• Sample preparation and heavy metal determination by atomic spectrometry /

      Xiao, Jing.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2004-06-29)
      Microwave digestions of mercury in Standards Reference Material (SRM) coal samples with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in quartz vessels were compared with Teflon® vessel digestion by using flow injection cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Teflon® vessels gave poor reproducibiUty and tended to deliver high values, while the digestion results from quartz vessel show good agreement with certificate values and better standard deviations. Trace level elements (Ag, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sn, Ti, V and Zn) in used oil and residual oil samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Different microwave digestion programs were developed for each sample and most of the results are in good agreement with certified values. The disagreement with values for Ag was due to the precipitation of Ag in sample; while Sn, V and Zn values had good recoveries from the spike test, which suggests that these certified values might need to be reconsidered. Gold, silver, copper, cadmium, cobalt, nickel and zinc were determined by continuous hydride generation inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The performance of two sample introduction systems: MSIS™ and gas-liquid separator were compared. Under the respective optimum conditions, MSIS^"^ showed better sensitivity and lower detection limits for Ag, Cd, Cu, Co and similar values for Au, Ni and Zn to those for the gas-liquid separator.
    • The satellite band patterns in the near ultraviolet absorption spectra of isotopic compounds of acetaldehyde

      Ng, Kim Hok-kin.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      The 3700 A - 3000 A absorption spectra of CH3CHO and its isotopic compounds such as CH3CDO, CD3CHO and CD3CDO were studied in the gas phase at room temperature and low temperatures. The low resolution spectra of the compounds were recorded by a 1.5 m Baush and Lomb grating spectrograph. The high resolution spectra were recorded by a Ebert spectrograph with the Echelle grating and the holographic grating separately. The multiple reflection cells were used to achieve the long path length. The pressure-path length used for the absorption spectrum of CH 3CHO was up to 100 mm Hg )( 91 . 43mo The emission spectrum and the excitation spectrum of CH3CHO were also recorded in this research. The calculated satellite band patterns \vhich were ob-tailied by the method of Lewis were used to compare with the observed near UV absorption spectrum of acetaldehyde. These calculated satellite band patterns belonged to two cases: namely, the barriers-in-phase case and the barriers- out-of-phase case. Each of the calculated patterns corresponded to a stable conformation of acetaldehyde in the excited state . The comparisons showed that the patterns in the observed absorption spectra corresponded to the H-H eclipsed conformations of acetaldehyde in the excited state . The least squares fitting analysis showed that the barrier heights in the excited state were higher than in the ground state. Finally, the isotopic shifts for the isotopic compounds of acetaldehyde were compared to the compounds with the similar deuterium substitution.
    • Selected topics in fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry a)specially designed probe tips and ion generation, b)structures of vitamin B6 schiff base complexes

