• Heats of formation of some hydrates /|nA. Phillipson. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Phillipson, A.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-07-09)
      A great deal of data on the heats of formation of various hydrates has been compiled i n the J.A.N.A.F. and other tables such as the National Bureau of Standards circulars. Comparison of the heat of f ormation of a hydrate with that of the corresponding anhydrate exposes anomalies i n a surprising number of cases. Some of the results are so discordant that i t is apparent that one or the other value is seriously mistaken. No attempt has been made i n this work to determine which value may be correct, but measurements have been made of the difference between these two values. The procedure adopted has been to dissolve the hydrate and the anhydrate, to achieve the same final concentration of the compound in solution, and so to measure the difference in heats of solution .. Measurements were made at OOC in a modified Bunsen ice calorimeter, well insulated and surrounded by an icewater mixture . The observed differences in heats of solut ion were corrected t o 25°0 by using appropriate heat capacity data. These differences offer a direct measure of the enthalpy involved in binding a mole of water into the crystal structure and so should shed light on the nature of binding involved. The following hydrates were studied : MgS04.nH20 (n = 1,4,7), MnC12.nH20 (n = 1, 2), LiI. nH20 (n = 1,3), MnS04. nH20 (n = 1,4), CaC12. nH20 (n = 2,6) , K2C03.1~H20, LiCl.H20, LiBr.2H20, CdC12.2t H2o, and N2H4eH20.
    • A high resolution study of the 4¹â bands of ¹³CHâ O and CHâ ¹⠸O

      Shah, Arvind K.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
    • High-Spin and Emissive Molecular Materials: Synthesis and Characterization of New Polynuclear Ni(II) Complexes from the Use of Aromatic Schiff Bases as Bridging Ligands

      Perlepe, Panagiota; Department of Chemistry
      The employment of the bridging/chelating Schiff bases, N-salicylidene-4-methyl-o-aminophenol (samphH2) and N-naphthalidene-2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid (nacbH2), in nickel cluster chemistry has afforded eight polynuclear Ni(II) complexes with new structural motifs, interesting magnetic and optical properties, and unexpected organic ligand transformations. In the present thesis, Chapter 1 deals with all the fundamental aspects of polynuclear metal complexes, molecular magnetism and optics, while research results are reported in Chapters 2 and 3. In the first project (Chapter 2), I investigated the coordination chemistry of the organic chelating/bridging ligand, N-salicylidene-4-methyl-o-aminophenol (samphH2). The general NiII/tBuCO2-/samphH2 reaction system afforded two new tetranuclear NiII clusters, namely [Ni4(samph)4(EtOH)4] (1) and [Ni4(samph)4(DMF)2] (2), with different structural motifs. Complex 1 possessed a cubane core while in complex 2 the four NiII ions were located at the four vertices of a defective dicubane. The nature of the organic solvent was found to be of pivotal importance, leading to compounds with the same nuclearity, but different structural topologies and magnetic properties. The second project, the results of which are summarized in Chapter 3, included the systematic study of a new optically-active Schiff base ligand, N-naphthalidene-2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid (nacbH2), in NiII cluster chemistry. Various reactions between NiX2 (X- = inorganic anions) and nacbH2 were performed under basic conditions to yield six new polynuclear NiII complexes, namely (NHEt3)[Ni12(nacb)12(H2O)4](ClO4) (3), (NHEt3)2[Ni5(nacb)4(L)(LH)2(MeOH)] (4), [Ni5(OH)2(nacb)4(DMF)4] (5), [Ni5(OMe)Cl(nacb)4(MeOH)3(MeCN)] (6), (NHEt3)2[Ni6(OH)2(nacb)6(H2O)4] (7), and [Ni6(nacb)6(H2O)3(MeOH)6] (8). The nature of the solvent, the inorganic anion, X-, and the organic base were all found to be of critical importance, leading to products with different structural topologies and nuclearities (i.e., {Ni5}, {Ni6} and {Ni12}). Magnetic studies on all synthesized complexes revealed an overall ferromagnetic behavior for complexes 4 and 8, with the remaining complexes being dominated by antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. In order to assess the optical efficiency of the organic ligand when bound to the metal centers, photoluminescence studies were performed on all synthesized compounds. Complexes 4 and 5 show strong emission in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Finally, the ligand nacbH2 allowed for some unexpected organic transformations to occur; for instance, the pentanuclear compound 5 comprises both nacb2- groups and a new organic chelate, namely the anion of 5-chloro-2-[(3-hydroxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl)amino]benzoic acid. In the last section of this thesis, an attempt to compare the NiII cluster chemistry of the N-naphthalidene-2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid ligand with that of the structurally similar but less bulky, N-salicylidene-2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid (sacbH2), was made.
    • Host-parasite relationships in mycoparasite /

