• Mass spectral studies of some pentafluorophenyl derivatives of group V /|nby Andrew Tanner Rake. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Rake, Andrew Tanner.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1970-07-09)
      The mass spectra of compounds of t he series (C6F5 )3-n MP~ (n = 1,2,3, M = P and As ), (C6F5>3Sb, Ph) Sb and (C6F5 )2SbPh have been studied in detail and the important modes of fragmentation were e1ucidated, a ided by metastable ions. Various trends attributed to the central atom and or the . substituent groups have been noted and, where applicable, compared to recent studies on related phenyl and pentafluorophenyl compounds of groups IV and V. The mass spectra of fluorine containing organometallic compounds exhibit characteristic migrations of fluorine to t he central atom, giving an increasing abundance of MF+, MF2+' and RMF+ (R = Ph or C6F5) ions on descending the group_ The mass spectra of pentafluorophenyl , antimony, and arsenic compounds show a greater fragmentation of the aromatic ring than those of phosphorus. The mixed phenyl pentafluorophenyl derivatives show a characteristic pattern depending on the number of phenyl grm.lps present but show t he general characteristics of both the tris(phenyl) and tris(pentafluorophenyl) compounds. The diphenyl pentafluorophenyl der ivatives show the loss of biphenyl ion as the most import ant step, the los s of phenyl t o give the i on PhMC6F5 + being of secondary importance. The ,bis(pentafluorophenyl) phenyl derivatives fragment primarily by loss of PhC6F5 to give C6F5M+ ions, the abundance of t hese increasing r apidly from phosphorus to arsenic. This species then, exhibits a characteristic fragmentation observed in the tris(penta- fluorophenyl ) compounds. However, the abundance of (C6F5)2M+ species in these compounds i s small. I ons of the type C6H4MC6F4 + and tetrafluorobiphenylene ions C6H4C6F4 + also are observed on substitution of a phenyl group for a penta- fluorophenyl group. The fully fluorinated species (C6F4)2M+ is not observed, although octafluorobiphenylene ions , (C6F4)2+' are evident in several spectra . The appearance potentials of the major ions were obtatned from the ionisation efficiency curves. Attempts were made to correlate these to the effect of the central atom in substituent groups, but the large errors involved prevented the reaching of quantitative conclusions, although it would appear that the electron is removed from the ligand in the ionisation of t he parent molecule .
    • Mass spectrometric studies on aryltin compounds and alkali halides /

      Yan, Wenhong.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1997-07-14)
      The fragmentation behavior of aryltin compounds [(p-ThAnis)nSnPh4.n (n=l-4); (p-ThAnis)3SnX (X=C1, Br, I); (o-CH30C6H4)3SnCl; Ph3Sn(o-pyr)] have been studied comparatively under EI and FAB ionization modes. Alkali halides were run under FAB mode. For the aryltin compounds, the effect of ligand type on the spectra have been explored in both EI and FAB modes. The fragmentation mechanisms have been examined with linked scans, such as fragment ion scans (B/E) and parent ion scans (B^/E). Ab Initio molecular orbital calculations were used to determine the structures of the fragments by comparing their relative stabilities. In the EI MS studies, negative ion EI mode has also been used for some of the aryltin compounds, to examine the possible ion molecule reactions under low pressures at 70eV. In the positive ion FAB MS studies, matrix optimization experiments have been carried out. Negative ion FAB experiments of all the compounds have been done in two different ways. Finally, the comparison of the two methods, EI MS and FAB MS, have been made.For alkali halides, the studies focused on the FAB MS behavior under different conditions. The intensities of cluster ions were reported, and the anomalies in the intensity distribution was also discussed.