      Fulcher, Adrian N.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1988-07-09)
      This thesis can be broken down into two sections. Section one is a study . of the ionization mechanisms and the ion source optimization for Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB) ionization. For this study, several specially designed probe tips were created and tested under various experimental conditions. The aIm of this section is to understand the operating characteristics of a FAB IOn source better. The second section involves the study of several Vitamin B6 Schiff Base complexes using both positive and negative ion FAB MS. This section is an exploration of the usefulness of FAB MS as a structure probe for the metalcoordination complexes of Vitamin B6.
    • The Smiles rearrangement in hydrazidic systems and related syntheses /|nG. A. Pawelchak. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Pawelchak, G. A.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1971-07-09)
      This research was directed towards the investigation of the Smiles rearrangement in hydrazidic systems and the synthesis of related heterocyclic compounds. The work can be conveniently divided into two main sections. Section 1 of the thesis relates to the synthesis and examination of the O+N migration of phenoxy- derivatives of hydrazidic halides. In general, hydrazidic halides were found to react with 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol to give corresponding a-nitrophenoxy- compounds. These a-nitrophenoxy- compounds were found to rearrange in warm base to give the corresponding N-benzoyl compounds via a proposed five-membered transition state. Experiments conducted in styrene revealed no radical contribution to the rearrangement. Cross-over product analysis indicated the rearrangement as intramolecular and consistent with the Smiles rearrangement. The preparation of N-a-chlorobenzylidene-N'-2-nitrophenyl- -N'-(2,4-dibromophenyl)hydrazine from N-benzoyl-N'-2-nitrophenyl- N'-(2,4-dibromophenyl)hydrazine was accomplished using phosphorus oxychloride. Examination of this hydrazidic chloride indicated a marked decrease .in reactivity as compared to the N-a-chlorobenzylidene-N'-phenylhydrazine case. Section 2 concerns itself with the preparation of heterocyclic compounds using an analogy of the five-membered transition state present in the Smiles rearrangement of a substituted benzylidene derivatives A new preparation of 2,4-phenyl1,3,4- oxadiazol-S-one using N-benzoyl-N'-phenylhydrazine and ethyl thiochloroformate is reported. Two new preparations of N-a-thiobenzoyl-N'-(2,4-dibromophenylhydrazine are reported using sodium hydrosulfide in conjunction with N-a-bromobenzylidene-N'-(2,4-dibromophenyl)hydrazine in the first, and phosphorus pentasulfide with N-benzoylN'-( 2,4-dibromophenyl)hydrazine in the second. The latter is preferred due to the formation of a sulfide co-product in the former. Two preparations of 2-phenyl-4-(2,4-dibromophenyl)-1,3,4- thiadiazol-S-one are reported using N-thiobenzoyl-N'-(2,4-dibromophenyl) hydrazine and ethyl chloroformate and ethyl thiochloroformate Two rapid and easy preparations of 2-phenyl-4-(2,4-dibromophenyl)- 1,3,4-triazol-S-one are reported using ethyl chloroformate and ethyl thiochloroformate. Sodium cyanate in conjunction with a-aminobenzylidene-N'-(2,4-dibromophenyl)hydrazine also provided 2-phenyl-4-(2,4-dibromophenyl)-1,3,4-triazol-S-one Section 2 concludes with an examination of two possible mechanistic routes to the prepared heterocycles.
    • Sol-gel routes to supported Friedel-Crafts alkylation catalysts

      Goodchild, Mary E.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1998-07-09)
      Aluminosilicate catalysts containing supported ZnCl2 and metal fluoride salts have been prepared using a sol-gel based route, tested and characterized. The activities of these ZnCl2 + metal fluoride catalysts, while greater than "Clayzic" (ZnCI2 supported on montmorillonite KIO) are not as good as supported ZnCl2 only supported on aluminosilicate. Alumina supports have also been prepared via a sol-gel route using various chemical additives to generate a mesoporous structure, loaded with ZnCl2 and tested for activity. The activities for these alumina-supported catalysts are also significantly higher than that of "Clayzic", an effective Friedel-Crafts catalyst. Characterizations of these two types of catalysts were done by magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR, diffuse reflectance infrared (DRIFT) spectroscopy and additionally for the alumina nitrogen adsorption studies were done. Supported aluminum trichloride was also investigated as an alternative to the traditional use of aluminum trichloride.
    • Solid state NMR chemical shifts as an alternative to diffraction data in the determination of SIC polytypic structures

      Guo, Degi.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1988-07-09)
      Silicon carbide, which has many polytypic modifications of a very simple and very symmetric structure, is an excellent model system for exploring, the relationship between chemical shift, long-range dipolar shielding, and crystal structure in network solids. A simple McConnell equation treatment of bond anisotropy effects in a poly type predicts chemical shifts for silicon and carbon sites which agree well with the experiment, provided that contributions from bonds up to 100 A are included in the calculation. The calculated chemical shifts depend on three factors: the layer stacking sequence, electrical centre of gravity, and the spacings between silicon and carbon layers. The assignment of peaks to lattice sites is proved possible for three polytypes (6H, 15R, and 3C). The fact that the calculated chemical shifts are very sensitive to layer spacings provides us a potential way to detennine and refine a crystal structure. In this work, the layer spacings of 6H SiC have been calculated and are within X-ray standard deviations. Under this premise, the layer spacings of 15R have been detennined. 29Si and 13C single crystal nmr studies of 6H SiC polytype indicate that all silicons and carbons are magnetically anisotropic. The relationship between a magnetic shielding tensor component and layer spacings has been derived. The comparisons between experimental and semi-empirical chemical shielding tensor components indicate that the paramagnetic shielding of silicon should be included in the single crystal chemical shift calculation.
    • Solute effects on the production and decay of primary species in the flash photolysis of indole

