• A time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy study of paramagnetic porphyrins /

      Bespalova, Olena.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      There is considerable interest in intramolecular energy transfer, especially in complexes which absorb visible light, because it is crucial to the better understanding of photoharvesting systems in photosynthetic organisms and for utilizing solar energy as well. Porphyrin dimers represent one of the best systems for the exploration of light-induced intramolecular energy transfer. Many kinds of porphyrins and porphyrin dimers have been studied over the past decade, however little attention has been paid to the influence of paramagnetic metals on the behavior of their excited states. In this thesis, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (EPR) is used to study such compounds. After light irradiation, porphyrins easily produce a variety of excited states, which are spin polarized and can be detected by the time-resolved (TR) EPR technique. The spin polarized results for vanadyl porphyrins, their electrostatically-coupled dimers, a covalently-linked copper porphyrin-free base porphyrin dimer, and free base porphyrins are presented in this thesis. From these results we can conclude that the spin polarization patterns of vanadyl porphyrins come primarily from the trip-quartet state generated by intersystem crossing (lSC) from the excited sing-doublet state through the trip-doublet state. The spin polarization pattern of electrostatically-coupled vanadyl porphyrin-free base porphyrin dimer is produced by the triplet state of the free base porphyrin half which is coupled to the unpaired electron on the vanadyl ion.
    • Total synthesis of (S)-4-hydroxy-[a]-Lapachone

      Jia, Qi.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      (S)-4-Hydroxy-a-lapachone has been prepared for the first time. The commercially available compound 2-acetyl-1-naphthol was used as the starting material. The synthesis involved methylation, followed by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation, and hydrolysis of the acetate to give 1-methoxy-2-naphthol. After protecting of the hydroxyl group, t-BuLi was used to form 3-(3',3'-dimethyl-acryloyl)-1- meth oxy-2- (meth oxymethoxy)-naphthalen e. eycl izationand oxidation then gave 4-keto-a-lapachone. Finally enzymic biotransformation by Mortierella isabellina ATCC 42613 was used to yield the target compound. The enantiomeric excess of the product was determined to be ~98% by using 1H NMR chiral shift analysis. The overall yield is 80/0. The biological activity of (S)-4-hydroxy-alapachone and its acetate are under investigation.
    • Towards the enantioselective synthesis of lycoricidine alkaloids /

      Mo, Ruowei.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1998-05-21)
      Two efficient, regio- and stereo controlled synthetic approaches to the synthesis of racemic analogs of pancratistatin have been accomplished and they serve as the model systems for the total synthesis of optically active 7-deoxy-pancratistatin. In the Diels-Alder approach, an efficient [4+2] cycloaddition of 3,4-methylenedioxyco- nitrostyrene with Danishefsky's diene to selectively form an exo-nitro adduct has been developed as the key step in the construction of the C-ring of the target molecule. In the Michael addition approach, the key step was a conjugate addition of an organic zinc-cuprate to the 3,4-methylenedioxy-(B-nitrostyrene, followed by a diastereocontroUed closure to form the cyclohexane C-ring of the target molecule via an intramolecular nitro-aldol cyclization on a neutral alumina surface. A chair-like transition state for such a cyclization has been established and such a chelation controlled transition state can be useful in the prediction of diastereoselectivity in other related 6-exo-trig nitroaldol reactions. Cyclization of the above products fi^om both approaches by using a Bischler-Napieralski type reaction afforded two lycoricidine derivatives 38 and 50 in good yields. The initial results from the above modeling studies as well as the analysis of the synthetic strategy were directed to a chiral pool approach to the total synthesis of optically active 7-deoxy-pancratistatin. Selective monsilylation and iodination of Ltartaric acid provided a chiral precursor for the proposed key Michael transformation. The outlook for the total synthesis of 7-deoxy-pancratistatin by this approach is very promising.A concise synthesis of novel designed, optically pure, Cz-symmetrical disulfonylamide chiral ligands starting from L-tartaric acid has also been achieved. This sequence employs the metallation of indole followed by Sfj2 replacement of a dimesylate as the key step. The activity for this Cz-symmetric chiral disulfonamide ligand in the catalytic enantioselective reaction has been confirmed by nucleophilic addition to benzaldehyde in the disulfonamide-Ti (0-i-Pr)4-diethylzinc system with a 48% yield and a 33% e.e. value. Such a ligand tethered with a suitable metal complex should be also applicable towards the total synthesis of 7-deoxy-pancratistatin.
    • Transient Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy on Photosystem I Reaction Centers