      Lee, Kwai Yiu Dennis.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-06-15)
      A mycoparasite, Piptocephalis virginiana ^ shows a resemblance to fungal parasites of higher plants in the fine structure of hyphae and haustoria. The morphology and fine structure of host and parasitic fungi have been described. The mode of penetration of the host cell, Choanephora cucurbitarum , probably involves mechanical forces. Although the presence of cell wall degrading enzyme was not detected by conventional techniques, its role in penetration can't be ruled out. A collar around the haustorial neck is formed as an extension of the host cell wall. No papilla was detected although appressorixim was seen during penetration. The young haustorium is enclosed in highly invaginating plasmalemma of the host cell and n\imerous cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum. Appearance of an electron—dense sheath around the mature haustorium seems to coincide with the disappearance of cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum from the host cystoplasm in the vicinity of the haustorium. The role of host cytoplasm particularly of endoplasmic reticulum in the development of the sheath is discussed. Extensive accumulation of spherosomes-like bodies, containing lipids, is found in haustorium, parasite and host hypha. Electron microscope revealed the parasiticculture spore has more lipid content than the axenic culture spore of P. virginiana . The biochemical and cytochemical tests also support these results. The mature spore of C. cucurbitarum possesses a thick three-layered cell wall, different from the hyphal wall. Its germination is accompanied by the formation of an elastic thin inner layer which surrounds the emerging germ tube and the growing hypha. High resolution autoradiography showed that H N-acetyl-glucosamine , a precursor of chitin, was incorporated preferentially in the thin inner layer of the spore wall and also in the cell wall of the growing hypha. When the label was fed to the infected cells, at different intervals after inoculation, grains were observed on the sheath which developed around the haustorium of P. virginiana , 30 hours after inoculation. The significance of these results in relation to the origin and composition of the sheath is discussed.
    • How Learning Styles, Chemistry Attitudes and Experiences, Confidence, and Demographics Correlate with Academic Success in First and Second Year Chemistry Courses

      Ilnicki-Stone, Elizabeth; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2013-04-08)
      At Brock University, the Faculty of Mathematics and Science currently has one of the highest percentages of students on academic probation, with many students reporting the most difficulty with Introductory Chemistry in first year and Organic Chemistry in second year. To identify strategies to improve students' performance and reduce the number of students on academic probation, a multi-year research project was undertaken involving several chemistry courses. Students were asked to complete three questionnaires, and provide consent to obtain their final Chemistry grade from the Registrar's Office. Research began at the end of the 2007-08 academic year with CHEM IPOO, and in the 2008-09 academic year, students in the larger CHEM IF92 Introductory Chemistry course were invited to participate in this research near the beginning of the academic year. Students who went on to take second year Organic and Analytical Chemistry were asked to complete these questionnaires in each second year course. The three questionnaires included the Kolb Learning Styles Inventory (Kolb, 1984) modified to include specific reference to Chemistry in each question, Dalgety, ColI, and Jones' (2002) Chemistry Attitudes and Experiences Questionnaire (CAEQ), and lastly, a demographic survey. Correlations were found between learning style and academic success; concrete learners were not as successful as abstract learners. Differences were noted between females and males with respect to learning styles, academic success, and confidence. Several differences were also noted between those who are the First in the Family to attend university and those who are not First in the Family to attend university.
    • An HPLC method for simultaneous determination of residual benomyl and MBC on apple foliage without cleanup

      Veres, Darrell Franklin.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1982-07-09)
      A simple High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC) method has been developed to identify benamyl (methyl 1- (butylcarbamoyl)-2-benzimidazole carbamate) and MBC (methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamat~ residues on apple leaves without cleanup. Sample leaves are freeze dried in a Mason jar and residues are then extracted by tumbling them in chloroform containing 5,000 microgram per milliliter of n-propyl isocyanate (PIC) at 10 C. To the extract, n-butyl isocyanate (BIC) was added at 5,000 microgram per milliliter and 20 microliter of this mixture injected onto the HPLC system. Separation is accomplished by the use of a Brownlee LiChrosorb silica gel column with a guard column and' operated with a mixed mobile phase consisting of chloroform and hexane (4:1) saturated with water. MBC, a degradation product of benomyl is identified if present as methyl l-(npropyl carbamoyl)-2-benzimidazole carbamate (MBC-n-PIC). Both benomyl and MBC-n-PIC can be detected with aKUltraviolet (UV) detector (280nm) at a concentration as low as 0.2 microgram per milliliter in apple leaves. The fate of benomyl on apple foliage after spray application of benomyl (Ben late 50 per cent wettable powder) was investigated by the method thus described. Benomyl quickly dissipated during the first 3-7 days, but the dissipatio'n sltowed down thereafter. In contrast, the concentration of MBC in leaves gradually increased after repeated applications of Benlate.
    • Hydroamidation of Vinyl Ethers by Acid-Catalyzed Multicomponent Isocyanide Addition

