• Kinetic studies of the effect of organic sulphides on the oxidation of other sulphides /

      Aryitey, George Tetteh Magnus.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1984-06-04)
      The rates of oxidation of three Organic sulphides viz. methyl phenyl sulphide, (P), p -me thoxyphenyl methyl sulphide (M) and methyl p-nitrophenyl sulphide (N). have been obtained in ethanol using MoO-(acac)- as catalyst and Bu OOH as the oxidizing agent. A Hammett plot gave a rho value of -2.1 and the activation energies for the oxidation of P, M and N were estimated to be 63.60, 40.12 and 197.46 Kj mol respectively. The effect of organic sulphide on the oxidation of another sulphide was also ascertained. Positive and negative deviations were observed from the expected slope.
    • The kinetics and induced decomposition on the thermal decomposition of hydroperoxides /

      Tse, K. M.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1976-06-09)
      This project is focussed on the thermsLl decomposition of t-butyl hydroperoxide and sec-butyl hydroperoxide at 120°C to 160°C in three alcohol solvents. These are methanol, ethajiol and isopropyl alcohol. The aim of the project was to examine the process of induced decomposition. Thermal decomposition of t-hutyl hydroperoxide and sec-butyl hydroperoxide indicate that these reactions have first-order kinetics with activation energies on the order of 20 to 28 K cal/mole, Styrene was used as a free radical trap to inhibit the induced decomposition. The results permitted calculation of how much induced decomposition occurred in its absence. The experimental resvilts indicate that the induced decomposition is important for t-butyl hydroperoxide in alcohol solvents, as shown by both the reaction rate suid product studies. But sec-butyl hydroperoxide results show that the concerted mechanism for the interaction of two sec-butylperoxy radicals occurs in addition to the induced decomposition. Di-sodium E.D,T.A. was added to reduce possible effects of trace transition metal ion .impurities. The result of this experiment were not as expected. The rate of hydroperoxide decomposition was about the same but was zero-order in hydroperoxide concentration.
    • The kinetics and mechanism of the thermal decomposition of bis diphenyl methyl and related peroxides in liquid phase /|nby C. Thankachan. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Thankachan, C.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1973-07-09)
      Rates and products have been determined for the thermal decomposition of bis diphenyl methyl peroxide and diphenyl methyl tert* butyl peroxide at 110@~145@C* The decomposition was uniformly unimolecular with activation energies for the bis diphenyl methyl peroxide in tetrachloroethylene* toluene and nitrobenzene 26,6* 28*3f and 27 Kcals/mole respectively. Diphenyl methyl tert* butyl peroxide showed an activation energy of 38*6 Kcals/mole* About 80-90% of the products in the case of diphenyl methyl peroxide could be explained by the concerted process, this coupled with the negative entropies of activation obtained is a conclusive evidence for the reaction adopting a major concerted path* All the products in the case of diphenyl methyl peroxide could be explained by known reactions of alkoxy radicals* About 80-85% of tert butanol and benzophenone formed suggested far greater cage disproportionation than diffusing apart* Rates of bis triphenyl methyl peroxide have been determined in tetrachloroethylene at 100-120@C* The activation energy was found to be 31 Kcals/mole*
    • The kinetics and mechanism of the thermal decomposition of sec-Butyl peroxide in liquid phase /|nby Sandor Szilagyi. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Szilágyi, Sándor.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1969-07-09)
      Re~tes artd pJ~oducts of tllerma]. d,ecom.position of sec-butyl peroxide at 110 - 150°C i.n four solvents h,ave been determined. The d,ecompos i tion vJas sb.o\'\Tn to be tlnlmolecl.llar wi tho energies of activation in toluene, benzene, and cyclohexane of 36 .7-+ 1.0, 33.2 +- 1..0, 33.t~) +.. 1.0 I'(:cal/mol respectively. The activation energy of thermal decomposition for the d,et.1terated peroxide was found to be 37.2 4:- 1.0 KC8:1/1TIol in toluene. A.bo1J.t 70 - 80/~ ol~ tJJ.e' pl~od.1..1CtS could, be explained by kn01rJ11 reactions of free allcoxy raclicals J and very littJ...e, i.f allY, disPl"Opox~tiol'lation of tll10 sec-butoxy radica.ls in t116 solvent cage could be detected. The oth,er 20 - 30% of the peroxide yielded H2 and metb.:'ll etb..yl 1{etol1e. Tl1.e yield. o:f H2 "'lIas unafJ:'ected by the nature or the viscosity of the solvent, but H2 was not formed when s-t1U202 lrJaS phctolyzed. in tolttene at 35°C nor 'tl!Jrl.en the peroxide 1;'JaS tl1.ermally o..ecoJnposed. in the gas p11ase. ~pC-Dideutero-~-butYlperoxide was prepared and decomposed in toluene at 110 - 150°C. The yield of D2 was about ·•e1ne same 248 the yield. of I{2 from s-Bu202, bU.t th.e rate of decomposition (at 135°C) 1iJas only 1/1.55 as fast. Ivlecl1.anisms fOl') J:1ydrogen produ.ction are discussed, but none satisfactorily explains all the evidence.
    • The kinetics and solvent effects on the thermal decomposition of isopropyl peroxide and 1, 2-dioxane