      McGimpsey, Wm. Grant.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1981-07-09)
      Maximum production rates ofs and decay kinetics for the hydrated electron, the indolyl neutral radical and the indole triplet state have been obtained in the microsecond, broadband (X > 260 nm) flash photolysis of helium-saturated, neutral aqueous solutions of indole, in the absence and in the presence of the solutes NaBr, BaCl2*2H20 and CdSCV Fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetimes have also been obtained in the absence and in the presence of the above solutes, The hydrated electron is produced monophotonically and biphotonically at an apparent maximum rate which is increased by BaCl2*2H20 and decreased by NaBr and CdSOif. The neutral indolyl radical may be produced monophotonically and biphotonically or strictly monophotonically at an apparent maximum rate which is increased by NaBr and CdSO^ and is unaffected by BaCl2*2H20. The indole triplet state is produced monophotonically at a maximum rate which is increased by all solutes. The hydrated electron decays by pseudo first order processes, the neutral indolyl radical decays by second order recombination and the indole triplet state decays by combined first and second order processes. Hydrated electrons are shown to react with H , H2O, indole, Na and Cd"*""1"". No evidence has been found for the reaction of hydrated electrons with Ba . The specific rate of second order neutral indolyl radical recombination is unaffected by NaBr and BaCl2*2H20, and is increased by CdSO^. Specific rates for both first and second order triplet state decay processes are increased by all solutes. While NaBr greatly reduced the fluorescence lifetime and emission band intensity, BaCl2*2H20 and CdSO^ had no effect on these parameters. It is suggested that in solute-free solutions and in those containing BaCl2*2H20 and CdSO^, direct excitation occurs to CTTS states as well as to first excited singlet states. It is further suggested that in solutions containing NaBr, direct excitation to first excited singlet states predominates. This difference serves to explain increased indole triplet state production (by ISC from CTTS states) and unchanged fluorescence lifetimes and emission band intensities in the presence of BaCl2*2H20 and CdSOt^., and increased indole triplet state production (by ISC from S^ states) and decreased fluorescence lifetime and emission band intensity in the presence of NaBr. Evidence is presented for (a) very rapid (tx ^ 1 us) processes involving reactions of the hydrated electron with Na and Cd which compete with the reformation of indole by hydrated electron-indole radical cation recombination, and (b) first and second order indole triplet decay processes involving the conversion of first excited triplet states to vibrationally excited ground singlet states.
    • Some aspects of the chemistry of 1, 3, 4 - Thiadiazolium salts and related compounds

      Mastalerz, Harold.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      The work described in this thesis has been divided into seven sections. The first section involves the preparation of N'-acyl-N'-arylN- benzothiohydrazides by the acylation of N'-aryl-N-benzothiohydrazides and is followed by a brief discussion of their possible conformation in solution. The second section deals with the preparation of 1,3,4-thiadiazolium salts by the action of perchloric acid/acetic anhydride on N'-acylN'- aryl-N-benzothiohydrazides and also by the reaction of N'-arylN- benzothiohydrazides with nitriles in an acidic medium. The preparation of 2-methylthio-I,3,4-thiadiazolium methosulfate by methylating the corresponding thione is also described. The third section deals with the reaction of 2-phenyl- and 2-methyl-I,3,4-thiadiazolium salts with alcohols in the presence of base. The stability and spectra of these compounds are discussed. Treatment of the 2-methyl-I,3,4-thiadiazolium salt with base was found to give rise to a dimeric anhydrobase and evidence supporting its structure is given. The anhydrobase could be trapped by a variety of acylating and thioacylating agents before dimerization occurred. In the fourth section, the reaction of N'-acyl-N'-aryl-N-benzothiohydrazides with a variety of acid anhydrides is described. These compounds were found to be identical with those obtained by acylating the anhydrobase. The mass spectral fragmentation of these compounds is described and the anomolous product obtained upon thiobenzoylation of 3-methyl-l-phenyl-pyrazal-5-one is also discussed. The fifth section deals with thioacyl derivatives of the anhydrobase which were prepared by the action of phosphorus pentasulfide upon the oxygen analogues and also obtained as the major product of the reaction of thioacetic acid with compounds related to N'-aryl-N-benzothiohydrazides. The mass spectra and p.m.r. spectra of these compounds are discussed. In the sixth section, the reaction of the 2-methylthio-l,3,4- thiadiazolium salt with active methylene compounds to give acyl and diacyl derivatives of the anhydrobase is described. Some aspects of these compounds are discussed. The seventh section describes the synthesis of ncyanine~' type dyes incorporating the l,3,4-thiadiazole ring and their spectra are briefly discussed.
    • Some aspects of the chemistry of Reissert compounds / |nDurga Prasad Aysola. -- 260 St. Catharines [Ont. : s. n.],