      Shekarsaraei, Setareh; Department of Chemistry
      The reason for the different rates of electron transfer from phylloquinone (PhQ) to the iron-sulfur cluster FX in the two branches of Photosystem I (PSI) is not fully understood. Techniques such as Transient Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (TREPR) have allowed further understanding of the electron transfer rates in these two branches and the role of D575PsaB and Q588PsaA in determining the different rates. Room temperature 9.5 GHz TREPR measurements were performed on PSI from the wildtype and three mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, Q588DPsaA (A-mutant), D575QPsaB (B-mutant), Q588DPsaA/ D575QPsaB (AB-mutant) to determine the effects of the mutations on the rates of the electron transfer. The goal of these experiments is to test the model proposed by Ishikita and Knapp, (J. Biol. Chem. 278, 52002–52011 (2003)) that explains the differences in the electron transfer rates as resulting from differences in the amino acid sequences of the two main protein subunits PsaA and PsaB which lead to different midpoint potentials of the two PhQs. The model also proposes that aspartate D575PsaB changes its protonation state during electron transfer. The model suggests that D575PsaB and Q588PsaA play significant roles in determining the potentials, but a previous study found that mutations to D575PsaB caused only small changes in the kinetics (Karyagina, Pushkar, Stehlik, van der Est, Ishikita, Knapp, Jagannathan, Agalarov, Golbeck (Biochemistry 46, 10804-10816 (2007)). It was proposed that this is because the mutations caused similar changes in the potentials of both PhQ and Fx. In this thesis, this proposal is tested using the double mutant Q588DPsaA/ D575QPsaB. Because the two point mutations are symmetrical with respect to FX but not with respect to the quinones, it is postulated that the potentials of the quinones should be changed while that of FX should be unaffected and therefore, the kinetics of the A- and B- branches should be significantly altered. The transient EPR data show evidence that the rates of electron transfer in the two branches have been swapped in the double mutant Q588DPsaA/ D575QPsaB and this indicates the important roles of D575PsaB and Q588PsaA in determining the electron transfer rate.
    • Understanding the Origin of Selectivity in the Asymmetric Lithiation Reaction of N-Heterocycles: A Theoretical Study

      Taban, Keivan; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2012-11-07)
      The natural abundance of the N-heterocycle containing compounds has pushed the synthetic community toward the invention of new synthetic methods that result in the structural diversity of N-heterocycles. Among this, is the efficient and highly selective diamine mediated asymmetric lithiation process. Amongst the diamine chiral ligands, (-)-sparterine, which is a naturally occurring alkaloid proved to be an efficient one. Many successful, good yielding and highly selective lithiation reactions have been accomplished with the mediation by this chiral diamine base. Although, there are some examples of experimental and theoretical mechanistic studies in the literature, there is a lack of detailed understanding as to how it exactly induces the chirality. In this thesis is described a systematic investigation of how (-)-sparteine influences the stereoselectivity in the course of asymmetric lithiation reaction. This led us to the establishment of the function of A-ring’s β-CH2 effect and D-ring effect. Consequently, the importance of the A-ring and D-ring portions of (-)-sparteine in the stereoselectivity is unraveled. Another part of this thesis deals with the asymmetric lithiation of BF3-activated N,N- dimethylaminoferrocene in the presence of (1R, 2R)-N1,N2-bis(3,3-dimethylbutyl)-N1,N2-dimethylcyclohexane-1,2-diamine ( a (R,R)-TMCDA surrogate) with i-PrLi. Computational findings were in full accord with the experimental observations. Subsequently, the theoretically provided insights into the mechanism of the reaction were exploited in computational design of a new ligand. Unfortunately, the outcome of this design was not experimentally robust and an updated approach towards a successful design was explained.
    • The use of diatom assemblages to determine paleotrophic changes in lakes