      Carlson, Brenden Matthew; Department of Chemistry
      Hydroamidation of carbon–carbon double bonds is an attractive strategy for installing nitrogen functionality into molecular scaffolds and, with it, increasing molecular complexity. To date, metal-based approaches have dominated this area of chemical synthesis despite the drawbacks of air and moisture sensitivity, limited functional group tolerance, toxicity, and/or high cost often associated with using metals. Herein is enclosed an operationally simple, metal-free, one-pot, regioselective, multicomponent synthetic procedure for the hydroamidation of carbon–carbon double bonds. This method features mild reaction conditions and utilizes isocyanides and vinyl ethers for the rapid and modular synthesis of α-oxygenated amide scaffolds. Additional effort was put towards synthesizing reactive natural products as substrates to the developed methodology, and drafting a probable catalytic cycle for the main and side reactions present within this multicomponent procedure.
    • The identification, distribution and persistence of oxamyl and its degradation products in planted corn seed, seedling root and soil from oxamyl-treated corn seeds

      Fulop, Gyula J.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1987-07-09)
      A simple method was developed for treating corn seeds with oxamyl. It involved soaking the seeds to ensure oxamyl uptake, centrifugation to draw off excess solution, and drying under a stream of air to prevent the formation of fungus. The seeds were found to have an even distribution of oxamyl. Seeds remained fungus-free even 12 months after treatment. The highest nonphytotoxic treatment level was obtained by using a 4.00 mg/mL oxamyl solution. Extraction methods for the determination of oxamyl (methyl-N'N'-dimethyl-N-[(methylcarbamoyl)oxy]-l-thiooxamimidate), its oxime (methyl-N',N'-dimethyl-N-hydroxy-1-thiooxamimidate), and DMCF (N,N-dimethyl-1-cyanoformanade) in seed" root, and soil were developed. Seeds were processed by homogenizing, then shaking in methanol. Significantly more oxamyl was extracted from hydrated seeds as opposed to dry seeds. Soils were extracted by tumbling in methanol; recoveries range~ from 86 - 87% for oxamyl. Root was extracted to 93% efficiency for oxamyl by homogenizing the tissue in methanol. NucharAttaclay column cleanup afforded suitable extracts for analysis by RP-HPLC on a C18 column and UV detection at 254 nm. In the degradation study, oxamyl was found to dissipate from the seed down into the soil. It was also detected in the root. Oxime was detected in both the seed and soil, but not in the root. DMCF was detected in small amounts only in the seed.
    • The importance of hydrogen bonding in the alkylation of phenols

      Alauddin, Mian Mohannad.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1982-07-09)
      Hydrogen bond assisted alkylation of phenols is compared with the classical base assisted reactions. The influence of solvents on the fluoride assisted reactions is discussed,· with emphasis on the localization of hydrogen bond charge density. Polar aprotic solvents such as DMF favour a-alkylation, and nonpolar aprotic solvents such as toluene favourC-alkylation of phenol. For more reactive and soluble fluorides, such as tetrabu~ylammoniumfluoride, the polar aprotic solvent favours a-alkylation and nonpolar aprotic solvent favours fluorination. Freeze-dried potassium fluoride is a better catalytic agent in hydrogen bond assisted alkylation reactions of phenol than the oven-dried fluoride. The presence of water in the alkylation reactions reduces the expected yield drastically. The tolerance of the reaction to water has also been studied. The use ofa phase transfer catalyst such as tetrabutylammonium bromide in the alkylation reactions of phenol in the presence of potassium fluoride is very effective under anhydrous conditions. Sterically hindered phenols such as 2,6-ditertiarybutyl-4-methyl phenol could not be alkylated even by using the more reactive fluorides, such as tetrabutylammonium fluoride in either polar or nonpolar aprotic solvents. Attempts were also made to alkylate phenols in the presence of triphenylphosphine oxide.
    • Intramolecular carbenoid insertion : reactions of [alpha] -diazoketones derived from benzothienyl, pyrolyl and indolyl alkanoic acids with rhodium (II) acetate