      Aysola, Durga Prasad.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1976-07-09)
      1-(0- and m-Ohlorobenzoyl)isoquinolines have been synthesized by two routes involving Reissert compounds. One route involves condensation of 2-benzoyl-l,2-dihydroisoquinaldonitrile with the appropriate chlorobenzaldehyde and the second involves rearrangement of the appropriate Z-(chlorobenzoyl)-l,Z-dihydroisoquinaldonitrile under basic conditions. The action of potassamide in anhydrous liquid ammonia on both ketones gave unexpectedly N-(l-isoquinolyl)benzamide (67) as the major product and the use of dibenzo-18-crown-6-ether 98% substantially improved the yd..e.ld in the case of l-chloroketone. This amide (67) exhibits unusual hydrogen bonding. 1-(o-chlorobenzoyl)-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline (79) was prepared in very s,amll quantities by the route involving condensation of 2-benzoyll, Z-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinaldonitrile with o-chlorobenzaldehyde. The poor yields are due to the instability of the anion of 2-benzoyl1, Z-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinaldonitrile. Attempted preparation of the ketone (79) by rearrangement of 2-(o-chlorobenzoyl)-l,2-dihydro6,7- dimethoxyisoquinaldonitrile under basic conditions yielded the start~ng material (Reissert compound) and 6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline. The action of potassamide in anhydrous liquid ammonia on l-(o-bromo-4,5-dimethoxybenzoyl)isoquinoline (85), which was prepared by the route involving the condensation of 2-benzoyl-l,4-dihydroisoquinaldonitrile with o-bromo-4,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, gave two products, which have not yet been identified. The ketone (85) and its precursors are interest~ng in that their 20 eV and 70 eV mass spectra do not show molecular ions.
    • Some electrical properties of semi-conductor crystals / |nPhyu Phyu Khin. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Khin, Phyu Phyu.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-07-09)
      SiC and AtB 12 have been prepared and their resistivities and Hall voltages measured. The resistivities and Hall voltages were measured by the Van der Pauw's method, using spring loaded tungsten contacts. In this method, the major requirement is to have samples of plane parallel surfaces of arbitrary shape with four small contacts at the circumference. Similar measurements were made with a number of SiC crystals obtained from the Norton Research Corporation (Canada)-Ltd., Carolina Aluminum Co., Exolon Co. and Carborundum Co. It was found that resistivity, carrier concentration and mobility of ions depend on the type of impurity. AtB 12 was prepared from the melt containing At and B in the ratio of 4:1. They formed amber-colour pseudo tetragonal crystals. As the crystals obtained were small for electrical measurements, hot pressed lumps have been used to measure their resistivity.
    • A Step Toward Recyclable Silicone Elastomers