      Agbeti, Michael Domingo.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1987-07-09)
      The purpose of this study was to develop a classifi cation scheme for l ake trophic status based on the relative abundance of l ake sediment diatom trophic indicator species. A total of 600 diatom frustules were counted from the surface sediments of e a ch of 30 lakes selected to repr e seni~ a continuum from u.lt ra-oligotrophic t,o fairly eutrophic but not hype r-' eutrophic conditions. Published autecological information was used to determine the trophic indicator status of each of the s pecies. A quotieht was derived by dividing the s um of all the e utrophic indicator species by the sum of all oligotrophic indicai.-:.or species. Oligo'- mesotrophic. mesotrophic and meso-eutrophic species were added to both the numerator and denomina tor. Five categories of diatom i.nferred trophic status were recognized : ultra-oligotrophic - 0'-0.2:3, oligotrophic::: 0.24-0 . 70, mesotrophic :: 0.'71 -0.99, meso-elxtrophic :: 1. 00-1. '78 and eutrophic:: 1.. 79-2. 43. But only three of these (oligotrophic:: 0-0.69, mesotrophic ::: 0 . 70'-1.69 j and eutrophic:: 1.70-2.50) proved usef ul. The present study of the relationship between diatom inferred trophic status and the literature-derived trophic status of SO lake s (which were purposely chosen to represent a broad spectrum of lakes in Canada) indicated that: 1) Based on diatom species (assemblages ) it is possible to segregate the lakes from which. th",)se diatoms were taken into three basic categories : o ligotrophic, mesotrophic and eutrophic lake types. ~~) It was not possible t,o separate meso-eutrophic and o l igo-mesotrophic lakes f rom mesotrophic l akes as the the degree of overlap betwee n the diat,om species in these lake types was extremely high. 3) Ha d mo r e ul tra-oligotroph,ic lakes been sampled it might have been possible to more a ccurately s eparate them f rom oligotrophic Jakes. 4 ) Had. more humic lakes been sampled in this s tudy I f eel it would have been possible to identify a unique diatom a ssemblage which would h a ve chara cterized t his lake type . Re gression analyses were performed using the aforementioned diatom inferred trophic index as a f unction of 1) log Sec chi transparency (r = - 0.70) 2) total phosphorus (r = 0. 77 ) and 3) chlorophyll-a (r = 0.74). Once e ach of these rel ationships had been established , it was possible to infer paleotrophic (downcore) changes in an oligotrophic lake (Barbara Lake) and in a eutrophic lake (Chemung Lake) . Barbara Llake was dominated by oligotrophic s pecies and remained oligotrophic throughout the 200-·year history r epresented by i t s 32 em long sediment core. Chemung Lake is currently dominated. by eutrophic species but went through a mesotrophic st,age which was associated with a rise in the water level of the lake followi n g dam construction in its watershed in the early 1.900 J ::;. This was followed by its reversion to it,s present day eutrophic stage (dominated by eutrophic species) possibly as a r esult of shallowing process which can be attributed to " silting' up" of the reservoir and the invasion of the l ake by Myriophyllum spjcatum (Eurasian milfoil) i n the 1970's . In addition, nutrient .:r':l.ch run"'offwhich resulted from increased human a.ctivities associated with cottage development along its shores has contribut ed to its eutrophication. There is some evidence that the rat,e o :f its prog ressive eutrophication has declined during the last decade. This was correlated with legislation enacted in the 60's and 70's in Ontario which was aimed at reducing nutrient loading from cottages.
    • Variational Monte Carlo study of core-valence separation schemes for first-row atoms and positive ions /