    • A mass spectrometric study of some pesticides /|nK. S. Subramanian. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Subramanian, K. S.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-07-09)
      The fragmentation processes in the mass spectra of a series of organophosphorus, organochlorine, thio and dithiocarbamate as well as a number of miscellaneous pesticides have been studied i n detail by using the Bendix timeof- flight, MS-12 single-focussing and MS-30 double-focussing mass spectrometers. Interpretation of all the spectra have been presented; their mode s of dissociation elucidated, aided by metastable transitions wherever possible and the structures of the various f ragmentation species postulated wherever f easible. The fragmentation mechanisms are based on the concepts of inductive, resonance and steric ef~ects. Multiple bond cleavages accompanied by simultaneous bond formation and rearrangement reactions involving cycli c t r ansition states have clarified t he formation of various ions . Due emphasis has been placed on the effect of the functional groups or substituents in altering the mass spectral behaviour of the pesticides as they form the basis for the identifi cation of the otherwise identical pesticides. The organophosphorus pesticides which have been studied include i) the phosphates (eg: DDVP and Phosdrin ); ii) phosphorothionates (eg: Parathion, 0-2, 4 dichloro phenyl 0, O-diethyl thionophosphate); iii) phosphorothioites (eg: Tributyl phosphorotrithioite); i V) phosphorothioates (eg: Ethion) and v) phosphorodithioates (eg: Carbophenolthion). Cleavages and rearrangements of the ester moiety dominate the spectrum of phosdrin while that of DDVP is + dominated by t he fragmentation modes of the (OH30)2P=0 + moiety. Fragmentation §f the (CH30)2P=S characterises the spectrum of (OH30)2"P -Cl while cleavages of the + (C2H50 )2P=S species mark the spectra of parathion and 0-2, 4- di chlorophenyl O, O-diethyl thiophosphate. The 0(, cl eavages of the thioether f unction rather than + cleavages of the (C2H50)2P=S signify the spectrum of carbophenolthion. Tributyl phosphorotrithioite behaves more like an aliphatic hydrocarbon than like the corresponding phosphites. The isopropyl and butyl esters of 2, 4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid show cleavage and rearrangement ions typical of an ester. In spite of its structural similari ty to pp' - DDT and pp' - DDD, Kalthane has a completely different mass spectral behaviour due to the influence of its hydroxyl function. The thiocarbamate pesticides studied include Eptam and Perbulate. Both are structurally similar but having different alkyl substituents on nitrogen and sulphur. This structurQlsimilarity leads to similar types of (N-C), (O-S) and (S-alkyl cleavages). However, perbulate differs from Eptam in showing a rearrangement ion at mle 161 and in forming an isocyanate ion as the base peak. In Eptam the base peak i s the alkyl ion. The dithiocarbamate, Vegadex, resembles the thiocarbamates in undergoing simple cleavages but it differs from them in having a weak parent ion; in the formation of its base peak and in undergoing a series of rearrangement reactions. The miscellaneous pesticides studied include 1-Naphthalene acetic aCid- methyl ester, Fiperonyl butoxide and Allethrin. The ester i s stable to electron impact and shows only fewer ions. Piper onyl butoxide, a polyether, shows characteristics of an et her, alcohol and aldehyde . Allethrin is regarded as an ester of the type R-C-O-R1 with n R being a substituted cyclopr opane moiety and o Rt, a substituted cyclopentenone mOiety. Accordingly it shows cleavage ions typical of an aliphatic ester and undergoes bond ruptures of the cyclic moieties to give unusual ions. Its base peak is an odd electron ion, quite contrary to expectations.