      Rahimi, P. Mashhadi.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-10-02)
      Rates of H2 formation have been determined for the thermal decomposition of isopropyl peroxide at l30o-l50oC in toluene and methanol and at l400C in isopropyl alcohol and water. Product studies have been carried out at l400C in these solvents. The decomposition of isopropyl peroxide was shown to be unimolecular with energies of activation in toluene, and methanol of 39.1, 23.08 Kcal/mole respectively. It has been shown that the rates of H2 formation in decomposition of isopropyl peroxide are solvent dependent and that the ~ vs "'2';' values (parameters for solvent polarity) givesastraight line. Mechanisms for hydrogen production are discussed which satisfactorily explain the stabilization of the six-centered transition state by the solvent. One possibility is that of conformation stabilization by solvent and the other, a transition state with sufficient ionic character to be stabilized by a polar solvent. Rates of thermal decomposition of 1,2-dioxane in tert-butylbenzene at l40o-l70oC have been determined. The activation energy was found to be 33.4 Kcal/mole. This lower activation energy, compared to that for the decomposition of isopropyl peroxide in toluene (39.1 Kcal/mole) has been explained in terms of ring strain. Decomposition of 1,2 dioxane in MeOH does not follow a first order reaction. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the products observed for decomposition of 1;2-dioxane in toluene and methanol.
    • Large amplitude motions in the S1 state of formic acid /

      Beaty-Travis, Leanne M.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1999-05-21)
      A detailed theoretical investigation of the large amplitude motions in the S, excited electronic state of formic acid (HCOOH) was done. This study focussed on the the S, «- So electronic band system of formic acid (HCOOH). The torsion and wagging large amplitude motions of the S, were considered in detail. The potential surfaces were simulated using RHF/UHF ab-initio calculations for the two electronic states. The energy levels were evaluated by the variational method using free rotor basis functions for the torsional coordinates and harmonic oscillator basis functions for the wagging coordinates. The simulated spectrum was compared to the slit-jet-cooled fluorescence excitation spectrum allowing for the assignment of several vibronic bands. A rotational analysis of certain bands predicted that the individual bands are a mixture of rotational a, b and c-type components.The electronically allowed transition results in the c-type or Franck-Condon band and the electronically forbidden, but vibronically allowed transition creates the a/b-type or Herzberg-Teller components. The inversion splitting between these two band types differs for each band. The analysis was able to predict the ratio of the a, b and c-type components of each band.
    • Ligand Design for Dual Property Single Molecule Magnets

