• NMR studies of the exchange reactions of CH3CN.BX3 with excess CH3CN /|nJoseph Fogelman. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Fogelman, Joseph.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1970-07-09)
      Exchange reactions between molecular complexes and excess acid or base are well known and have been extensively surveyed in the literature(l). Since the exchange mechanism will, in some way involve the breaking of the labile donor-acceptor bond, it follows that a discussion of the factors relating to bonding in molecular complexes will be relevant. In general, a strong Lewis base and a strong Lewis acid form a stable adduct provided that certain stereochemical requirements are met. A strong Lewis base has the following characteristics (1),(2) (i) high electron density at the donor site. (ii) a non-bonded electron pair which has a low ionization potential (iii) electron donating substituents at the donor atom site. (iv) facile approach of the site of the Lewis base to the acceptor site as dictated by the steric hindrance of the substituents. Examples of typical Lewis bases are ethers, nitriles, ketones, alcohols, amines and phosphines. For a strong Lewis acid, the following properties are important:( i) low electron density at the acceptor site. (ii) electron withdrawing substituents. (iii) substituents which do not interfere with the close approach of the Lewis base. (iv) availability of a vacant orbital capable of accepting the lone electron pair of the donor atom. Examples of Lewis acids are the group III and IV halides such (M=B, AI, Ga, In) and MX4 - (M=Si, Ge, Sn, Pb). The relative bond strengths of molecular complexes have been investigated by:- (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v] (vi) dipole moment measurements (3). shifts of the carbonyl peaks in the IIIR. (4) ,(5), (6) .. NMR chemical shift data (4),(7),(8),(9). D.V. and visible spectrophotometric shifts (10),(11). equilibrium constant data (12), (13). heats of dissociation and heats of reactions (l~), (16), (17), (18), (19). Many experiments have bben carried out on boron trihalides in order to determine their relative acid strengths. Using pyridine, nitrobenzene, acetonitrile and trimethylamine as reference Lewis bases, it was found that the acid strength varied in order:RBx3 > BC1 3 >BF 3 • For the acetonitrile-boron trihalide and trimethylamine boron trihalide complexes in nitrobenzene, an-NMR study (7) showed that the shift to lower field was. greatest for the BB~3 adduct ~n~ smallest for the BF 3 which is in agreement with the acid strengths. If electronegativities of the substituents were the only important effect, and since c~ Br ,one would expect the electron density at the boron nucleus to vary as BF3<BC1~ BBr 3 and therefore, the acid strength would vary as BF~BC1)BBr3: However, for the boron trihalides, the trend is in the opposite direction as determined experimentally. Considerable back-bonding (20), (21) between the halogen and the boron atoms has been proposed as the predominating factor, i.e. ~rt- back-bond between a lone electron pair on the halogen and the vacant orbital on the boron site. The degree of back-bonding varies inversely as the bo~on halogen distance and one would therefore expect the B-F bond to exhibit greater back-bonding character than the B-Cl or B-Br bonds. Since back-bonding transfers electron density from substituent to the boron atom site, this process would be expected to weaken the Lewis acid strength. This explains the Lewis acid strength increasing in the order BF 3 BC1 3 BBr 3 . When the acetonitrile boron trihalide complex is formed, the boron atom undergoes ~_cbange of hybridization from sp2 to sp3. From a linear relationship between the heat of formation of ethyl acetate adducts and the shift in the carbonyl I.R. stretch, Drago (22) et al have proposed that the angular di~tortion of the X-B-X bonds from sp2 (12 ) to sp3 (10 hybridization is proportional to the amount of charge transferred, i.e. to the nature of the base, and they have rejected the earlier concept of reorganization energy in explaining the formation of the adduct bond (19).
    • The normal co-ordinate analysis, vibrational spectra and theoretical infrared intensities of some thiocarbonyl halide molecules /