    • The mechanism of formation of the mixed boron trihalide adducts of trimenthylamine

      Benton-Jones, B. W.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-10-02)
      Boron trihalide and mixed boron trihalide adducts of trimethylamine have been prepared, and characterized by proton and fluorine N.M.R. spectroscopy. The acceptor power of the boron trihalides was seen to increase in the order BF3 < BC13 < BBr3 < BI3, corroborating previous evidence. The mixed boron trihalides had intermediate Lewis acidities. Solution reactions between adducts and free boron trihalides rapidly led to the formation of mixed adducts when the free boron trihalide is a stronger Lewis acid than that in the adduct. A slower reaction is observed when the free BX3 is a weaker Lewis aoid than that complexed. The mechanism of halogen exchange leading to the mixed (CH3)3NBX3 adducts was investigated. 10B labelling experiments precluded B-N bond rupture as a possible mechanism in solution; results are discussed in terms of halogen-bridged intermediates. Pre-ionization may be important for some systems. At higher temperatures, during gas phase reactions,B-N coordinate bond rupture may be the initial step of reaction. Two mixed adduots, namely (CH3)3NBClBr2 and (CH3)3NBHOIBr were prepared and characterized by Mass Spectrometry
    • Metal complexes involving pyridoxine and pyridoxamine

      Franklin, Teresa Anne.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      Solid complexes of pyridoxine with Mn(II) , Cd(II) and Zn(II) have been isolated, as well as compounds containing Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(III), Cd(II) and Zn(II), and pyridoxamine in various protonated forms. Infrared spectra provide evidence for protonation at the pyridine nitrogen site in the complexes, but not in the neutral vitamins and the complexes of anionic pyridoxamine. Thus the complexed vitamins are in zwitterionic forms, with chelation probably occurring through the phenolate oxygen and either the amino or the hydroxy group at the 4' position.
    • Miniature Wulff-type generator for improving feed to fuel cells /|nT.-S. Tan. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Tan, T. S.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1973-07-09)
      The original objective of this work was to provide a simple generator w.hich would produce hydrogen torLfuel-cell feed and which could be operated under remote or northern conditions. A secondary objective was to maximize the yield of hydrogen and carbon monoxide from available feed-stocks. A search of the patent literature has indicated that the concept of a small Wulff-type generator is essentially sound and that hydrogen may be recovered from a wide variety of hydrocarbon feed-stocks. A simple experimental set-up has been devised, patterned after ~~t originally used by R. G. Wulff for producing acetylene. This provides a supply of feed-stock, with or Without a carrier gas, which may be passed directly through a heated tube, which may contain a catalyst. A suitable procedure has been devised for analysi~ effluent gases for hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, methane and carbon monoxide by gas chromatography with the column packed with .Molecular .:>ieve .5 4. Athanol with air a.s carrier gas and at the same time as oxidant o was thermolyzed at temperatures in the ra~e 700-1100 C, with or Wi~lout catalyst. Methanol with or without nitrogen as a carrier gas was also cracked with • the same type of reactor refractory tube, but the temperature range was lower t down to ,300 " C when a catalyst was used. The problems of converting methane to hydrogen and carbon monoxide effiCiently, using air and/or water as oxidants were also studied.
    • Model studies toward the total synthesis of thebaine by an intramolecular cycloaddition strategy

      Gupta, Setu; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2014-01-27)
      The present studies describe recent progress toward the synthesis of the thebaine. Model substrates were synthesized using pyridazine derivatives as a starting material, which allowed to assess the key Diels-Alder reaction as a route to construct the thebaine core.