      Pham, Trinh N.K.; Department of Chemistry
      This thesis describes two different approaches for the preparation of polynuclear clusters with interesting structural, magnetic and optical properties. Firstly, exploiting p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene (TBC4) macrocycles together with selected Ln(III) ions for the assembly of emissive single molecule magnets, and secondly the preparation and coordination of a chiral mpmH ligand with selected 3d transition metal ions, working towards the discovery of chiral polynuclear clusters. In Project 1, the coordination chemistry of the TBC4 macrocycle together with Dy(III) and Tb(III) afforded two Ln6[TBC4]2 complexes that have been structurally, magnetically and optically characterized. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that both complexes contain an octahedral core of Ln6 ions capped by two fully deprotonated TBC4 macrocycles. Although the unit cells of the two complexes are very similar, the coordination geometries of their Ln(III) ions are subtly different. Variable temperature ac magnetic susceptibility studies reveal that both complexes display single molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour in zero dc field and the energy barriers and associated pre-exponential factors for each relaxation process have been determined. Low temperature solid state photoluminescence studies reveal that both complexes are emissive; however, the f-f transitions within the Dy6 complex were masked by broad emissions from the TBC4 ligand. In contrast, the Tb(III) complex displayed green emission with the spectrum comprising four sharp bands corresponding to 5D4 → 7FJ transitions (where J = 3, 4, 5 and 6), highlighting that energy transfer from the TBC4 macrocycle to the Tb(III) ion is more effective than to Dy. Examples of zero field Tb(III) SMMs are scarce in the chemical literature and the Tb6[TBC4]2 complex represents the first example of a Tb(III) dual property SMM assembled from a p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene macrocycle with two magnetically derived energy barriers, Ueff of 79 and 63 K. In Project 2, the coordination of both enantiomers of the chiral ligand, α-methyl-2-pyridinemethanol (mpmH) to Ni(II) and Co(II) afforded three polynuclear clusters that have been structurally and magnetically characterized. The first complex, a Ni4 cluster of stoichiometry [Ni4(O2CCMe3)4(mpm)4]·H2O crystallizes in a distorted cubane topology that is well known in Ni(II) cluster chemistry. The final two Co(II) complexes crystallize as a linear mixed valence trimer with stoichiometry [Co3(mpm)6]·(ClO4)2, and a Co4 mixed valence complex [Co(II)¬2Co(III)2(NO3)2(μ-mpm)4(ONO2)2], whose structural topology resembles that of a defective double cubane. All three complexes crystallize in chiral space groups and circular dichroism experiments further confirm that the chirality of the ligand has been transferred to the respective coordination complex. Magnetic susceptibility studies reveal that for all three complexes, there are competing ferro- and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. The [Co(II)¬2Co(III)2(NO3)2(μ-mpm)4(ONO2)2] complex represents the first example of a chiral mixed valence Co4 cluster with a defective double cubane topology.
    • Ligand Design for Metal-Organic Frameworks and Single Molecule Magnets