      Nasresfahani, Amin; Department of Chemistry
      This thesis introduces a new strategy for developing polysiloxane networks with the capacity of being recycled. The conventional methods of cross-linking polysiloxanes suffer from lack of self-repair and recyclability. Diels-Alder/retro-Diels-Alder (DA/RDA) equilibrium is a key to establish thermally reversible linkages among polysiloxane chains to enable the material’s recyclability. The equilibrium is optimized to improve the extent of reversibility of the Diels-Alder adduct through functional groups such as carboxyphenyl, ester, and carbon spacers in the structures of maleimide and furan derivatives. The DA/RDA equilibrium is studied by various nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiments and differential scanning calorimeter analyses. The DA reaction is found to be at its highest rate at 50 ͦC while the retro-Diels-Alder reaction is predominant at 110 ͦC. Comparison of the reaction rate constant of the optimized maleimide and furan derivatives at 50 ͦC with the literature suggests that the DA reaction is among those ones described as ultra fast kinetic. Accordingly, series of polysiloxanes are functionalized with the optimized maleimide and furan derivatives to obtain recyclable polysiloxane networks. Dynamic, variable-temperature solid-state 1H NMR experiments are confirmed the rapid, reversible nature of the cross-links within the polysiloxanes. The injured networks are mended to the point that signs of defects were nearly imperceptible even by scanning electron microscopy. The binding strengths of the healed materials are quantified using stress-strain measurements. The healed networks displayed binding strengths that are equal or superior to the undamaged ones.
    • Strong hydrogen bonding in organic synthesis

      So, Kwok-Hung.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      The preparation of phenacyl and para-phenylphenacyl esters, the reactions of carboxylic acids, phenols, 2-nitropropane and alcohols with alkyl halides in the presence of fluoride anion are described. The reactions are thought to be accelerated by the formation of hydrogen bonds between the fluoride anion and the organic electron acceptor. The fluoride ,carboxylic acids, fluoride-phenols and fluoride-2-nitropropane are better reaction systems than the fluoride-alcohol. The source of the fluoride anion and the choice of solvents are also discussed.
    • Studies in the mass spectra of perfluoroaromatic derivatives of phosphorus and some selected transition metals

      Jones, Timothy R. B.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-10-02)
      The mass spectra and fragmentation of a variety of fluoroaromatic compounds of Group V and some selected transition elements are discussed in some detail, aided by data from metastable defocussed experiments. Results of ,studies on the coupling reaction using unstable organotitanium chloride intermediate species are reported. The preparation of some 5-substituted octafluorodibenzophospho1es is also discussed. Rearrangements under electron bombardment resulting in the loss of heteroatom-fluoride fragments are discussed in the light of presently accepted mechanisms for these processes as are rearrangements observed in compounds involving thionophosphoryl bonds ( p=s ).
    • Studies in the synthesis of 4, 5-disubu/stituted phenanthrenes /|nK. Ramakrishnan. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Ramakrishnan, K.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-07-09)
      The work described in t his thesis was initiated with the intention of exploring new routes for the synthesis of certain 4, 5-disubstituted phenanthrenes. A series of reactions have been investigated in detail and several 4, 5-disubstituted phenanthrenes have been prepared. Some of the methods employed were novel and the yields of products were comparable or even better than the existing routes . A major observation made during the course of this work was the stability of the seven-membered ring system bridging the 4 and 5 positions of the phenanthrene nucleus . It has been found t hat the unbridged structures are not preferred if the compound is capable of isomerising to a bridged form . We have explained this phenomenon in t erms of the stereochemistry of t he 4 and 5 positions of the phenanthrene nucleus as well as the geometry of the bridge . Low temperature NMR studies have been carried out to investigate the conformations of the benzylic hydrogens of some of the 4,5-bridged compounds. However, the results were not conclusive as more than one reason could be attributed t o the observations .
    • Studies of nucleophilic attack on tris (pentafluorophenyl) phosphine and its oxides