      Brema, John L.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1970-06-09)
      TITLE: The normal co-ordinate analysis, vibrational spectra and theoretical infrared intensities of some thiocarbonyl halides. AUTHOR: J. L. Brema SUPERVISOR: Dr. D. C. Moule NUMBER OF PAGES: 89 ABSTRACT: The vibrational assignment of the five-in-plane fundamental modes of CSClBr has been made on the basis of infrared gas phase and liquid Raman spectral analyses to supplement our earlier vibrational studies. Even though the one out-of-plane fundamental was not observed spectroscopically an attempt has been made to predict its frequency. The vibrational spectra contained impurity bands and the CSClBr assignment was made only after a thorough analysis of the impurities themselves. A normal co-ordinate analysis calculation was performed assuming a Urey-Bradley force field. This calculation yielded the fundamental frequencies in good agreement with those observed after refinement of the originally transferred force constants. The theoretical frequencies are the eigenvalues of the secular equation and the calculation also gave the corresponding eigenvectors in the form of the very important LLj matrix. The [l] matrix is the transfoirmation between internal co-ordinates and normal co-ordinates and it is essential for Franck-Condon calculations on electronically excited molecules and for infrared Integrated band intensity studies. Using a self-consistent molecular orbital calculation termed "complete neglect of differential overlap" (CNDO/2) , theoretical values of equilibrium bond lengths and angleswere calcuted for a series of carbonyl and thlocarbonyl molecules. From these calculations valence force field force constants were also determined but with limited success. With the CNIX)/2 method theoretical dipole moment derivatives with respect to symmetrized internal co-ordinates were calculated and the results should be useful in a correlation with experimentally determined values.
    • Novel Tridentate N,S,N-Metal Compounds of Zinc, Germanium and Phosphorus

      Lortie, John; Department of Chemistry
      A novel ligand based on a flexible NSN tridentate framework, and main group compounds of the general formula M(NSN) were prepared on zinc, germanium, and phosphorus. The compound ZnNSN(dimethylaminopyridine) (III-45a) is fluxional with III-46a in tetrahydrofuran, and its exchange parameters were calculated from NMR measurements. An X-ray structure was obtained for GeNSN (III-47a) crystals isolated from diethylether and exhibits an envelope-like geometry with coordination of the soft sulfur donor to the germanium centre. III-47a was not reactive with CH3I but showed reactivity with 3,6-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone. ClPNSN (III-53) was prepared both by transmetallation of III-46a and by a reaction of an in situ generated Li2NSN and PCl3. HPNSN (III-52) was prepared by halogen exchange of III-53 and L-selectride.
    • Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of boron trihalide complexes of 1,1-BIS (dimethylamino) ethylene and related bases

      Yetman, Ronald R.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-10-02)
      Boron tribalide complexes of 1,1-bis(dimethylamino)ethylene (DME) , t etramethylurea (TMU), tetramethylguanidine (TMG) , and pentamethylguanidine (PMG) and also mixed boron t r ihalide adducts of DME have been investigated by 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopy. Both nitrogen and the C-Q-H carbon of DME are possible donor a toms to boron trihal ides but complexation has been found to occur only at carbon of DME. The initial adduct acts as a Bronsted acid and gives up a proton to free DME in solut ion. A side reaction in the DME-BF, system gives rise to trace amounts of a complex aSSigned as (DME)2BF2+. (DME)2BF2+ is produced in much larger quantities in t he DME-BF3-BC13 and DME-BF,-BBr, systems by reaction of free DME with DME:BF2X (X = Cl, Br). Restricted r otation about the C-N bonds of TMUlBC13 and n1U:BBr3 has been observed at low temperatures. This complements previous work in this system and confirms oxygen donation of TMU to boron trihalides . Restricted rotation at low temperatures also has been observed in DMEboron trihalide systems
    • The nucleophillic substitution of various chloroanthraquinones of their possible rearrangement via aryne intermediates

