellent model system for exploring, the relationship between chemical shift, long-range dipolar shielding, and crystal structure in network solids. A simple McConnell equation treatment of bond anisotropy effects in a poly type predicts chemical shifts for silicon and carbon sites which agree well with the experiment, provided that contributions from bonds up to 100 A are included in the calculation. The calculated chemical shifts depend on three factors: the layer stacking sequence, electrical centre of gravity, and the spacings between silicon and carbon layers. The assignment of peaks to lattice sites is proved possible for three polytypes (6H, 15R, and 3C). The fact that the calculated chemical shifts are very sensitive to layer spacings provides us a potential way to detennine and refine a crystal structure. In this work, the layer spacings of 6H SiC have been calculated and are within X-ray standard deviations. Under this premise, the layer spacings of 15R have been detennined. 29Si and 13C single crystal nmr studies of 6H SiC polytype indicate that all silicons and carbons are magnetically anisotropic. The relationship between a magnetic shielding tensor component and layer spacings has been derived. The comparisons between experimental and semi-empirical chemical shielding tensor components indicate that the paramagnetic shielding of silicon should be included in the single crystal chemical shift calculation.
    • Solute effects on the production and decay of primary species in the flash photolysis of indole

      McGimpsey, Wm. Grant.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1981-07-09)
      Maximum production rates ofs and decay kinetics for the hydrated electron, the indolyl neutral radical and the indole triplet state have been obtained in the microsecond, broadband (X > 260 nm) flash photolysis of helium-saturated, neutral aqueous solutions of indole, in the absence and in the presence of the solutes NaBr, BaCl2*2H20 and CdSCV Fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetimes have also been obtained in the absence and in the presence of the above solutes, The hydrated electron is produced monophotonically and biphotonically at an apparent maximum rate which is increased by BaCl2*2H20 and decreased by NaBr and CdSOif. The neutral indolyl radical may be produced monophotonically and biphotonically or strictly monophotonically at an apparent maximum rate which is increased by NaBr and CdSO^ and is unaffected by BaCl2*2H20. The indole triplet state is produced monophotonically at a maximum rate which is increased by all solutes. The hydrated electron decays by pseudo first order processes, the neutral indolyl radical decays by second order recombination and the indole triplet state decays by combined first and second order processes. Hydrated electrons are shown to react with H , H2O, indole, Na and Cd"*""1"". No evidence has been found for the reaction of hydrated electrons with Ba . The specific rate of second order neutral indolyl radical recombination is unaffected by NaBr and BaCl2*2H20, and is increased by CdSO^. Specific rates for both first and second order triplet state decay processes are increased by all solutes. While NaBr greatly reduced the fluorescence lifetime and emission band intensity, BaCl2*2H20 and CdSO^ had no effect on these parameters. It is suggested that in solute-free solutions and in those containing BaCl2*2H20 and CdSO^, direct excitation occurs to CTTS states as well as to first excited singlet states. It is further suggested that in solutions containing NaBr, direct excitation to first excited singlet states predominates. This difference serves to explain increased indole triplet state production (by ISC from CTTS states) and unchanged fluorescence lifetimes and emission band intensities in the presence of BaCl2*2H20 and CdSOt^., and increased indole triplet state production (by ISC from S^ states) and decreased fluorescence lifetime and emission band intensity in the presence of NaBr. Evidence is presented for (a) very rapid (tx ^ 1 us) processes involving reactions of the hydrated electron with Na and Cd which compete with the reformation of indole by hydrated electron-indole radical cation recombination, and (b) first and second order indole triplet decay processes involving the conversion of first excited triplet states to vibrationally excited ground singlet states.
    • Some aspects of the chemistry of 1, 3, 4 - Thiadiazolium salts and related compounds

      Mastalerz, Harold.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      The work described in this thesis has been divided into seven sections. The first section involves the preparation of N'-acyl-N'-arylN- benzothiohydrazides by the acylation of N'-aryl-N-benzothiohydrazides and is followed by a brief discussion of their possible conformation in solution. The second section deals with the preparation of 1,3,4-thiadiazolium salts by the action of perchloric acid/acetic anhydride on N'-acylN'- aryl-N-benzothiohydrazides and also by the reaction of N'-arylN- benzothiohydrazides with nitriles in an acidic medium. The preparation of 2-methylthio-I,3,4-thiadiazolium methosulfate by methylating the corresponding thione is also described. The third section deals with the reaction of 2-phenyl- and 2-methyl-I,3,4-thiadiazolium salts with alcohols in the presence of base. The stability and spectra of these compounds are discussed. Treatment of the 2-methyl-I,3,4-thiadiazolium salt with base was found to give rise to a dimeric anhydrobase and evidence supporting its structure is given. The anhydrobase could be trapped by a variety of acylating and thioacylating agents before dimerization occurred. In the fourth section, the reaction of N'-acyl-N'-aryl-N-benzothiohydrazides with a variety of acid anhydrides is described. These compounds were found to be identical with those obtained by acylating the anhydrobase. The mass spectral fragmentation of these compounds is described and the anomolous product obtained upon thiobenzoylation of 3-methyl-l-phenyl-pyrazal-5-one is also discussed. The fifth section deals with thioacyl derivatives of the anhydrobase which were prepared by the action of phosphorus pentasulfide upon the oxygen analogues and also obtained as the major product of the reaction of thioacetic acid with compounds related to N'-aryl-N-benzothiohydrazides. The mass spectra and p.m.r. spectra of these compounds are discussed. In the sixth section, the reaction of the 2-methylthio-l,3,4- thiadiazolium salt with active methylene compounds to give acyl and diacyl derivatives of the anhydrobase is described. Some aspects of these compounds are discussed. The seventh section describes the synthesis of ncyanine~' type dyes incorporating the l,3,4-thiadiazole ring and their spectra are briefly discussed.
    • Some aspects of the chemistry of Reissert compounds / |nDurga Prasad Aysola. -- 260 St. Catharines [Ont. : s. n.],