    • Modifications to the Suzuki reaction and mechanistic insights on the NBS mediated cleavage of benzylidene acetals /

      Wilson, Jeffery J.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2003-07-14)
      One of the most challenging tasks for a synthetic organic chemist today, is the development of chemo, regio, and stereoselective methodologies toward the total synthesis of macromolecules. r . The objective of my thesis was to develop methodologies towards this end. The first part of my project was to develop highly functionalized chirons from D-glucose, a cheap, chiral starting material, to be utilized in this capacity. The second part of the project dealt with modifying the carbon-carbon bond forming Suzuki reaction, which is utilized quite often as a means of combining molecular sub units in total synthesis applications. As previously stated the first area of the project was to develop high value chirons from D-glucose, but the mechanism of their formation was also investigated. The free radical initiated oxidative fragmentation of benzylidene acetals was investigated through the use of several test-case substrates in order to unravel the possible mechanistic pathways. This was performed by reacting the different acetals with N-bromosuccinimide and benzoyl peroxide in chlorobenzene at 70^C in all cases. Of the three mechanistic pathways discussed in the literature, it was determined, from the various reaction products obtained, that the fragmentation of the initial benzylic radical does not occur spontaneously but rather, oxidation proceeds to give the benzyl bromide, which then fragments via a polar pathway. It was also discovered that the regioselectivity of the fragmentation step could be altered through incorporation of an allylic system into the benzylidene acetal. This allows for the acquisition of a new set of densely functionalized. chiral, valuable synthetic intermediates in only a few steps and in high yields from a-Dglucose. The second part of the project was the utilization of the phosphonium salt room temperature ionic liquid tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium chloride (THPC) as an efficient reusable medium for the palladium catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of aryl halides, including aryl chlorides, under mild conditions. The cross-coupling reactions were found to proceed in THPC containing small amounts of water and toluene using potassium phosphate and 1% Pd2(dba)3. Variously substituted iodobenzenes, including electron rich derivatives, reacted efficiently in THPC with a variety of arylboronic acids and afforded complete conversion within 1 hour at 50 ^C. The corresponding aryl bromides also reacted under these conditions with the addition of a catalytic amount of triphenylphosphine that allowed for complete conversion and high isolated yields. The reactions involving aryl chlorides were considerably slower, although the addition of triphenylphosphine and heating at 70 ^C allowed high conversion of electron deficient derivatives. Addition of water and hexane to the reaction products results in a triphasic system in which the top hexane phase contained the biaryl products, the palladium catalyst remained fully dissolved in the central THPC layer, while the inorganic salts were extracted into the lower aqueous phase. The catalyst was then recycled by removing the top and bottom layers and adding the reagents to the ionic liquid which was heated again at 50 ^C; resulting in complete turnover of iodobenzene. Repetition of this procedure gave the biphenyl product in 82-97% yield (repeated five times) for both the initial and recycled reaction sequences.
    • Modified statistical methods to calculate rare gas interaction potentials

      Brual, Gregorio B.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      New density functionals representing the exchange and correlation energies (per electron) are employed, based on the electron gas model, to calculate interaction potentials of noble gas systems X2 and XY, where X (and Y) are He,Ne,Ar and Kr, and of hydrogen atomrare gas systems H-X. The exchange energy density functional is that recommended by Handler and the correlation energy density functional is a rational function involving two parameters which were optimized to reproduce the correlation energy of He atom. Application of the two parameter function to other rare gas atoms shows that it is "universal"; i. e. ,accurate for the systems considered. The potentials obtained in this work compare well with recent experimental results and are a significant improvement over those from competing statistical modelS.
    • Molecular Magnetism: The Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of New Building Blocks for Molecule-based Magnetic Materials

      Hurley, Nicholas J.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2013-04-08)
      Two classes of building blocks have been prepared and characterized and their coordination chemistry explored working towards the preparation of new molecule-based magnetic materials. In the first project, the amine functionality of 3,3'-diamino-2,2'- bipyridine was exploited for the preparation of a new family of ligands (H2L 1)-(H2L 4). The molecular structures of three ligands have been fully characterized by X-ray crystallography. [molecular structure diagram will not copy here, but is available in full pdf.] The coordination chemistry of these ligands with divalent first row transition metal ions was investigated. For ligand (H2L1), the molecular structures of four coordination complexes with stoichiometries [Zn2(Ll)(OAc)(MeO)]2 (I), [Cu2(L1)(OAc)2 (II), [Li(L1)]3 (III), and [Ni(L1)]3 (IV) were determined by X-ray crystallography. For ligand (H2L2), a Cu(II) complex of stoichiometry [Cu3(L2)(OAc)3MeO] (V) was determined by X-ray crystallography. The magnetic properties of complexes (II), (III), and (V) have been fully elucidated. In project two, synthetic strategies for the preparation of porphyrin molecules bearing triol substituents is presented. Following this approach, three new porphyrin derivatives have been prepared and characterized [Zn(HPTPP-CH2C(CH20H)3)] (VI), [P(TPP)(OCH2C(CH2)H)3)2]+CL- (VII), and [P(OEP)(C6H5)(OCH2C(CH2OH)3)]+Cl- (VIII). Attempts to exchange the labile methoxide bridges of a tetraironIIl single molecule magnet of stoichiometry [Fe4(OMe)6(dpm)6] (Hdpm = dipivaloylmethane) with the triol appended porphyrins will be discussed. [molecular structure diagram will not copy here, but is available in full pdf.]