      Regier, Jeffery; Department of Chemistry
      This thesis describes two projects in which ligand design has been employed for the synthesis of coordination compounds exhibiting interesting structural and magnetic properties. In Project 1 a flexible, polydentate 4,4'-bipyridine ligand (LI) was prepared and fully characterized. Its coordination chemistry with Cu2(OAc)4 afforded a new complex with stoichiometry [Cu4(LI)1.5(OAc)2(py)2(OH2)]n (III). Single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments revealed that (III) crystallized as a porous, 3-D MOF with a structurally unique trinodal 4,4,5-c net topology. Variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction and TGA experiments revealed that (III) became amorphous upon desolvation, but that the crystallinity of the complex was fully restored after resolvation, rendering it a new addition to the family of breathable MOFs. Project 2 presents a joint synthetic, experimental and theoretical approach towards the discovery of Ln-based SMMs. The synthesis and characterization of a new dual-compartmental macrocycle (LII), with an N3O2 cavity suitable for the preparation of seven-coordinate lanthanide complexes was achieved. Reaction of (LII) with LnCl3∙6H2O, (where Ln3+ = Dy, Tb and Er), in the presence of NaOH afforded three novel complexes with stoichiometry [Ln2Na2(LII)2(Cl)4(MeOH)]·xH2O (IVa-c). X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the complexes were isostructural, comprising two coordinated macrocycles linked via a bridging 2 chloride to afford a dimer. Both macrocycles of each dimer contained a Ln3+ ion with pseudo D5h geometry that is coordinated equatorially by the five donor atoms in the N3O2 pocket together with two axial chloride ligands, as well as a 6-coordinate Na+ ion, residing in the O3O22− pocket. All three complexes have been magnetically characterized. A frequency dependence to the out of phase component of the ac susceptibility data was observed for the Dy3+complex (IVa), consistent with SMM behaviour. The ac data was successfully modelled to a single component Debye equation and a fit of the temperature dependence of c to the Arrhenius equation afforded an effective energy barrier (Ueff) of 12.6 cm−1 and a pre-exponential factor, τ0 of 2.91 x 10−7 s for this complex. Unfortunately, no slow relaxation of the magnetization was observed for the Tb3+ and Er3+ derivatives (IVb) and (IVc). Comprehensive ab initio studies carried out on (IVa-c) shed important light on the relaxation dynamics in all three complexes, revealing that deviation from idealised D5h geometry results in less well isolated ground states and active quantum tunnelling mechanisms, further supporting the experimental observations of predominantly field induced SMM behaviour for (IVa), but no SMM properties for complexes (IVb and c).
    • Mass spectral studies of some pentafluorophenyl derivatives of group V /|nby Andrew Tanner Rake. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Rake, Andrew Tanner.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1970-07-09)
      The mass spectra of compounds of t he series (C6F5 )3-n MP~ (n = 1,2,3, M = P and As ), (C6F5>3Sb, Ph) Sb and (C6F5 )2SbPh have been studied in detail and the important modes of fragmentation were e1ucidated, a ided by metastable ions. Various trends attributed to the central atom and or the . substituent groups have been noted and, where applicable, compared to recent studies on related phenyl and pentafluorophenyl compounds of groups IV and V. The mass spectra of fluorine containing organometallic compounds exhibit characteristic migrations of fluorine to t he central atom, giving an increasing abundance of MF+, MF2+' and RMF+ (R = Ph or C6F5) ions on descending the group_ The mass spectra of pentafluorophenyl , antimony, and arsenic compounds show a greater fragmentation of the aromatic ring than those of phosphorus. The mixed phenyl pentafluorophenyl derivatives show a characteristic pattern depending on the number of phenyl grm.lps present but show t he general characteristics of both the tris(phenyl) and tris(pentafluorophenyl) compounds. The diphenyl pentafluorophenyl der ivatives show the loss of biphenyl ion as the most import ant step, the los s of phenyl t o give the i on PhMC6F5 + being of secondary importance. The ,bis(pentafluorophenyl) phenyl derivatives fragment primarily by loss of PhC6F5 to give C6F5M+ ions, the abundance of t hese increasing r apidly from phosphorus to arsenic. This species then, exhibits a characteristic fragmentation observed in the tris(penta- fluorophenyl ) compounds. However, the abundance of (C6F5)2M+ species in these compounds i s small. I ons of the type C6H4MC6F4 + and tetrafluorobiphenylene ions C6H4C6F4 + also are observed on substitution of a phenyl group for a penta- fluorophenyl group. The fully fluorinated species (C6F4)2M+ is not observed, although octafluorobiphenylene ions , (C6F4)2+' are evident in several spectra . The appearance potentials of the major ions were obtatned from the ionisation efficiency curves. Attempts were made to correlate these to the effect of the central atom in substituent groups, but the large errors involved prevented the reaching of quantitative conclusions, although it would appear that the electron is removed from the ligand in the ionisation of t he parent molecule .
    • Mass spectrometric studies on aryltin compounds and alkali halides /