      Salim, Mohamed Abdulla.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1999-07-09)
      Recent studies have shown that the rhodium (II) acetate decomposition chemistry observed for a-diazoketones tethered to thienyl, furanyl, and benzofuranyl moieties is dependent not only on the nature of the heteroatom but also on the length of the aliphatic tether linking the diazoketone moiety with the aromatic fragment. The present thesis expands on these results and focuses on a-diazoketones tethered to benzothiophenes, pyrroles and indoles by a methylene linker. In the case of benzothiophenes, it was shown that the rhodium catalyst decomposition of I-diazo-4-(3-benzothienyl)-2-butanone (146) and 1-diazo-4-(3benzothienyl)- 2-butanone (152) allow for the isolation of 1,2,3a,3b-tetrahydro-3Hbenzo[ b]cyclopenta[1,3]cyclopropa- [1 ,2-d]thiophen-3-one (147) and 1,2,3a,3btetrahydro- 3H-benzo[b]cyclopenta[1,3]cyclopropa[1,2-d]thiophen-3-one (153). However treatment of 1-diazo-3-(3-Benzothienyl)-2-Propanone (165) with Rh(II) acetate results in the formation of 2,3-Dihydro-1H-benzo[b]cyclopenta[d]thiophen-2-one (159), while 1diazo- 3-(2-Benzothienyl)-2-Propanone with the same condition gives 5,5-bis( 1benzothiophen- 2-ylmethyl)-2(5H)-furanone (166) along with the tricycle 159. The chemistry of the pyrrolyl and the indolyl moieties linked to terminal adiazoketone systems was also investigated. The decomposition of I-diazo-(2-pyrrolyl)-2propanone (173) results in the formation of two products; the N-H insertion product IHpyrrolizin- 2(3H)-one (176) and the alkylation product 4,6-dihydrocyclopenta[b]pyrrol5( 1 H)-one (180). When 1-Diazo-3-(3-indoly)-3-propanone (194) is treated with catalytic amount of Rh (II) 3,4-dihydrocyclopenta[b]indol-2(1H)-one (193) is isolated quantitatively. The later reaction when monitored using IH NMR the intermediate 200 can be seen whose structure was confirmed by the comparison to series of model compounds. The mechanisms underlying these reactions as well as their synthetic utility is discussed.
    • Intramolecular carbenoid insertions : the reactions of [alpha]-diazoketones derived from furanyl, thienyl, benzofuranyl and benzothienyl acetic acids with rhodium (II) acetate /

      Yong, Kelvin Hin-Yeong.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1998-05-21)
      A number of synthetically useful ring systems can be prepared via the intramolecular insertion of a metal-stabilized carbenoid into a heteroaromatic systems. The chemical outcome of these reactions are dependent not only on the nature of the heteroatom but also on the length of the aliphatic tether linking the carbenoid moiety with the aromatic fragment. Our work with furanyl and thienyl systems containing a single methylene tether have allowed for some rather atypical chemistry. For example, treatment of l-diazo-3-(2-thienyl)-2-propanone (6) with catalytic rhodium (II) acetate yields 5,6- dihydro-4^-cyclopenta[Z>]thiophen-5-one (3) while, the isomeric l-diazo-3-(3-thienyl)-2- propanone(15) gives a spiro-disulphide (20). Novel chemistry was also exhibited in the analogous furanyl systems. While treatment of l-diazo-3-(3-furanyl)-2-propanone (52) with Rh2(OAc)4 resulted in the expected 2-(4-Oxo-2-cyclopentenyliden)acetaldehyde (54), isomeric l-diazo-3-(2- furanyl)-2-propanone (8) undergoes vinylogous Wolff rearrangement to give a mixture of 6a-methyl-2,3,3a,6a-tetrahydrofuro[2,i-^>]furan-2-one (44) and 2-(2-methyl-3-furyl)acetic acid (43). Rhodium acetate catalyzed decomposition of l-diazo-3-(3-benzofuranyl)-2- propanone (84) and l-diazo-3-(2-benzofuranyl)-2-propanone (69)also allows for vinylogous Wolff rearrangement, a chemistry unseen in benzofuranyl systems with longer tethers. A number of interesting products were isolated from the trapping of intermediate ketenes. Decomposition of l-diazo-3-(3-benzothienyl)-2-propanone (100) resulted in the formation of 2,3-dihydro-l//-benzo[^]cyclopenta[^thiophen-2-one (102). However, in addition to (102), a dimer was also generated from the decomposition of l-diazo-3-(2- benzothienyl)-2-propanone (109). The insight into the mechanistic underpinnings of the above reactions are provided by molecular modeling at a PM3 level.
    • An investigation into fungal metabolism of halogenated and related steroids

      Thomas, Everton M.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      Fungal metabolism of halogenated and related steroids was investigated. The fungi Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142, Curvularia lunata NRRL 2380 and Rhizopus stolonifer ATCC6227b were studied in this regard. 2l-Fluoro-, 2l-chloro, 2l-bromo- and 2l-methyl-pregn-4-ene-3,20diones were prepared and incubated with ~ niger (a C-2l-hydroxylator) in order to observe the effect of the C-2l substituent on the metabolism of these substrates. In all four cases, the C-2l substituent prevented any significant metabolism of these substrates. llB-Fluoropregn-4-ene-3,20-dione was prepared and incubated with C. lunata (an llB-hydroxylator) and ~ stolonifer (an lla-hydroxylator). With ~ lunata, the ll-fluoro- substituent prevent hydroxylation at the 11 position, but diverted it to a site remote from the fluorine atom. In contrast, with ~ stolonifer the llB-fluoro- substituent, although slowing the apparent rate of hydroxylation, did not prevent its occurrence at the 11a- position. llB-Hydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione was also incubated with R. stolonifer. The llB-hydroxy-;group did not appear to have any significant effect on hydroxylation at the lla- position. The incubation of a substrate, unsaturated at a favoured site of hydroxylation with Rhizopus arrhizus ATCC 11145 provided a complex mixture of products; among them were both the a and S epoxides. The formation of these products is rationalized as arising because of the lack of regio- and stereospecificity of the hydroxylase enzyme(s) involved.
    • An investigation into some mechanistic aspects of estrogen biosynthesis