      Aysola, Durga Prasad.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1976-07-09)
      1-(0- and m-Ohlorobenzoyl)isoquinolines have been synthesized by two routes involving Reissert compounds. One route involves condensation of 2-benzoyl-l,2-dihydroisoquinaldonitrile with the appropriate chlorobenzaldehyde and the second involves rearrangement of the appropriate Z-(chlorobenzoyl)-l,Z-dihydroisoquinaldonitrile under basic conditions. The action of potassamide in anhydrous liquid ammonia on both ketones gave unexpectedly N-(l-isoquinolyl)benzamide (67) as the major product and the use of dibenzo-18-crown-6-ether 98% substantially improved the yd..e.ld in the case of l-chloroketone. This amide (67) exhibits unusual hydrogen bonding. 1-(o-chlorobenzoyl)-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline (79) was prepared in very s,amll quantities by the route involving condensation of 2-benzoyll, Z-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinaldonitrile with o-chlorobenzaldehyde. The poor yields are due to the instability of the anion of 2-benzoyl1, Z-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinaldonitrile. Attempted preparation of the ketone (79) by rearrangement of 2-(o-chlorobenzoyl)-l,2-dihydro6,7- dimethoxyisoquinaldonitrile under basic conditions yielded the start~ng material (Reissert compound) and 6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline. The action of potassamide in anhydrous liquid ammonia on l-(o-bromo-4,5-dimethoxybenzoyl)isoquinoline (85), which was prepared by the route involving the condensation of 2-benzoyl-l,4-dihydroisoquinaldonitrile with o-bromo-4,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, gave two products, which have not yet been identified. The ketone (85) and its precursors are interest~ng in that their 20 eV and 70 eV mass spectra do not show molecular ions.
    • Some electrical properties of semi-conductor crystals / |nPhyu Phyu Khin. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Khin, Phyu Phyu.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-07-09)
      SiC and AtB 12 have been prepared and their resistivities and Hall voltages measured. The resistivities and Hall voltages were measured by the Van der Pauw's method, using spring loaded tungsten contacts. In this method, the major requirement is to have samples of plane parallel surfaces of arbitrary shape with four small contacts at the circumference. Similar measurements were made with a number of SiC crystals obtained from the Norton Research Corporation (Canada)-Ltd., Carolina Aluminum Co., Exolon Co. and Carborundum Co. It was found that resistivity, carrier concentration and mobility of ions depend on the type of impurity. AtB 12 was prepared from the melt containing At and B in the ratio of 4:1. They formed amber-colour pseudo tetragonal crystals. As the crystals obtained were small for electrical measurements, hot pressed lumps have been used to measure their resistivity.
    • A Step Toward Recyclable Silicone Elastomers

      Nasresfahani, Amin; Department of Chemistry
      This thesis introduces a new strategy for developing polysiloxane networks with the capacity of being recycled. The conventional methods of cross-linking polysiloxanes suffer from lack of self-repair and recyclability. Diels-Alder/retro-Diels-Alder (DA/RDA) equilibrium is a key to establish thermally reversible linkages among polysiloxane chains to enable the material’s recyclability. The equilibrium is optimized to improve the extent of reversibility of the Diels-Alder adduct through functional groups such as carboxyphenyl, ester, and carbon spacers in the structures of maleimide and furan derivatives. The DA/RDA equilibrium is studied by various nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiments and differential scanning calorimeter analyses. The DA reaction is found to be at its highest rate at 50 ͦC while the retro-Diels-Alder reaction is predominant at 110 ͦC. Comparison of the reaction rate constant of the optimized maleimide and furan derivatives at 50 ͦC with the literature suggests that the DA reaction is among those ones described as ultra fast kinetic. Accordingly, series of polysiloxanes are functionalized with the optimized maleimide and furan derivatives to obtain recyclable polysiloxane networks. Dynamic, variable-temperature solid-state 1H NMR experiments are confirmed the rapid, reversible nature of the cross-links within the polysiloxanes. The injured networks are mended to the point that signs of defects were nearly imperceptible even by scanning electron microscopy. The binding strengths of the healed materials are quantified using stress-strain measurements. The healed networks displayed binding strengths that are equal or superior to the undamaged ones.