      Ruediger, Edward H.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      The work in this thesis deals mainly with nucleophilic substitution of chloroanthraquinones as a route to various starting materials which might rearrange, via aryne intermediates to afford fused-ring heterocy1ic carboxylic acids. 1-Amino-5-chloroanthraquinone was successfully prepared by reacting 1,5-dichloroanthraquinone with sodium aZide in ref1uxing dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). It could also be prepared from the same starting material by reaction with ammonia (gas) in DMSO in the presence of potassium fluoride. Treatment of l-amino-5-chloroanthraquinone with potassium amide in liquid ammonia or with potassium t-butoxide in t-butylbenzene returned mainly starting material, although in the latter case some 1-amino-5-hydroxyanthraquinone was also isolated. 1-Hydroxy-5-chloroanthraquinone was ultimately prepared by diazotization of the amino-analog. It was recovered almost quantitatively after treatmenu'with potassium amide in liquid ammonia. The reaction with potassium t-butoxide in t-buty1benzene was anomalous and gave 1-hydroxyanthraquinone as the only iso1able product. Acridines were successfully prepared by the action of 70% sulfuric acid on 1,5-bis(p-toluidino)-anthraquinone and 1-p-toluidino-5- ch10roanthraquinone, and in the latter case, cleavage to give an acridinecarboxylate was attempted. Substituted anthraquinones reacted with sodium azide in sulfuric acid to give azepindiones by -NH insertion. Methods for separating and identifying isomeric mixtures of these compounds were examined. Attempted decarbonylation of selected azepindiones to give acridones gave mainly what were thought to be amino-benzophenone derivatives. Chloroanthraquinones were found to react with hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) to give mixtures of the dimethylamino- and methylaminoderivatives. Under the same conditions halogeno-nitrobenzenes and nitrophenols were substituted to give the appropriate dimethyl aminobenzenes, except in two cases. 3-Chloronitrobenzene reacted anomalously to give a small amount of 3,3'-dichloroazobenzene and a trace of 4-dimethylamino-nitrobenzene. Pentachlorophenol reacted to give a pentachlorophenylphosphorodiamidate in good yield.
    • N–Phenyl Pyrroloimidazolone Derivatives for Stereoselective Birch Reduction-Alkylation and Chiral Imidazolylidene-Iridium Complexation

      Tran, Ngan; Department of Chemistry
      This thesis describes the synthesis and use of an N– based proline–derived directing group towards the Birch reduction, diastereoselective alkylation, and the synthesis of NHC–iridium complexes that are precursors for the study of intramolecular aryl C–H activation. A pair of ortho–benzoate esters containing epimeric pyrroloimidazolone chiral auxiliaries underwent sequential Birch reduction and diastereoselective alkylation to provide products ranging from a 50:50 to 95:5 dr for the anti– epimer, and 88:12 to >95:5 diastereomeric ratio (dr) for the syn– epimer. Single crystal X–ray analysis of key anti–epimer–derived products, along with the comparison of the optical rotation measurements of enantiomers that were prepared from the syn–or anti– starting materials to its known enantiomer confirmed the stereoselectivity of the products. This work includes related Schultz stereoselective Birch reduction alkylation of anisole with a chiral benzamide except that the pyrroloimidazolone replaces the achiral methoxy group and serves as the stereodetermining element. In addition, the synthesis and evaluation of the N–phenyl iridium complex derived from the annulated aminal with syn–stereochemistry in the backbone was achieved. Exposure of the neutral Ir–complexes to anionic nucleophiles such as MeLi resulted in an increase of electron density at the Ir atom that initiated C–H bond activation. Lastly, a N–heterocyclic carbene ligand derived from the N–benzyl analogue of the auxiliary was also investigated. Attempts to design a monodentate ligand as well as a bidentate ligand bearing an alcohol side chain were both shown to be unsuccessful at this time.
    • Optimization of trial wave functions for use in quantum Monte Carlo with application to LiH

      Chʻen, Hung-tʻao.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1988-07-09)
      Methods for both partial and full optimization of wavefunction parameters are explored, and these are applied to the LiH molecule. A partial optimization can be easily performed with little difficulty. But to perform a full optimization we must avoid a wrong minimum, and deal with linear-dependency, time step-dependency and ensemble-dependency problems. Five basis sets are examined. The optimized wavefunction with a 3-function set gives a variational energy of -7.998 + 0.005 a.u., which is comparable to that (-7.990 + 0.003) 1 of Reynold's unoptimized \fin ( a double-~ set of eight functions). The optimized wavefunction with a double~ plus 3dz2 set gives ari energy of -8.052 + 0.003 a.u., which is comparable with the fixed-node energy (-8.059 + 0.004)1 of the \fin. The optimized double-~ function itself gives an energy of -8.049 + 0.002 a.u. Each number above was obtained on a Bourrghs 7900 mainframe computer with 14 -15 hrs CPU time.
    • Orientation of Non-Native 2-Monosubstituted and 2,3-Disubstituted 1,4-Naphthoquinones in the A1 binding site of PSI and the effect on the rate of electron transfer : an electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy study