    • Molecular mechanics calculations of tin-bis (triphenylphosphine oxide) complexes

      Dalacu, Andrea Victoria.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      The capability of molecular mechanics for modeling the wide distribution of bond angles and bond lengths characteristic of coordination complexes was investigatecl. This was the preliminary step for future modeling of solvent extraction. Several tin-phosphine oxide COrnI)le:){es were selected as the test groUl) for t.he d,esired range of geometry they eX!libi ted as \-vell as the ligands they cOD.tained r Wllich were c\f interest in connection with solvation. A variety of adjustments were made to Allinger's M:M2 force·-field ill order to inl.prove its performance in the treatment of these systems. A set of u,nique force constants was introduced for' those terms representing the metal ligand bond lengths, bond angles, and, torsion angles. These were significantly smaller than trad.itionallY used. with organic compounds. The ~1orse poteIlt.ial energ'Y function was incorporated for the M-X l')ond lE~ngths and the cosine harmonic potential erlerg-y function was invoked for the MOP bond angle. These functions were found to accomodate the wide distribution of observed values better than the traditional harmonic approximations~ Crystal packing influences on the MOP angle were explored thr"ollgh ttle inclusion of the isolated molecule withil1 a shell cc)ntaini11g tl1e nearest neigl1'bors duri.rlg energy rninimization experiments~ This was found to further improve the fit of the MOP angle.
    • Molecular mechanics calculations on some phosphine oxide metal complexes in aqueous and organic solvents

      Mwakapumba, Joseph.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1991-07-09)
      Molecular mechanics calculations were done on tetrahedral phosphine oxide zinc complexes in simulated water, benzene and hexane phases using the DREIDING II force field in the BIOGRAF molecular modeling program. The SUN workstation computer (SUN_ 4c, with SPARK station 1 processor) was used for the calculations. Experimental structural information used in the parameterization was obtained from the September 1989 version of the Cambridge Structural Database. 2 Steric and solvation energies were calculated for complexes of the type ZnCl2 (RlO)2' The calculations were done with and without inclusion of electrostatic interactions. More reliable simulation results were obtained without inclusion of charges. In the simulated gas phase, the steric energies increase regularly with number of carbons in the alkyl group, whereas they go through a maximum when solvent shells are included in the calculation. Simulated distribution ratios vary with chain length and type of chain branching and the complexes are found to be more favourable for extraction by benzene than by hexane, in accord with experimental data. Also, in line with what would be expected for a favorable extraction, calculations without electrostatics predict that the complexes are better solvated by the organic solvents than by water.
    • The near ultraviolet absorption spectrum of phosgene /

      Foo, Pang Dow.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1971-06-09)
      The near ultraviolet absorption of phosgene has been assigned to a * 1 1 ~.--n, A;-- Al electronic transition from vapour phase spectra recorded under conditions of high resolution and low_t~mperature. Progressions in Vi, v2' V3' V4 and V4 ha\1e been identified in the spectrum and have been analyzed in terms of vibronic transitions between a planar ground and a nonplanar excited state. A ba~rier height of 3170 cm~l:and a nona planar equilibrium angle of 32.5 were calculated for the upper state from a fit of the energy levels of a Lorentzian-guadratic potential func- ~ion to the observed levels of V 4 . ' ~he false ori- 3in, 41 0 , of the spectrum has been assigned to the band at 33,631 cm -1 . An oscillator strength of -3 1 . 1 f = 1. a x 10 has been obtained for the A - A 2 1 transition.