      Hanna, Hanna Rizk.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      The reaction of tris(pentafluorophenyl)phosphine [5] with the nucleophiles dimethyl formamide (DMF), hexamethylphosphoric triamide (HMPA), diethyl formamide (DEF), hexaethylphosphoric triamide (HEPA), hydrazine, N,N-dimethyl hydrazine (in presence and/or absence of KF), phenylhydrazine, ammonium hydroxide, formamide, aniline, sodium hydrogen sulfide, and hexaethylphosphorous triamide was investigated. The reaction of [5] with DMF and HMPA gave the same product, namely tris-[4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl]phosphine [12] but in higher yield in the case of HMPA. Compound (5] also reacted with DEF to give tris[4-(N,N-diethylamino)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl] phosphine [14]. When [51 was treated with HEPA, it gave a mixture of bis(pentafluorophe~yl)-(N,N-diethylamino-tetrafluorophenyl)phosphine, pentafluorophenyl-bis-(N,N-diethylamino-tetrafluorophenyl)phosphine and tris (N,N-diethylamino-tetrafluorophenyl)phosphine. Treatment of [5] with aqueeus hydrazine solution in excess ethanol gave tris(4-hydrazo-2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)phosphine [1s1 in high yield while reaction with aqueous hydrazine led to C-P cleavage and production of tetrafluorophenyl hydrazine. With N,N-dimethyl hydrazine, [5] gave tris(4-N,N-dimethylhydrazine-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl) phosphine {20j. The latter could be obtained in higher yield and shorter reaction time, by the addition of KF. The reaction of compound {51 with phenylhydrazine in THF gave bis(pentafluorophe~yl)-4-S-phenylhydrazino- 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl phosphine [22] in low yield. Reaction of [5] with ammonium hydroxide in THF at high pressure in the presence of KF gave tris-~4-amino-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)phosphine [25]. Similarly, formamide led to a mixture of (C6F4NHZ)3P, (C6F4NHZ)ZPC6FS, (C6F4NHZ)ZPC6F4NHCHO, and C6F4NHZP(C6Fs)(C6F4NHCHO). When [5] was treated with aniline, a mixture of mono-, di-, and tri-substituted products was obtained. Sodium hydrogen sulfide in ethylene glycol/ pyridine led to C-P cleavage and the isolation of pentafluorobenzene and tetrafluorothiophenol. Reaction of [5] and its oxide [35] with different alkoxides in the corresponding alcohols led mainly to C-P bond cleavage products, with the exception of one case where sodium methoxide was used in ether, and which led to tris-(4-methoxy-2,3,9,6-tetrafluorophenyl)phosphine [37]. On the basis of various spectroscopic data, it was concluded that the para position in compound [5] was generally the favoured site of attack.
    • Studies of some cocondensations of nickel atoms with unsaturated organic ligands and with mixed ligand systems

      Kelusky, Eric Charles.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      The cocondensation of nickel with a number of unsaturated ligands was studied, as was the cocondensation with a number of mixed ligand systems. Enamines were found not to react with nickel while acrylonitrile was polymerized. In the mixed ligand syst.ems different products were obtained than when the ligands were cocondensed individually. Cocondensations of benzyl halide/allyl halide mixtures gave unstable products that were not observed when the halides were cocondensed individually. The effect of Kao-Wool insulation on nickel/benzyl halide cocondensations was found to be significant. Kao-Wool caused the bulk of the benzyl halide to be polymeri zed to a number of poly-benzylic species. An alkali metal reactor was designed for the evaporation of sodium and potassium atoms into cold solutions of metal halide and an or ganic substrate. This apparatus was used to synthesize Ni(P¢3 )3' but proved unsuccessful for synthesizing a nickel-enamine compound.
    • Studies of tetrahedral haloboron cations of pyridines and aliphatic tertiary amines

      Farquharson, Melvin John.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1985-07-09)
      The preparation of the haloboron cations D2BF2 + and DD'BF 2+, where D=R3N or a pyridine, has been systematically . 19 11 studied uS1ng F and B n.m.r. Both types of amines form numerous difluoroboron cations by heavy halogen displacement from D.BF 2X (X=CI,Br) adducts. Previously, D.BFX2 (X=CI,Br) adducts of aliphatic tertiary amines were unreactive towards cation formation. However, with the more-reactive pyridines, D.BFX 2 adducts formed new monofluoroboron cations D2BFX+ In non-fluorinated D.BX Y3 systems for n -n both pyridines and R3N, haloboron cations of type D2BX2 + and D2BXY+ can be similarly prepared. FAB-MS studies of ionic salts of our haloboron cations resulted in m/z peaks characteristic of D2 BX2 + and its f ragmentation products. These results s upport our n.m.r. solution s t u d ies. Pairwise interaction n . m.r . parameters for tetrahedral boron halide species were def i ned, then used to assist confirmation of our haloboron cations.
    • Studies on oxamyl : analytical method development and investigation of fate in peach seedlings and corn seeds