      Taylor, Gregg Jarvis.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      The mechanistic aspects of the 19-hydroxy1ation and aromatization of androgens were investigated. Fungal, bacterial and mammalian enzymatic activities were studied in this regard . The fungus Pell i cular~ fi1amentosa metabolized androst-4-ene-3 , 17-dione to the corresponding 110<' , 11 f and 14 0( hydroxylated derivatives. No ~19- hydroxylated products were isolated, although this transformation was previously observed for the C21-steroids . The intestinal bacterium Clostridi um paraputrific~ had been reported to aromatize androsten-4-ene-3,17-dione. In the present study, however, only the ring A reduced products , 17(3 - hydroxy-5f -andro8tane- 3-one and 5f-androstane-3,17-dione , were recovered . Human placental microsomes contain substantial aromatase activity and were employed in an effort to elucidate some of the mechanistic details of aromatization. Selectively deuterated steroidal substrates were employed as a probe in order to distinguish b'!tween certain of the mechanisms proposed for aromatization . Retention of deuterium at C4 and C6 was observed. It was concluded that no free intermediates allowing for loss of hydrogen from either of these two positions are implicated in this process . The involvement of a Schiff base enzyme-sup strate complex in aromatization was examined using the substrate 17f - hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3-one- 3_ 1BO. Since no loss of label was ob~erved, the implication of a Schiff base was discounted . Mixed label1ir~ studies were performed in order to determine if hydroxylation at C19 is a rate-determining process in aromatization . Isotope effects of 2 .1 and 1.7 were determined for the conversion of 17f - hydroxyandrost-4-ene-J-one-19,19,19-dJ and -19-dl respectively to estrogens. It was concluded from this that 19-hydroxylation is at l east a partially rate-determinjng process in aromatization. A homoenb~ation mechanism for 19-hydroxylation was not supported by the data obtained in this s tudy. In vitro 1JC NMR monitoring using l7f-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-Jone- 19-l3C was found not to be a successful approach in the study of steroid transformations, owing in part t o their low solubility in the incubation medium.
    • Investigation into the determination of arsenic by direct current plasma atomic emission spectrometer

      Boampong, Charles.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1983-07-09)
      Improvements have been made on the currently available hydride generator system manufactured by SpectraMetrics Incorporated, because the system was found to be unsatisfactory with respect to the following: 1. the drying agent, anhydrous calcium chloride, 2. the special sample tube, 3. the direction of argon flow through the Buchner funnel when it came to dealing with real sample, that is, with reference only to aqueous extracts of soil samples. Changes that were made on the system included the replacement of anhydrous calcium chloride with anhydrous calcium sulphate and the replacement of the special sample tube with a modified one made from silica. Re-directing the flow of argon through the top of the Buchner funnel appeared to make the system compatible with aqueous extracts of soil samples. The interferences from 1000 ~g/mL of nickel(II) , cobalt(II), iron(III), copper(II) have been eliminated with the aid of 1.4 M hydrochloric acid and 1% (weight/volume) L-cystine. Greater than 90% recovery of 0.3 ~g/mL arsenic signal was achieved in each case. Furthermore, 103% of arsenic signal was accomplished in the presence of 1000 ~g/mL cadmium with 5 M Hel. tVhen each of the interferents was present in solution at 1000 ppm, a recovery of 85% was achieved by using 5 M hydrochloric acid and 3% (weight/volume) L-cystine. Without L-cystine and when 1.4 M hydrochloric acid was used, the recoveries were 0% (Ni), 0% (Co), 88% (Fe), 15% (Cu), 18% (Cd). Similarly, a solution containing 1000 ppm of each interferent gave a zero percent recovery of arsenic. The reduction of trivalent and pentavalent arsenic at a pH less than one has also been investigated and shown to be quantitative if peak areas are measured. The reproducibility determination of a 0.3 Vg/mL standard arsenic solution by hydride generation shows a relative standard deviation of 3.4%. The detection limits with and without Porapak Q have been found to be 0.6 ng/mL and 1.0 ng/mL, respectively.
    • An investigation into the oxidation of organic sulphides, organic selenides and simple hydrocarbons by Mortierella isabellina NRRL 1757