    • New Building Blocks for Dual-Property Molecule-Based Magnets

      Venneri, Shari; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2013-04-15)
      Two classes of compounds have been prepared and characterized as building blocks for chiral magnets and ferromagnetic conductors. In the fIrst project, the organic framework of a pentadentate, (N302) macro cycle has been synthetically modifIed to introduce phenyl substituents into its organic framework and the synthesis of four new [Fe(In(N302)(CN)2] complexes (I) - (IV) is presented. [Molecular diagram availble in pdf] This work represents the fIrst structural and magnetic studies of a family of spin crossover macrocycles that comprise of both structural and stereo-isomers. Magnetic susceptibility and Mossbauer data for the R,R-complex (I) is consistent with both a thermal and a light induced spin crossover transition. The X-ray data supports a change in geometry accompanying the thermal spin transition, from a high spin (HS) 7 -coordinate complex at room temperature to a low spin (LS) 5-coordinate complex at 100 K. The crystal structure ofthe racemic complex (III) reveals a HS, 7-coordinate complex at 200 K that undergoes no signifIcant structural changes on cooling. In contrast, the magnetic - susceptibility and Mossbauer data collected on a powder sample of the racemic complex are consistent with a LS complex. Finally, the meso complex (IV) was prepared and its structure and magnetic properties are consistent with a 5-coordinate LS complex that remains low spin, but undergoes conformational changes on cooling in solution. The chiral [Fe(H)(N302)(CN)2] macro cycle (I), together with its Mn(H) and Fe(H) derivatives have also been exploited as building blocks for the self-assembly of chiral magnets. In the second project, a synthetic route for the preparation of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) donors covalently attached to a diisopropyl verdazyl radical via a cross conjugated pyridyl linker IS presented. Following this strategy, four new TTF-py- (diisopropyl)verdazyl radicals have been prepared and characterized (V) - (VIII) . [Molecular diagram available in pdf] The first (2:1) charge transfer complex ofa TTF-py-(diisopropyl)verdazyl radical donor and a TCNQ acceptor has been prepared and structurally characterized. The crystal packing shows that the donor and acceptor molecules are organized in a mixed stacking arrangement consistent with its insulating behaviour. EPR and magnetic susceptibility data support intramolecular ferromagnetic interactions between the TTF and the verdazyl radicals and antiferromagnetic interactions between TTF donors within a stack. In an attempt to increase the intramolecular exchange interaction between the two radicals, a TTF-x-(diisopropyl)verdazyl radical (IX) was prepared, where the two radicals are connected ia a conjugated divinylene linker. The neutral radical donors stack in a more favourable head-to-head arrangement but the bulky isopropyl groups prevent the donor radicals from stacking close enough together to facilitate good orbital overlap. [Molecular diagram available in pdf].
    • NMR studies of mixed tetrahaloborates and some related boron trihalide complexes /|nGary John Schrobilgen. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Schrobilgen, Gary John.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1971-07-09)
      Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to study donor-acceptor complexes of boron trifluoride with several ureas, tetramethylthiourea, tetramethylselenourea, and tetramethylquanidine as well as adducts of tetramethyl- -urea with BF2Cl, BFC1 2 , and BC1 3 - A large number of mixed tetrahaloborate ions, including some of the ternary ones such as BF2CIBr-,have been obtained by ligand exchange reactions and studied by NMR techniques. The bonding in these ions is of the same inherent interest as the bonding in the isoelectronic tetrahalomethanes which have been the subject of many detailed studies and have been involved in a controversy concerning the existence of and the nature of "fluorine hyperconjugation" or C-F P1T- Pn bonding_ Ligand exchange reactions also gave rise to the difluoroboron cation, (TMU)20BF2+o The difluoroboron cation has been observed in solutions of TMU-BF3 , and has been proposed as a possible intermediate for fluorine exchange reactions in BF3 adducts.