      Brown, Sarah Anne E.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2003-10-02)
      The proce-ss ofoxygenic photosynthesis is vital to life on Earth. the central event in photosynthesis is light induced electron transfer that converts light into energy for growth. Ofparticular significance is the membrane bound multisubunit protein known as Photosystem I (PSI). PSI is a reaction centre that is responsible for the transfer of electrons across the membrane to reduce NADP+ to NADPH. The recent publication ofa high resolution X-ray structure of PSI has shown new information about the structure, in particular the electron transfer cofactors, which allows us to study it in more detail. In PSI, the secondary acceptor is crucial for forward electron transfer. In this thesis, the effect of removing the native acceptor phylloquinone and replacing it with a series of structurally related quinones was investigated via transient electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments. The orientation of non native quinones in the binding site and their ability to function in the electron transfer process was determined. It was found that PSI will readily accept alkyl naphthoquinones and anthraquinone. Q band EPR experiments revealed that the non-native quinones are incorporated into the binding site with the same orientation of the headgroup as in the native system. X band EPR spectra and deuteration experiments indicate that monosubstituted naphthoquinones are bound to the Al site with their side group in the position occupied by the methyl group in native PSI (meta to the hydrogen bonded carbonyl oxygen). X band EPR experiments show that 2, 3- disubstituted methyl naphthoquinones are also incorporated into the Al site in the same orientation as phylloquinone, even with the presence of a halogen- or sulfur-containing side chain in the position normally occupied by the phytyl tail ofphylloquinone. The exception to this is 2-bromo-3-methyl --.- _. -. - -- - - 4 _._ _ _ - _ _ naphthoquinone which has a poorly resolved spectrum, making determination of the orientation difficuh. All of the non-native quinones studied act as efficient electron acceptors. However, forward electron transfer past the quinone could only be demonstrated for anthraquinone, which has a more negative midpoint potential than phylloquinone. In the case of anthraquinone, an increased rate of forward electron transfer compared to native PSI was found. From these results we can conclude that the rate ofelectron transfer from Al to Fx in native PSI lies in the normal region ofthe Marcus Curve.
    • Palladium and platinum complexes of vitamin Bâ

      Acquaye, John Henry K. A.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1982-07-09)
      Palladium and platinum complexes of pyridoxamine, pyridoxine and pyridoxal have been prepared. The structures of the complexes PtCI2PM.H20, trans-PdC12 (PN)2 and [PLH+ ]2[PtC16] 2- ,H20 have been determined by use of single crystal x-ray studies. The compounds PdC12PH, trans-PdC12 (PN) 2 , cis-PdCI2 (PN)2 and cis PdC12 (PL)2 were also studied by use of carbon-13 nmr spectroscopy. All the complexes have also been characterised by use of infrared spectral studies. In the complexes, PtCI2PM.H20 and PdC12PM, the ligand pyridoxamine is chela ted to the metal through the aminomethyl nitrogen and the phenolate oxygen atoms whereas in the complexes, trans-PdCI2 (PN)2' cis-PdCI2 (PN)2 and cis-PdC12 (PL)2 the vitamin B6 ligands are coordinated to the metal through the pyridine ring nitrogen. The compounds [PLH+ ]2[PtCI6] 2- .H20 and [PMH2] 2+ [PdCI4] 2- .H20have no direct metal-ligand bonding, In all the complexes, the metal maintains a square planar coordination except in [PLH +] 2[PtCI6] 2- ,H20 where the metal is octahedrally coordinated. PH pyridoxamine [PMH ] 2+ = diprotonated pyridoxamine 2 PN = pyridoxine PL pyridoxal PLH+ protonated pyridoxal
    • Phospha-adamantane ligands and phosphorous ionic liquids for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions /

      Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      New and robust methodologies have been designed for palladiumcatalyzed cross-coupling reactions involving a library of novel tertiary phosphine ligands incorporating a phospha-adamantane framework. The secondary phosphine, l,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,4,8-trioxa-6-phospha-adamantane was converted into a small library of tertiary phosphine derivatives and the ability of these tertiary phosphaadamantanes to act as effective ligands in the palladium-catalyzed amination reaction and p-alkyl-Suzuki cross-coupling was examined. l,3,5,7-Tetramethyl-6- phenyl-2,4,8-trioxa-6-phosphaadamantane (PA-Ph) used in combination with Pd2(dba)3 CHCI3 facilitated the reaction of an array of aryl iodides, bromides and chlorides with a variety secondary and primary amines to give tertiary and secondary amines respectively in good to excellent yields. 8-(2,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)- l,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,4,6-trioxa-8-phospha-tricyclo[*3,7*]decane used in combination with Pd(0Ac)2 permitted the reaction of an array of alkyl iodides, and bromides with a variety aryl boronic acids and alkyl 9-BBN compounds in good to excellent yields. Subsequent to this work, the use of phosphorous based ionic liquids, specifically tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium chloride (THPC), in the Heck reaction provided good to excellent yields in the coupling of aryl iodides and bromides with a variety of olefins.
    • Phospha-adamantanes as ligands for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions

      Adjabeng, George Maclean.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2003-07-09)
      New and robust methodologies have been designed for palladium-catalyzed crosscoupling reactions involving·a novel·class oftertiary phosphine ligand incorporating a phospha-adamantane framework. It has been realized that bulky, electron-rich phosphines, when used as ligands for palladium, allow for cross-coupling reactions involving even the less reactive aryl halide substrates with a variety of coupling partners. In an effort to design new ligands suitable for carrying out cross-coupling transformations, the secondary phosphine, 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,4,8-trioxa-6phosphaadamantane was converted into a number of tertiary phosphine derivatives. The ability of these tertiary phosphaadamantanes to act as effective ligands in the palladiumcatalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling was examined. 1,3,5,7-Tetramethyl-6-phenyl-2,4,8trioxa- 6-phosphaadamantane (PA-Ph) used in combination with Pdz(dba)3permitted the reaction of an array of aryl iodides, bromides and chlorides with a variety arylboronic acids to give biaryls in good to excellent yields. Subsequently, palladium complexes of PA-Ph were prepared and isolated in high yields as air stable palladium bisphosphine complexes. Two different kinds of crystals were isolated and upon characterization revealed two complexes, Pd(PA-Ph)z.dba and Pd(PA-Ph)zOz. Preliminary screening for their catalytic activity indicated that the former is more reactive than the latter. Pd(PAPh) z.dba was applied as the catalyst for Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions of aryl iodides and bromides and in the reactions of aryl bromides and chlorides with ketones to give a-arylated ketones at mild temperatures in high yields.
    • Polynuclear 3d/4f-Metal Complexes as Molecular Magnetic Refrigerants and Single-Molecule Magnets

      Richardson, Paul; Department of Chemistry
      The use of two different chelating/bridging ligands, naphthalene-2,3-diol (ndH2) and acenaphthenequinone dioxime (acndH2), in heterometallic 3d/4f-metal cluster chemistry has yielded two new families of polynuclear CuII/LnIII clusters. These complexes were found to exhibit interesting magnetic properties, specifically single-molecule magnetism and the magnetocaloric effect. In this thesis, Chapter 1 lays the foundation for the research presented within. This section covers the fundamentals of polynuclear metal complexes, molecular magnetism, and the magnetocaloric effect, as well as the approaches used for the synthesis of new polynuclear metal complexes and the choice of ligands. Chapters 2 and 3 report the results of the current thesis. In Chapter 2, the synthesis and characterization of a family of {Cu4Ln} complexes (LnIII = GdIII (1), TbIII (2), DyIII (3)), employing the ligand ndH2 is presented. The complexes join a handful of previously reported {Cu4Ln} clusters, however, the family reported in this thesis are the first ‘propeller’-like clusters that exhibit single-molecule magnetism and magnetic refrigeration properties. In Chapter 3, a family of {Cu6Ln2}n chains (LnIII = GdIII (4), TbIII (5), DyIII (6)) obtained through the employment of ligand acndH2 is presented. This family of 1D-chains is a novel motif that has not been previously reported in the literature, with only a few discrete {Cu6Ln2} 0D-clusters having been previously reported. The complexes were magnetically characterized, with 4 and 5 exhibiting ferromagnetic exchange interactions while 6 revealed a more complex magnetic behaviour with both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions dominating at different temperature regimes. Furthermore, 5 was found to behave as a single-molecule magnet and 4 was shown to act as a molecular magnetic refrigerant.
    • Polynuclear Ni(II) Complexes with Schiff Bases as Bridging Ligands: A Molecular Approach to Nanoscience