      McGarvey, Brian D.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1982-07-09)
      A high performance liquid chromatographic method employing two columns connected in series and separated~y·a.switching valve has been developed for the analysis of the insecticide/ nematicide oxamyl (methyl-N' ,N'-dimethyl-N-[(methylcarbamoyl) oxy]-l-thiooxarnimidate) and two of its metabolites. A variation of this method involving two reverse phase columns was employed to monitor the persistence and translocation of oxamyl in treated peach seedlings. It was possible to simultaneously analyse for oxamyl and its corresponding oxime (methyl-N',N'-dimethyl-N-hydroxy-l-thiooxamimidate}, a major metabolite of oxamyl in plants, without prior cleanup of the samples. The method allowed detection of 0.058 pg oxamyl and 0.035 p.g oxime. On treated peach leaves oxamyl was found to dissipate rapidly during the first two-week period, followed by a period of slow decomposition. Movement of oxamyl or its oxime did not occur in detectable quantities to untreated leaves or to the root or soil. A second variation of the method which employed a size exclusion column as·the first column and a reverse phase column as the second was used to monitor the degradation of oxamyl in treated, planted corn seeds and was suitable for simultaneous analysis of oxamyl, its oxime and dimethylcyanoformamide (DMCF), a metabolite of oxamyl. The method allowed detection of 0.02 pg oxamyl, 0.02 p.g oxime and 0.005 pg DMCF. Oxamyl was found to persist for a period of 5 - 6 weeks, which is long enough to permit oxamyl seedtreatment to be considered as a potential means of protecting young corn plants from nematode attack. Decomposition was found to be more rapid in unsterilized soil than in sterililized soil. DMCF was found to have a nematostatic effect at high concentrations ( 2,OOOpprn), but at lower concentrations no effect on nematode mobility was observed. Oxamyl, on the other hand, was found to reduce the mobility of nematodes at concentrations down to 4 ppm.
    • Studies on the insecticide - nematicide-oxamyl and its quantitative determination by gas chromatographic method

      Lee, Stephen.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      Ox amyl , an insecticide/nematicide with the chemical name; methyl ~'. ~·-dimethyl-~-(methylcarbamoyl)oxy-l-thiooxamimidate, and its major degradation compound; oxime or oximino compound, methyl ~',~'-dimethyl-~-hydroxy-l-thiooxamimidate were studied in this work. NMR and mass spectrometry were utilized in the structural studies. An attempt was made to explain the fragmentation patterns of some major peaks in the mass spectra of oxamyl and oxime. A new gas chromatographic method for the detection and determination of submicrogram levels of intact oxamyl using a electron-capture detector was developed. The principle of this method is to produce a derivative which is highly sensitive to an electron-capture detector. The derivative described is dinitrophenyl methylamine( DNPMA ) • Experimental conditions such as pH , reaction temperature , reaction time, the amount of reagent ( Dinitrofluaro benzene) etc. were thoroughly investigated and optimized. This method was successfully applied to the determination of oxamyl residues in tobacco leaves and soil. Throughout this J9D:oject , thin layer chromatography was also used in the separation:and clean up of oxamyl and oxime samples.
    • Study of the application of the high performance liquid chromatography-particle beam interface-mass spectrometry technique on some pesiticides and the reduction phenomena in the system

      Ziao, He.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      This work includes two major parts. The first part of the work concentrated on the studies of the application of the highperfonnance liquid chromatography-particle beam interface-mass spectrometry system of some pesticides. Factors that have effects on the detection sensitivity were studied. The linearity ranges and detection limits of ten pesticides are also given in this work. The second part of the work concentrated on the studies of the reduction phenomena of nitro compounds in the HPLC-PB-MS system. Direct probe mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques were also used in the work. Factors that have effects on the reduction of the nitro compounds were studied, and the possible explanation is proposed. The final part of this work included the studies of reduction behavior of some other compounds in the HPLC-PB-MS system, included in them are: quinones, sulfoxides, and sulfones.