    • NMR studies of strong hydrogen bond to fluoride ion

      Kanippayoor, Raveendran K.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      Systems such as MF/diol (M = alkali metal) and }1F/carboxylic acid were subjected to IH, I9F and 13C nmr study to investigate the nature of the very strong H-bonding of fluoride ions with these systems. Evidence indicates a strong H-bond in diol-fluoride systems (~H ~ -(56) kJ mol-I) which is stronger than most 'typical' H-bonds (~H = -(12-40) kJ mol-I), but weaker than that reported for carboxylic acid-fluoride systems (~H ~ -(120) kJ mol-I). Approximate fluoride H-bonded shifts (o(OH)OHF) were evaluated for MF/diol systems from IH chemical shift measurements. No direct correlation was observed between I9F chemical shift and H-bond strength. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated from temperature dependent IH and 19F shifts. Preliminary studies of BUn 4NF-acetylacetone by I9F nmr were conducted at low temperatures and a possible Jmax (ca. 400 Hz) is reported for the fluoride ion H-bonded to acetylacetone. Highfield shift for non-protonated carbons and downfield shift for protonated carbons were observed in carboxylic acid/KF systems. Significant decreas$in I3C TI due to strong H-bonding to fluoride ions were also detected in both diol and carboxylic acid systems. Anomalous results were obtained, such as increasing NOE with increasing temperature in neat 1,2-ethanediol (values above the theoretical maximum of 1.988) and in 1,2-ethanediol/KF. The large 13C NOE's for carboxy carbons in neat carboxylic acids which are. further enhanced by the addition of KF are also unusual.
    • NMR studies of the exchange reactions of CH3CN.BX3 with excess CH3CN /|nJoseph Fogelman. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Fogelman, Joseph.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1970-07-09)
      Exchange reactions between molecular complexes and excess acid or base are well known and have been extensively surveyed in the literature(l). Since the exchange mechanism will, in some way involve the breaking of the labile donor-acceptor bond, it follows that a discussion of the factors relating to bonding in molecular complexes will be relevant. In general, a strong Lewis base and a strong Lewis acid form a stable adduct provided that certain stereochemical requirements are met. A strong Lewis base has the following characteristics (1),(2) (i) high electron density at the donor site. (ii) a non-bonded electron pair which has a low ionization potential (iii) electron donating substituents at the donor atom site. (iv) facile approach of the site of the Lewis base to the acceptor site as dictated by the steric hindrance of the substituents. Examples of typical Lewis bases are ethers, nitriles, ketones, alcohols, amines and phosphines. For a strong Lewis acid, the following properties are important:( i) low electron density at the acceptor site. (ii) electron withdrawing substituents. (iii) substituents which do not interfere with the close approach of the Lewis base. (iv) availability of a vacant orbital capable of accepting the lone electron pair of the donor atom. Examples of Lewis acids are the group III and IV halides such (M=B, AI, Ga, In) and MX4 - (M=Si, Ge, Sn, Pb). The relative bond strengths of molecular complexes have been investigated by:- (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v] (vi) dipole moment measurements (3). shifts of the carbonyl peaks in the IIIR. (4) ,(5), (6) .. NMR chemical shift data (4),(7),(8),(9). D.V. and visible spectrophotometric shifts (10),(11). equilibrium constant data (12), (13). heats of dissociation and heats of reactions (l~), (16), (17), (18), (19). Many experiments have bben carried out on boron trihalides in order to determine their relative acid strengths. Using pyridine, nitrobenzene, acetonitrile and trimethylamine as reference Lewis bases, it was found that the acid strength varied in order:RBx3 > BC1 3 >BF 3 • For the acetonitrile-boron trihalide and trimethylamine boron trihalide complexes in nitrobenzene, an-NMR study (7) showed that the shift to lower field was. greatest for the BB~3 adduct ~n~ smallest for the BF 3 which is in agreement with the acid strengths. If electronegativities of the substituents were the only important effect, and since c~ Br ,one would expect the electron density at the boron nucleus to vary as BF3<BC1~ BBr 3 and therefore, the acid strength