      Yan, Wenhong.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1997-07-14)
      The fragmentation behavior of aryltin compounds [(p-ThAnis)nSnPh4.n (n=l-4); (p-ThAnis)3SnX (X=C1, Br, I); (o-CH30C6H4)3SnCl; Ph3Sn(o-pyr)] have been studied comparatively under EI and FAB ionization modes. Alkali halides were run under FAB mode. For the aryltin compounds, the effect of ligand type on the spectra have been explored in both EI and FAB modes. The fragmentation mechanisms have been examined with linked scans, such as fragment ion scans (B/E) and parent ion scans (B^/E). Ab Initio molecular orbital calculations were used to determine the structures of the fragments by comparing their relative stabilities. In the EI MS studies, negative ion EI mode has also been used for some of the aryltin compounds, to examine the possible ion molecule reactions under low pressures at 70eV. In the positive ion FAB MS studies, matrix optimization experiments have been carried out. Negative ion FAB experiments of all the compounds have been done in two different ways. Finally, the comparison of the two methods, EI MS and FAB MS, have been made.For alkali halides, the studies focused on the FAB MS behavior under different conditions. The intensities of cluster ions were reported, and the anomalies in the intensity distribution was also discussed.
    • A mass spectrometric study of some pesticides /|nK. S. Subramanian. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Subramanian, K. S.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-07-09)
      The fragmentation processes in the mass spectra of a series of organophosphorus, organochlorine, thio and dithiocarbamate as well as a number of miscellaneous pesticides have been studied i n detail by using the Bendix timeof- flight, MS-12 single-focussing and MS-30 double-focussing mass spectrometers. Interpretation of all the spectra have been presented; their mode s of dissociation elucidated, aided by metastable transitions wherever possible and the structures of the various f ragmentation species postulated wherever f easible. The fragmentation mechanisms are based on the concepts of inductive, resonance and steric ef~ects. Multiple bond cleavages accompanied by simultaneous bond formation and rearrangement reactions involving cycli c t r ansition states have clarified t he formation of various ions . Due emphasis has been placed on the effect of the functional groups or substituents in altering the mass spectral behaviour of the pesticides as they form the basis for the identifi cation of the otherwise identical pesticides. The organophosphorus pesticides which have been studied include i) the phosphates (eg: DDVP and Phosdrin ); ii) phosphorothionates (eg: Parathion, 0-2, 4 dichloro phenyl 0, O-diethyl thionophosphate); iii) phosphorothioites (eg: Tributyl phosphorotrithioite); i V) phosphorothioates (eg: Ethion) and v) phosphorodithioates (eg: Carbophenolthion). Cleavages and rearrangements of the ester moiety dominate the spectrum of phosdrin while that of DDVP is + dominated by t he fragmentation modes of the (OH30)2P=0 + moiety. Fragmentation §f the (CH30)2P=S characterises the spectrum of (OH30)2"P -Cl while cleavages of the + (C2H50 )2P=S species mark the spectra of parathion and 0-2, 4- di chlorophenyl O, O-diethyl thiophosphate. The 0(, cl eavages of the thioether f unction rather than + cleavages of the (C2H50)2P=S signify the spectrum of carbophenolthion. Tributyl phosphorotrithioite behaves more like an aliphatic hydrocarbon than like the corresponding phosphites. The isopropyl and butyl esters of 2, 4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid show cleavage and rearrangement ions typical of an ester. In spite of its structural similari ty to pp' - DDT and pp' - DDD, Kalthane has a completely different mass spectral behaviour due to the influence of its hydroxyl function. The thiocarbamate pesticides studied include Eptam and Perbulate. Both are structurally similar but having different alkyl substituents on nitrogen and sulphur. This structurQlsimilarity leads to similar types of (N-C), (O-S) and (S-alkyl cleavages). However, perbulate differs from Eptam in showing a rearrangement ion at mle 161 and in forming an isocyanate ion as the base peak. In Eptam the base peak i s the alkyl ion. The dithiocarbamate, Vegadex, resembles the thiocarbamates in undergoing simple cleavages but it differs from them in having a weak parent ion; in the formation of its base peak and in undergoing a series of rearrangement reactions. The miscellaneous pesticides studied include 1-Naphthalene acetic aCid- methyl ester, Fiperonyl butoxide and Allethrin. The ester i s stable to electron impact and shows only fewer ions. Piper onyl butoxide, a polyether, shows characteristics of an et her, alcohol and aldehyde . Allethrin is regarded as an ester of the type R-C-O-R1 with n R being a substituted cyclopr opane moiety and o Rt, a substituted cyclopentenone mOiety. Accordingly it shows cleavage ions typical of an aliphatic ester and undergoes bond ruptures of the cyclic moieties to give unusual ions. Its base peak is an odd electron ion, quite contrary to expectations.
    • The mechanism of formation of the mixed boron trihalide adducts of trimenthylamine