      Athanasopoulou, Angeliki; Department of Chemistry
      The initial employment of N-salicylidene-2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid (sacbH2) as bridging/chelating ligand in metal cluster chemistry has provided access to five new polynuclear NiII complexes with large nuclearities, unprecedented metal core topologies, and interesting magnetic properties. The obtained results are presented in two projects. The first project includes the investigation of the general Ni2+/RCO2-/sacbH2 reaction system (where R- = CH3-, But-, ButCH2-) in which the nature of the carboxylic acid was found to be of crucial importance, affecting enormously the nuclearity of the resulting complexes. The second project deals with the study of the general Ni2+/X-/sacbH2 reaction system (where X- = inorganic anions) under basic conditions, yielding new cluster compounds with molecular chain-like structures and ferromagnetic exchange interactions between the metal centers.
    • Polytypism and Silicon carbide : a solid state nuclear magnetic resonance study

      Winsborrow, Beatrice G.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1987-07-09)
      A survey of predominantly industrial silicon carbide has been carried out using Magic Angle Spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS nmr); a solid state technique. Three silicon carbide polytypes were studied; 3C, 6H, and 15R. The 13C and 29 Si MAS nmr spectra of the bulk SiC sample was identified on the basis of silicon (carbon) site type in the d iff ere n t pol Y t Y pes • Out to 5.00 A fro mac en t r a lsi 1 i con (0 r carbon) atom four types of sites were characterized using symmetry based calculations. This method of polytype analysis was also considered, in the prelminary stages, for applications with other polytypic material; CdBr 2 , CdI 2 , and PbI 2 " In an attempt to understand the minor components of silicon carbide, such as its surface, some samples were hydrofluoric acid washed and heated to extreme temperatures. Basically, an HF removable species which absorbs at -110 ppm (Si0 2 ) in the 29 Si MAS nmr spectrum is found in silicon carbide after heating. Other unidentified peaks observed at short recycle delays in some 29 Si MAS nmr spectra are considered to be impurities that may be within the lattice. These components comprise less than 5% of the observable silicon. A Tl study was carried out for 29 Si nuclei in a 3C ii polytype sample, using the Driven Equilibrium Single-Pulse Observation of T1 (DESPOT) technique. It appears as though there are a number of nuclei that have the same chemical shift but different T1 relaxation times. The T1 values range from 30 seconds to 11 minutes. Caution has to be kept when interpreting these results because this is the first time that DESPOT has been used for solid samples and it is not likely in full working order. MAS nmr indicates that the 13C and 29 Si ~sotropic chemical shifts of silicon carbide appear to have a reciprocal type of relationship_ Single crystal nmr analysis of a 6H sample is accordance with this finding when only the resultant isotropic shift is considered. However, single crystal nmr also shows that the actual response of the silicon and carbon nuclear environment to the applied magnetic field at various angles is not at all reciprocal. Such results show that much more single crystal nmr work is required to determine the actual behavior of the local magnetic environment of the SiC nuclei.
    • Predicting the Pose of β-Casomorphin-5 and 7 in the Opioid Receptors