would vary as BF~BC1)BBr3: However, for the boron trihalides, the trend is in the opposite direction as determined experimentally. Considerable back-bonding (20), (21) between the halogen and the boron atoms has been proposed as the predominating factor, i.e. ~rt- back-bond between a lone electron pair on the halogen and the vacant orbital on the boron site. The degree of back-bonding varies inversely as the bo~on halogen distance and one would therefore expect the B-F bond to exhibit greater back-bonding character than the B-Cl or B-Br bonds. Since back-bonding transfers electron density from substituent to the boron atom site, this process would be expected to weaken the Lewis acid strength. This explains the Lewis acid strength increasing in the order BF 3 BC1 3 BBr 3 . When the acetonitrile boron trihalide complex is formed, the boron atom undergoes ~_cbange of hybridization from sp2 to sp3. From a linear relationship between the heat of formation of ethyl acetate adducts and the shift in the carbonyl I.R. stretch, Drago (22) et al have proposed that the angular di~tortion of the X-B-X bonds from sp2 (12 ) to sp3 (10 hybridization is proportional to the amount of charge transferred, i.e. to the nature of the base, and they have rejected the earlier concept of reorganization energy in explaining the formation of the adduct bond (19).
    • The normal co-ordinate analysis, vibrational spectra and theoretical infrared intensities of some thiocarbonyl halide molecules /

      Brema, John L.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1970-06-09)
      TITLE: The normal co-ordinate analysis, vibrational spectra and theoretical infrared intensities of some thiocarbonyl halides. AUTHOR: J. L. Brema SUPERVISOR: Dr. D. C. Moule NUMBER OF PAGES: 89 ABSTRACT: The vibrational assignment of the five-in-plane fundamental modes of CSClBr has been made on the basis of infrared gas phase and liquid Raman spectral analyses to supplement our earlier vibrational studies. Even though the one out-of-plane fundamental was not observed spectroscopically an attempt has been made to predict its frequency. The vibrational spectra contained impurity bands and the CSClBr assignment was made only after a thorough analysis of the impurities themselves. A normal co-ordinate analysis calculation was performed assuming a Urey-Bradley force field. This calculation yielded the fundamental frequencies in good agreement with those observed after refinement of the originally transferred force constants. The theoretical frequencies are the eigenvalues of the secular equation and the calculation also gave the corresponding eigenvectors in the form of the very important LLj matrix. The [l] matrix is the transfoirmation between internal co-ordinates and normal co-ordinates and it is essential for Franck-Condon calculations on electronically excited molecules and for infrared Integrated band intensity studies. Using a self-consistent molecular orbital calculation termed "complete neglect of differential overlap" (CNDO/2) , theoretical values of equilibrium bond lengths and angleswere calcuted for a series of carbonyl and thlocarbonyl molecules. From these calculations valence force field force constants were also determined but with limited success. With the CNIX)/2 method theoretical dipole moment derivatives with respect to symmetrized internal co-ordinates were calculated and the results should be useful in a correlation with experimentally determined values.
    • Novel Tridentate N,S,N-Metal Compounds of Zinc, Germanium and Phosphorus

      Lortie, John; Department of Chemistry
      A novel ligand based on a flexible NSN tridentate framework, and main group compounds of the general formula M(NSN) were prepared on zinc, germanium, and phosphorus. The compound ZnNSN(dimethylaminopyridine) (III-45a) is fluxional with III-46a in tetrahydrofuran, and its exchange parameters were calculated from NMR measurements. An X-ray structure was obtained for GeNSN (III-47a) crystals isolated from diethylether and exhibits an envelope-like geometry with coordination of the soft sulfur donor to the germanium centre. III-47a was not reactive with CH3I but showed reactivity with 3,6-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone. ClPNSN (III-53) was prepared both by transmetallation of III-46a and by a reaction of an in situ generated Li2NSN and PCl3. HPNSN (III-52) was prepared by halogen exchange of III-53 and L-selectride.