      Carter, Ian M.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1983-07-09)
      The work presented in this thesis is divided into three separate sections 4!> Each' 'section is involved wi th a different problem, however all three are involved with a microbial oxidation of a substrate~ A series of 'aryl substituted phenyl a.nd be,nzyl methyl sulphides were oxidized to the corre~pondi~g sulphoxides by 'Mo:rtierellai's'a'b'e'llina NRR.L17'S7 @ For this enzymic Qxidation, based on 180 labeled experiments, the oxygen atom is derived fr'orn the atmosphere and not from water. By way of an u~.traviolet analysis, the rates of oxidation, in terms of sulphox~ de appearance, were obtained and correlated with the Hatnmett p s~grna constants for the phenyl methyl sulphide series. A value of -0.67 was obtained and, is interpreted in terms of a mechanism of oxidation that involves an electrophilic attack on the sulphide sulphur by an enzymic ironoxygen activated complex and the conversion of the resulti!lg sulphur cation to sulphoxide. A series of alkyl phenyl selen~des have been incubated with the fu~gi, Aspergillus niger ATCC9l42, Aspergillus fO'etidus NRRL 337, MIIJisabellina NF.RLl757 and'He'lminth'osparium sp'ecies NRRL 4671 @l These fu?gi have been reported to be capable of carrying out the efficient oxidation of sulphide to sulphoxide, but in no case was there any evidence to supp'ort the occurrence of a microbialox,idation. A more extensive inves·t~gation was carried out with'M,e 'i's'a'b'e'l'l'i'na, this fu~gus was capable of oxidizing the correspondi~g sulphides to sulphoxi.de·s·$ Usi:ng a 1abel.edsubstra.te, [Methyl-l4c]-methyl phenyl selenide, the fate of this compound was invest~gated followi!lg an i'ncubation wi th Me isabellina .. BeSUldes th. e l4C-ana1YS1Q S-,'. a quant"ltta"lve selen'lum ana1Y"S1S was carried out with phenyl methyl selenide. These techniques indicate that thesel'enium was capable of enteri!1g thefu!1gal cell ef'ficiently but that s'ome metabolic cleav~ge of the seleni'um-carbon bond' may take plac'e Ie The l3c NMR shifts were assigned to the synthesized alkyl phenyl sulphides and selenides@ The final section involved the incubation ofethylben~ zene and p-e:rtr.hyltoluene wi th'M ~ 'isab'e'llina NRRL 17574b Followi~ g this incubation an hydroxylated product was isolated from the medium. The lH NMR and mass spectral data identify the products as I-phenylethanol and p-methyl-l-phenylethanol. Employi!lg a ch'iral shift re~gent,tri~ (3-heptafluorobutyl-dcamphorato)'- europium III, the enantiomeric puri ty of these products was invest~gated. An optical rotation measurement of I-phenylethanol was in ~greement with the results obtained with the chiral shift re~gen,te 'M.isabe'l'lina is capable of carryi~g out an hydroxylation of ethylbenzene and p-ethyltoluene at the ~ position.
    • Investigation of molecular polarizabilities and derivatives in halomethanes

      Sharma, Gulshan M.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      The research undertaken was to obtain absolute Raman intensities for the symmetric stretching vibrations of the methyl halides, CH3X with (X=F, CI, Br), by experiment and theory. The intensities were experimentally measured using the Ar+ ion gas laser as excitation source, a Spex 14018 double monochromator and a RCA C-31034 photomultiplier tube as detector. These intensities arise from changes in the derivative of the polarizability (8 a'), with respect to vibration along a normal coordinate (8qi). It was intended that these derivatives obtained with respect to normal coordinates would be converted to derivatives with respect to internal coordinates, for a quantitative comparison with theory. Theoretical numerical polarizability derivatives for the stretching vibrations are obtained using the following procedure. A vibration was simulated in the molecule by increasi.ng and decreasing the respective bond by the amount ±o.oosA for the C-H bonds and ±o.oIA for the C-X (X=F, CI, Br) bond. The derivative was obtained by taking the difference in the polarizability for the equilibrium geometry and the geometry when a particular bond is changed. This difference, when divided by the amount of change in each bond and the number of bonds present results in the derivative of the polarizability with respect to internal coordinate i.e., !1u/!1r. These derivatives were obtained by two methods: I} ab initio molecular orbital calculation and 2} theory of atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis. Due to errors in the experimental setup only a qualitative analysis of the results was undertaken relative to the theory. Theoretically it is predicted that the symmetric carbonhalogen stretch vibrations are more intense than the respective carbon-hydrogen stretch, but only for the methyl chloride and bromide. The carbon fluorine stretch is less intense than the carbon-hydrogen stretch, a fact which is attributed to the small size and high electronegativity of the fluorine atom. The experimental observations are seen to agree qualitatively with the theory results. It is hoped that when the experiment is repeated, a quantitative comparison can be made. The analysis by the theory of atoms in molecules, along with providing polarizabilities and polarizability derivatives, gives additional information outlined below. The theory provides a pictorial description of the main factors contributing to the molecular polarizability and polarizability derivative. These contributions are from the charge transfer and atomic dipole terms i.e., transfer of charge from one atom to another and the reorganization of atomic electronic charge distribution due to presence of an electric field. The linear relationship between polarizability and molecular volume was also observed.
    • Investigation of regio- and sterochemistries of microbial biotransformation /