      Oberc, Christopher; Department of Chemistry
      The opioid receptors consist of three main subtypes; μ, δ, and κ. Previous binding studies have shown that fragments of the milk protein, β-casein, known as β-casomorphins are agonists of these receptors which are selective for the μ receptor subtype. Using the crystal structures of these three receptors, computational molecular docking studies were done using the software GOLD to determine the conformation of β-casomorphin-5 and 7 when they bind to these three opioid receptors. GOLD was able to discriminate among the three receptors when docking the rigid ligands co-crystalized with the receptors. However, GOLD could not discriminate among the three receptors for either of the highly flexible β-casomorphins. A per amino acid scoring method was developed to overcome this problem. This method was used to predict the conformation of both β-casomorphin-5 and 7 in the μ receptor and determine that the two amino acid residues, Lys303 and Trp318 of the μ receptor are responsible for discriminating among the three receptor subtypes for binding of the β-casomorphin-5 and 7.
    • The preparation and reactions of some 1, 2-dipolar species /|nI. D. Brindle. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Brindle, Ian. D.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-07-09)
      This research was directed mainly towards the investigation of the reactions of allylic amineimides. The work can be divided into two main sections. Section 1 of the thesis deals mainly with thermolysis studies of amineimides. Sections 1a and 1b represent a comprehensive survey of amineimide literature up to 1971. N-A1ly1-N,N-dirnethylarnine-benzirnide was prepared and rearranged at 1400 to l-allyl-1-benzoyl-2,2-dimethylhydrazine. A tentative mechanism involving an initial migration to the carbonyl oxygen was disproved by incorporating the amineimide system into a five-membered ring. N,N~Dimethyl-N-propargylamine-benzimidedid not rearrange on heating; but the hydrobromide, on heating, disproportionated to give 1-benzoyl~2,2,2-trimethylhydraziniumbromide and I-benzoyl-2,2~ dimethylhydrazine. l-Ally'l--l, I-dimethyl-2-benzoy-lhydrazinium bromide and 1~benzoy-1-2,2, 2-trimethy-lhydrazinium iodide both disproportionated to give l~benzoyl-2,2-dimethylhydrazine. Section 1 concludes with a discussion of the mechanisms of ally'lic migrations in amineimides proposed by J. E. Baldwin. Section 2 deals with the formation of five-membered heterocyclic compounds from amineimides by bromination. 1,1-Dimethyl-2benzoyl- 4-bromopyrazolidinium bromide was formed from N-allyl-N,Ndime thy-lamtne-benzimide , 1,1-dimethyl-2-benzoyl-4-bromopyrazol-3enium bromide from N,N~dimethyl-N-propargylamine~benzimidevia the unusual acetylenic "bromonium" ion. Hydrogenolysis of both heterocyclic compounds gave the same product. The preparation was extended by forming 2,2-dimethyl-4-bromoisoxazolinium bromide from N-allylN, N-dimethylamine-N-oxide. Sections 3 and 4 cover a number of unsuccessful attempts to synthesise other amineimides and l,2-dipolar species.
    • Quantum Monte Carlo : some theoretical and numerical studies

      Gordon, Heather Louise.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1983-07-09)
      In Part I, theoretical derivations for Variational Monte Carlo calculations are compared with results from a numerical calculation of He; both indicate that minimization of the ratio estimate of Evar , denoted EMC ' provides different optimal variational parameters than does minimization of the variance of E MC • Similar derivations for Diffusion Monte Carlo calculations provide a theoretical justification for empirical observations made by other workers. In Part II, Importance sampling in prolate spheroidal coordinates allows Monte Carlo calculations to be made of E for the vdW molecule var He2' using a simplifying partitioning of the Hamiltonian and both an HF-SCF and an explicitly correlated wavefunction. Improvements are suggested which would permit the extension of the computational precision to the point where an estimate of the interaction energy could be made~
    • Racemic and Enantioselective Total Syntheses of Mosquito Oviposition Pheromone from a Naturally Available Unsaturated Fatty Acid