      Staroverov, Viktor N.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1997-05-19)
      All-electron partitioning of wave functions into products ^core^vai of core and valence parts in orbital space results in the loss of core-valence antisymmetry, uncorrelation of motion of core and valence electrons, and core-valence overlap. These effects are studied with the variational Monte Carlo method using appropriately designed wave functions for the first-row atoms and positive ions. It is shown that the loss of antisymmetry with respect to interchange of core and valence electrons is a dominant effect which increases rapidly through the row, while the effect of core-valence uncorrelation is generally smaller. Orthogonality of the core and valence parts partially substitutes the exclusion principle and is absolutely necessary for meaningful calculations with partitioned wave functions. Core-valence overlap may lead to nonsensical values of the total energy. It has been found that even relatively crude core-valence partitioned wave functions generally can estimate ionization potentials with better accuracy than that of the traditional, non-partitioned ones, provided that they achieve maximum separation (independence) of core and valence shells accompanied by high internal flexibility of ^core and Wvai- Our best core-valence partitioned wave function of that kind estimates the IP's with an accuracy comparable to the most accurate theoretical determinations in the literature.
    • The versatility and utilization of phosphorus based compounds in classic carbon-carbon bond forming and esterification reactions

      Dyck, Jeffrey C. H.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2003-07-09)
      The phosphonium salt room temperature ionic liquid tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium chloride (THPC) has been employed as an efficient reusable media for the palladium catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of aryl halides, including aryl chlorides, under mild conditions. The cross-coupling reactions were found to proceed in THPC containing small amounts ofwater and toluene (single phase) using potassium phosphate and 1% Pd2(dba)3'CHCI3. Variously substituted iodobenzenes, including electron rich derivatives, reacted efficiently in THPC with a variety of arylboronic acids and were all complete within 1 hour at 50°C. The corresponding aryl bromides also reacted under these conditions with the addition of a catalytic amount of triphenylphosphine that allowed for complete conversion and high isolated yields. The reactions involving aryl chlorides were considerably slower, although the addition of triphenylphosphine and heating at 70°C allowed high conversion of electron deficient derivatives. Addition of water and hexane to the reaction products results in a triphasic system, from which the catalyst was then recycled by removing the top (hexanes) and bottom (aqueous) layers and adding the reagents to the ionic liquid which was heated again at 50°C; resulting in complete turnover of iodobenzene. Repetition of this procedure gave the biphenyl product in 82-97% yield (repeated five times) for both the initial and recycled reaction sequences. IL ESTERIFICATIONREACTION A new class oftrialkylphosphorane has been prepared through reaction of a trialkylphosphine with 2-chlorodimethylmalonate in the presence oftriethylamine. These new reagents promote the condensation reaction of carboxylic acids with alcohols to provide esters along with trialkylphosphine oxide and dimethylmalonate. The condensation reaction of chiral secondary alcohols can be controlled to give either high levels of inversion or retention through a subtle interplay involving basicity of the reaction media, solvent, and tuning the electronic and steric nature of the carboxylic acid and stenc nature of the phosphorane employed. A coherent mechanism is postulated to explain these observations involving reaction via an initial acyloxyphosphonium ion.
    • The vibrational spectra and the normal coordinate analysis of thiocarbonye halides /|nby C. R. Subramaniam. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Subramaniam, Chandrasekarapuram Ramaswamy.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1969-07-09)
      The infrared and the Raman spectra of eSelF has been obtained for the first time and has been analysed to give the in-plane normal vibrational frequencies of the molecule, in the ground state. A normal co-ordinate analysis has been carried out for the molecules CSF2, CSClF and eSel 2 using a Urey-Bradley type of potential function and the elements of the [L] matrix elements, the distribution of the potential energy in Urey-Bradley space, and the displacement vector diagrams for the normal modes of vibration for these molecules, have been obtained. The bond for~e constants obtained through the normal co-ordinate analysis, have given some interesting results. The stretching force constant, Kes ' varies markedly with halogen substitution and the force constants KeF and Keel also vary with substitution.