      Benton-Jones, B. W.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-10-02)
      Boron trihalide and mixed boron trihalide adducts of trimethylamine have been prepared, and characterized by proton and fluorine N.M.R. spectroscopy. The acceptor power of the boron trihalides was seen to increase in the order BF3 < BC13 < BBr3 < BI3, corroborating previous evidence. The mixed boron trihalides had intermediate Lewis acidities. Solution reactions between adducts and free boron trihalides rapidly led to the formation of mixed adducts when the free boron trihalide is a stronger Lewis acid than that in the adduct. A slower reaction is observed when the free BX3 is a weaker Lewis aoid than that complexed. The mechanism of halogen exchange leading to the mixed (CH3)3NBX3 adducts was investigated. 10B labelling experiments precluded B-N bond rupture as a possible mechanism in solution; results are discussed in terms of halogen-bridged intermediates. Pre-ionization may be important for some systems. At higher temperatures, during gas phase reactions,B-N coordinate bond rupture may be the initial step of reaction. Two mixed adduots, namely (CH3)3NBClBr2 and (CH3)3NBHOIBr were prepared and characterized by Mass Spectrometry
    • Metal complexes involving pyridoxine and pyridoxamine

      Franklin, Teresa Anne.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      Solid complexes of pyridoxine with Mn(II) , Cd(II) and Zn(II) have been isolated, as well as compounds containing Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(III), Cd(II) and Zn(II), and pyridoxamine in various protonated forms. Infrared spectra provide evidence for protonation at the pyridine nitrogen site in the complexes, but not in the neutral vitamins and the complexes of anionic pyridoxamine. Thus the complexed vitamins are in zwitterionic forms, with chelation probably occurring through the phenolate oxygen and either the amino or the hydroxy group at the 4' position.
    • Miniature Wulff-type generator for improving feed to fuel cells /|nT.-S. Tan. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Tan, T. S.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1973-07-09)
      The original objective of this work was to provide a simple generator w.hich would produce hydrogen torLfuel-cell feed and which could be operated under remote or northern conditions. A secondary objective was to maximize the yield of hydrogen and carbon monoxide from available feed-stocks. A search of the patent literature has indicated that the concept of a small Wulff-type generator is essentially sound and that hydrogen may be recovered from a wide variety of hydrocarbon feed-stocks. A simple experimental set-up has been devised, patterned after ~~t originally used by R. G. Wulff for producing acetylene. This provides a supply of feed-stock, with or Without a carrier gas, which may be passed directly through a heated tube, which may contain a catalyst. A suitable procedure has been devised for analysi~ effluent gases for hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, methane and carbon monoxide by gas chromatography with the column packed with .Molecular .:>ieve .5 4. Athanol with air a.s carrier gas and at the same time as oxidant o was thermolyzed at temperatures in the ra~e 700-1100 C, with or Wi~lout catalyst. Methanol with or without nitrogen as a carrier gas was also cracked with • the same type of reactor refractory tube, but the temperature range was lower t down to ,300 " C when a catalyst was used. The problems of converting methane to hydrogen and carbon monoxide effiCiently, using air and/or water as oxidants were also studied.
    • Model studies toward the total synthesis of thebaine by an intramolecular cycloaddition strategy

      Gupta, Setu; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2014-01-27)
      The present studies describe recent progress toward the synthesis of the thebaine. Model substrates were synthesized using pyridazine derivatives as a starting material, which allowed to assess the key Diels-Alder reaction as a route to construct the thebaine core.
    • Modifications to the Suzuki reaction and mechanistic insights on the NBS mediated cleavage of benzylidene acetals /