      Hurem, David; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2014-09-11)
      The unnatural threo-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide and the natural mosquito oviposition pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide were synthesized in a diastereodivergent fashion in 44% and 33% overall yield respectively from 5-bromovaleric acid and undecanal. The key step utilized a chemoenzymatic epoxidation-lactonization of a naturally available fatty acid to form the 6-hydroxy-5-hexadecanolide core.17 The epoxidation strategy was later adapted to allow for an asymmetric synthesis. Shi epoxidation afforded highly enantioenriched (5R, 6R)-6-hydroxyhexadecanolide (er = 10) in 70 % overall yield. Other derivatives of the chiral ketone catalyst were also screened. Finally, attempts were made to obtain the correct stereochemistry at C(6) of the target with a dynamic kinetic transformation using lipase and a transfer hydrogenation catalyst. Epimerization of the lactol with the transfer hydrogenation catalyst was successful, but lipase mediated reactions halted at <10 % conversion.
    • Reactions of polyhalogenated aromatic compounds and related ethers with metal/ammonia solutions

      Cater, Stephen R.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1982-07-09)
      This work contains the results of a series of reduction studies on polyhalogenated aromatic compounds and related ethers using alkali metals in liquid ammonia. In general, polychlorobenzenes were reduced to t he parent aromatic hydrocarbon or to 1 ,4-cyc1ohexadiene, and dipheny1ethers were cleaved to the aroma tic hydrocarbon and a phenol. Chlorinated dipheny1ethers were r eductive1y dechlorinated in the process. For example, 4-chlorodipheny1- ether gave benzene and phenol. Pentach1orobenzene and certain tetrachlorobenzenes disproportionated to a fair degree during the reduction process if no added proton source was present. The disproportionation was attributed to a build-up of amide ion. Addition of ethanol completely suppressed the formation of any disproportionation products. In the reductions of certain dipheny1ethers , the reduction of one or both of the dipheny1ether rings occurred, along with the normal cleavage. This was more prevalent when lithium was the metal used . As a Sidelight, certain chloropheno1s were readily dechlorinated. In light of these results, the reductive detoxification of the chlorinated dibenzo-1,4-dioxins seems possible with alkali metals in l iquid ammonia.
    • Reactions of some non-enolisable chloroketones with amide ion and a new synthesis of acridones /|nGuo-shyoung John Chen. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Chen, John Guo-shyoung.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1973-07-09)
      This research was directed mainly towards the investigation of the reacti.ons of· substituted chlorobenziophenones under strongly basi,c conditions. The work 'can be divided into two main sections. The Introduction deals mainly with historical studies on aryne chemistry and the Haller-Bauer reaction. Secti.on I i.s concerned with syntheses of 2-benzamido-2'chlorobenzophenone and 2-benzamido~3'-chlorobenzophenone,and with thei,r respective reactions wi.th potassium amide in ammonia. o-Chlorophenylacetic acid was converted to the acid chloride and then by Friedel-Craftsreaction with benzene to w-(o-chlorophenyl)acetophenone. Reaction wi.th phenylhydrazine and Fischer cyclization gave 3- (0chlorophenyl)- 2-phenylindole, which was ozonized to 2-benzamido-2'chlorobenzophenone. The isomeric 3' -chlor,..o ke: tone was similarly synthesised from m-chlorophenylacetic acid. Both the 2'- and 3' -ch.loroketones gave N-benzoylacridone on treatment with potassium amide in ammonia; an aryne mechanism is involved for the 3'-chloroketone but aryne and nucleophilic substitution mechanisms are possible for the 2'-chloroketone. Hydrolysis of the 2'- and 3'-chloroketones gave 2-amino-2'chlorobenzophenone and 2-amino-3'-chlorobenzophenone respectively. A second new acridone synthesis is given in the Appendix involving reactions of these two ketones with potassium t-butoxide in t-butylbenzene. i Section 2 deals with the investigation of the reaction of some tricyclic ch1orobenzophenones with potassium amide in liquid ammonia. These were 1-ch1orof1uorenone; which was pr~pared in several steps from f1uoranthene, and 1- and 2-ch1oroanthraquinones. 1-Ch1orof1uorenone gave 1-aminof1uorenone ; 1-ch1oroanthraquinone gave 1- and 2-aminoanthraquinones; 2-ch1oroanthraquinone was largely recovered from the attempted reaction.