      Zabic, Mirjana.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      Epoxides can be hydrolyzed by fungi to produce chiral diols. The first part of this thesis presents an investigation of the microbial hydrolysis of aziridines comparable in structure to epoxide biotransformation substrates. Biotransformation of the aziridines 1 -methyl-2-phenyl aziridine, 2- phenylaziridine and N-methyl-7-aza bicyclo[4.1.0] heptane was studied using Beauveria sulfurescens, Aspergillus niger and Diplodia gossypina but no evidence for enzymic hydrolysis was obtained. The hydroxylation reaction performed by the fungus Beauveria sulfurescens ATCC 7159 has been studied for many years and several models describing the hydroxylating pattern exhibited by this fungus have been proposed. The second part of this thesis presents a test of the proposed models. The ability of Beauveria sulfurescens to hydroxylate thirty potential substrates was examined, and the data suggest that none of the earlier proposed models accounts for all of the bioconversion results. A possible explanation is proposed, suggesting that there is more than one enzyme responsible for the hydroxylation reactions performed by Beauveria sulfurescens.
    • Investigation of single tryptophan proteins encapsulated in TEOS-derived sol-gel matrices by fluorescence spectroscopy /

      Zheng, Lili.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      In the work reported here, optically clear, ultrathin TEOS derived sol-gel slides which were suitable for studies of tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence from entrapped proteins were prepared by the sol-gel technique and characterized. The monitoring of intrinsic protein fluorescence provided information about the structure and environment of the entrapped protein, and about the kinetics of the interaction between the entrapped protein and extemal reagents. Initial studies concentrated on the single Trp protein monellin which was entrapped into the sol-gel matrices. Two types of sol-gel slides, termed "wet aged", in which the gels were aged in buffer and "dry-aged", in which the gels were aged in air , were studied in order to compare the effect of the sol-gel matrix on the structure of the protein at different aging stages. Fluorescence results suggested that the mobility of solvent inside the slides was substantially reduced. The interaction of the entrapped protein with both neutral and charged species was examined and indicated response times on the order of minutes. In the case of the neutral species the kinetics were diffusion limited in solution, but were best described by a sum of first order rate constants when the reactions occurred in the glass matrix. For charged species, interactions between the analytes and the negatively charged glass matrix caused the reaction kinetics to become complex, with the overall reaction rate depending on both the type of aging and the charge on the analyte. The stability and conformational flexibility of the entrapped monellin were also studied. These studies indicated that the encapsulation of monellin into dry-aged monoliths caused the thermal unfolding transition to broaden and shift upward by 14°C, and causedthe long-term stability to improve by 12-fold (compared to solution). Chemical stability studies also showed a broader transition for the unfolding of the protein in dry-aged monoliths, and suggested that the protein was present in a distribution of environments. Results indicated that the entrapped proteins had a smaller range of conformational motions compared to proteins in solution, and that entrapped proteins were not able to unfold completely. The restriction of conformational motion, along with the increased structural order of the internal environment of the gels, likely resulted in the improvements in themial and long-term stability that were observed. A second protein which was also studied in this work is the metal binding protein rat oncomodulin. Initially, the unfolding behavior of this protein in aqueous solution was examined. Several single tryptophan mutants of the metal-binding protein rat oncomodulin (OM) were examined; F102W, Y57W, Y65W and the engineered protein CDOM33 which had all 12 residues of the CD loop replaced with a higher affinity binding loop. Both the thermal and the chemical stability were improved upon binding of metal ions with the order apo < Ca^^ < Tb^"^. During thermal denaturation, the transition midpoints (Tun) of Y65W appeared to be the lowest, followed by Y57W and F102W. The placement of the Trp residue in the F-helix in F102W apparently made the protein slightly more thermostable, although the fluorescence response was readily affected by chemical denaturants, which probably acted through the disruption of hydrogen bonds at the Cterminal end of the F-helix. Under both thermal and chemical denaturation, the engineered protein showed the highest stability. This indicated that increasing the number of metal ligating oxygens in the binding site, either by using a metal ion with a higher coordinatenumber (i.e. Tb^*) which binds more carboxylate ligands, or by providing more ligating groups, as in the CDOM33 replacement, produces notable improvements in protein stability. Y57W and CE)OM33 OM were chosen for further studies when encapsulated into sol-gel derived matrices. The kinetics of interaction of terbium with the entrapped proteins, the ability of the entrapped protein to binding terbium, as well as thermal stability of these two entrapped protein were compared with different levels of Ca^"*^ present in the matrix and in solution. Results suggested that for both of the proteins, the response time and the ability to bind terbium could be adjusted by adding excess calcium to the matrix before gelation. However, the less stable protein Y57W only retained at most 45% of its binding ability in solution while the more stable protein CDOM33 was able to retain 100% binding ability. Themially induced denaturation also suggested that CDOM33 showed similar stability to the protein in solution while Y57W was destabilized. All these results suggested that "hard" proteins (i.e. very stable) can easily survive the sol-gel encapsulation process, but "soft" proteins with lower thermodynamic stability may not be able to withstand the sol-gel process. However, it is possible to control many parameters in order to successfully entrap biological molecules into the sol-gel matrices with maxunum retention of activity.
    • Investigation of the composition of linear alkylbenzenes with emphasis on the identification and quantitation of some trace compounds using GS/MS system in both electron impact and chemical ionization modes