      Wilson, Jeffery J.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2003-07-14)
      One of the most challenging tasks for a synthetic organic chemist today, is the development of chemo, regio, and stereoselective methodologies toward the total synthesis of macromolecules. r . The objective of my thesis was to develop methodologies towards this end. The first part of my project was to develop highly functionalized chirons from D-glucose, a cheap, chiral starting material, to be utilized in this capacity. The second part of the project dealt with modifying the carbon-carbon bond forming Suzuki reaction, which is utilized quite often as a means of combining molecular sub units in total synthesis applications. As previously stated the first area of the project was to develop high value chirons from D-glucose, but the mechanism of their formation was also investigated. The free radical initiated oxidative fragmentation of benzylidene acetals was investigated through the use of several test-case substrates in order to unravel the possible mechanistic pathways. This was performed by reacting the different acetals with N-bromosuccinimide and benzoyl peroxide in chlorobenzene at 70^C in all cases. Of the three mechanistic pathways discussed in the literature, it was determined, from the various reaction products obtained, that the fragmentation of the initial benzylic radical does not occur spontaneously but rather, oxidation proceeds to give the benzyl bromide, which then fragments via a polar pathway. It was also discovered that the regioselectivity of the fragmentation step could be altered through incorporation of an allylic system into the benzylidene acetal. This allows for the acquisition of a new set of densely functionalized. chiral, valuable synthetic intermediates in only a few steps and in high yields from a-Dglucose. The second part of the project was the utilization of the phosphonium salt room temperature ionic liquid tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium chloride (THPC) as an efficient reusable medium for the palladium catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of aryl halides, including aryl chlorides, under mild conditions. The cross-coupling reactions were found to proceed in THPC containing small amounts of water and toluene using potassium phosphate and 1% Pd2(dba)3. Variously substituted iodobenzenes, including electron rich derivatives, reacted efficiently in THPC with a variety of arylboronic acids and afforded complete conversion within 1 hour at 50 ^C. The corresponding aryl bromides also reacted under these conditions with the addition of a catalytic amount of triphenylphosphine that allowed for complete conversion and high isolated yields. The reactions involving aryl chlorides were considerably slower, although the addition of triphenylphosphine and heating at 70 ^C allowed high conversion of electron deficient derivatives. Addition of water and hexane to the reaction products results in a triphasic system in which the top hexane phase contained the biaryl products, the palladium catalyst remained fully dissolved in the central THPC layer, while the inorganic salts were extracted into the lower aqueous phase. The catalyst was then recycled by removing the top and bottom layers and adding the reagents to the ionic liquid which was heated again at 50 ^C; resulting in complete turnover of iodobenzene. Repetition of this procedure gave the biphenyl product in 82-97% yield (repeated five times) for both the initial and recycled reaction sequences.
    • Modified statistical methods to calculate rare gas interaction potentials

      Brual, Gregorio B.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      New density functionals representing the exchange and correlation energies (per electron) are employed, based on the electron gas model, to calculate interaction potentials of noble gas systems X2 and XY, where X (and Y) are He,Ne,Ar and Kr, and of hydrogen atomrare gas systems H-X. The exchange energy density functional is that recommended by Handler and the correlation energy density functional is a rational function involving two parameters which were optimized to reproduce the correlation energy of He atom. Application of the two parameter function to other rare gas atoms shows that it is "universal"; i. e. ,accurate for the systems considered. The potentials obtained in this work compare well with recent experimental results and are a significant improvement over those from competing statistical modelS.
    • Molecular Magnetism: The Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of New Building Blocks for Molecule-based Magnetic Materials

      Hurley, Nicholas J.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2013-04-08)
      Two classes of building blocks have been prepared and characterized and their coordination chemistry explored working towards the preparation of new molecule-based magnetic materials. In the first project, the amine functionality of 3,3'-diamino-2,2'- bipyridine was exploited for the preparation of a new family of ligands (H2L 1)-(H2L 4). The molecular structures of three ligands have been fully characterized by X-ray crystallography. [molecular structure diagram will not copy here, but is available in full pdf.] The coordination chemistry of these ligands with divalent first row transition metal ions was investigated. For ligand (H2L1), the molecular structures of four coordination complexes with stoichiometries [Zn2(Ll)(OAc)(MeO)]2 (I), [Cu2(L1)(OAc)2 (II), [Li(L1)]3 (III), and [Ni(L1)]3 (IV) were determined by X-ray crystallography. For ligand (H2L2), a Cu(II) complex of stoichiometry [Cu3(L2)(OAc)3MeO] (V) was determined by X-ray crystallography. The magnetic properties of complexes (II), (III), and (V) have been fully elucidated. In project two, synthetic strategies for the preparation of porphyrin molecules bearing triol substituents is presented. Following this approach, three new porphyrin derivatives have been prepared and characterized [Zn(HPTPP-CH2C(CH20H)3)] (VI), [P(TPP)(OCH2C(CH2)H)3)2]+CL- (VII), and [P(OEP)(C6H5)(OCH2C(CH2OH)3)]+Cl- (VIII). Attempts to exchange the labile methoxide bridges of a tetraironIIl single molecule magnet of stoichiometry [Fe4(OMe)6(dpm)6] (Hdpm = dipivaloylmethane) with the triol appended porphyrins will be discussed. [molecular structure diagram will not copy here, but is available in full pdf.]
    • Molecular mechanics calculations of tin-bis (triphenylphosphine oxide) complexes

      Dalacu, Andrea Victoria.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      The capability of molecular mechanics for modeling the wide distribution of bond angles and bond lengths characteristic of coordination complexes was investigatecl. This was the preliminary step for future modeling of solvent extraction. Several tin-phosphine oxide COrnI)le:){es were selected as the test groUl) for t.he d,esired range of geometry they eX!libi ted as \-vell as the ligands they cOD.tained r Wllich were c\f interest in connection with solvation. A variety of adjustments were made to Allinger's M:M2 force·-field ill order to inl.prove its performance in the treatment of these systems. A set of u,nique force constants was introduced for' those terms representing the metal ligand bond lengths, bond angles, and, torsion angles. These were significantly smaller than trad.itionallY used. with organic compounds. The ~1orse poteIlt.ial energ'Y function was incorporated for the M-X l')ond lE~ngths and the cosine harmonic potential erlerg-y function was invoked for the MOP bond angle. These functions were found to accomodate the wide distribution of observed values better than the traditional harmonic approximations~ Crystal packing influences on the MOP angle were explored thr"ollgh ttle inclusion of the isolated molecule withil1 a shell cc)ntaini11g tl1e nearest neigl1'bors duri.rlg energy rninimization experiments~ This was found to further improve the fit of the MOP angle.
    • Molecular mechanics calculations on some phosphine oxide metal complexes in aqueous and organic solvents

      Mwakapumba, Joseph.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1991-07-09)
      Molecular mechanics calculations were done on tetrahedral phosphine oxide zinc complexes in simulated water, benzene and hexane phases using the DREIDING II force field in the BIOGRAF molecular modeling program. The SUN workstation computer (SUN_ 4c, with SPARK station 1 processor) was used for the calculations. Experimental structural information used in the parameterization was obtained from the September 1989 version of the Cambridge Structural Database. 2 Steric and solvation energies were calculated for complexes of the type ZnCl2 (RlO)2' The calculations were done with and without inclusion of electrostatic interactions. More reliable simulation results were obtained without inclusion of charges. In the simulated gas phase, the steric energies increase regularly with number of carbons in the alkyl group, whereas they go through a maximum when solvent shells are included in the calculation. Simulated distribution ratios vary with chain length and type of chain branching and the complexes are found to be more favourable for extraction by benzene than by hexane, in accord with experimental data. Also, in line with what would be expected for a favorable extraction, calculations without electrostatics predict that the complexes are better solvated by the organic solvents than by water.