      Zalewski, Teresa Maria.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      Linear alkylbenzenes, LAB, formed by the Alel3 or HF catalyzed alkylation of benzene are common raw materials for surfactant manufacture. Normally they are sulphonated using S03 or oleum to give the corresponding linear alkylbenzene sulphonates In >95 % yield. As concern has grown about the environmental impact of surfactants,' questions have been raised about the trace levels of unreacted raw materials, linear alkylbenzenes and minor impurities present in them. With the advent of modem analytical instruments and techniques, namely GCIMS, the opportunity has arisen to identify the exact nature of these impurities and to determine the actual levels of them present in the commercial linear ,alkylbenzenes. The object of the proposed study was to separate, identify and quantify major and minor components (1-10%) in commercial linear alkylbenzenes. The focus of this study was on the structure elucidation and determination of impurities and on the qualitative determination of them in all analyzed linear alkylbenzene samples. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, (GCIMS) study was performed o~ five samples from the same manufacturer (different production dates) and then it was followed by the analyses of ten commercial linear alkylbenzenes from four different suppliers. All the major components, namely linear alkylbenzene isomers, followed the same elution pattern with the 2-phenyl isomer eluting last. The individual isomers were identified by interpretation of their electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectra. The percent isomer distribution was found to be different from sample to sample. Average molecular weights were calculated using two methods, GC and GCIMS, and compared with the results reported on the Certificate of Analyses (C.O.A.) provided by the manufacturers of commercial linear alkylbenzenes. The GC results in most cases agreed with the reported values, whereas GC/MS results were significantly lower, between 0.41 and 3.29 amu. The minor components, impurities such as branched alkylbenzenes and dialkyltetralins eluted according to their molecular weights. Their fragmentation patterns were studied using electron impact ionization mode and their molecular weight ions confirmed by a 'soft ionization technique', chemical ionization. The level of impurities present i~ the analyzed commercial linear alkylbenzenes was expressed as the percent of the total sample weight, as well as, in mg/g. The percent of impurities was observed to vary between 4.5 % and 16.8 % with the highest being in sample "I". Quantitation (mg/g) of impurities such as branched alkylbenzenes and dialkyltetralins was done using cis/trans-l,4,6,7-tetramethyltetralin as an internal standard. Samples were analyzed using .GC/MS system operating under full scan and single ion monitoring data acquisition modes. The latter data acquisition mode, which offers higher sensitivity, was used to analyze all samples under investigation for presence of linear dialkyltetralins. Dialkyltetralins were reported quantitatively, whereas branched alkylbenzenes were reported semi-qualitatively. The GC/MS method that was developed during the course of this study allowed identification of some other trace impurities present in commercial LABs. Compounds such as non-linear dialkyltetralins, dialkylindanes, diphenylalkanes and alkylnaphthalenes were identified but their detailed structure elucidation and the quantitation was beyond the scope of this study. However, further investigation of these compounds will be the subject of a future study.
    • The investigation of the reduction mechanism of the 5a-reductase enzyme of Penicillium decumbens /

      Hsü, Wei-li.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1990-05-21)
      The 5a-reductase of Penicillium decumbens ATCC 10436 was used as a model for the mammalian enzyme to investigate the mechanism of reduction of testosterone to 5adihydrotestosterone . The purpose of this study was to search for specific 5a-reductase inhibitors which antagonize prostate cancer . In a whole-cell biotransformation mode, this organism reduced testosterone (1) to 5a-dihydrosteroids (8) and 5aandrostane- 3, 17-dione (9) in yields of 28% and 37% respectively. Control experiments have shown that 5aandrostane- 3, 17-dione (9) can be produced from the corresponding alcohol (8) in a subsequent reaction separate from that catalysed by the 5a-reductase enzyme . Androst-4- ene-3, 17-dione (2) is reduced to give only (9) with a recovery of 80% The stereochemistry of the reduction was determined by 500 MHz ^H NMR analysis of the products resulting from the deuterium labelled substrates. The results were obtained by an analysis of the NOE difference spectra, double-quantum filtered phase sensitive COSY 2-D spectra, and ^^c-Ir 2-D shift correlation spectra of deuterium labelled products. According to the unambiguous assignment of the signals due to H-4a and H-4Ii in 5a-dihydro steroids, the NMR data show clearly that addition of hydrogen to the 4{5)K bond has occurred in a trans manner at positions 413 and 5a. To Study the reduction mechanism of this enzyme, several substrates were prepared as following; 3-methyleneandrost-4-en- 17fi-ol(3), androst-4-en-17i5-ol(5) , androst-4-en-3ii, 17fi-diol (6) and 4, 5ii-epoxyandrostane-3, 17-dione (7) . Results suggest that this enzyme system requires an oxygen atom at the 3-position of the steroid in order to bind the substrate. Furthermore, the mechanism of this 5a-reductase may proceed via direct addition of hydrogen at the 4,5 position without involvement of a carbonyl group as an intermediate.