• Fast atom bombardment and electron impact mass spectrometry studies of some aryltin compounds and ferrocenes

      Luo, Yongchong.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      Both El MS and FAB MS behavior of two groups of compounds, aryltin and ferrocene compounds, have been studied. For the aryltin compounds, the effect of substituent group position, substituent group type and ligand type on the El spectra have been explored in the El MS studies. The fragmentation mechanism has been investigated under El with linked scans, such as fragment ion scans(BJE), parent ion scans(B2JE) and constant neutral radical loss scans(B2(1-E)JE2). In the FAB MS studies, matrix optimization experiments have been carried out. The positive ion FAB MS studies focused on the effect of substituent group position, substituent group type and ligand type on the spectra. The fragmentation mechanisms of all the samples under positive ion FAB have been studied by means of the linked scans. The CA positive ion FAB fragmentation studies were also carried out for a typical sample. Negative ion FAB experiments of all the compounds have been done. And finally, the comparison of the El MS and FAB MS has been made. For ferrocenes, the studies concentrated on the fragmentation mechanism of each compound under El with linked scan techniques in the first field-free region and the applicability of positive/negative ion FAB MS to this group of compounds. The fragmentation mechanisms under positive ion FAB of those ferrocenes which can give positive ion FAB MS spectra were studied with the linked scan techniques. The CA +ve F AB fragmentation studies were carried out for a typical sample. Comparison of the E1 MS and FAB MS has been made.
    • The fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric analysis of the carbamate pesticide carbaryl

      Waters, Gregory J.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1987-07-09)
      The carbamate pesticide, carbaryl, was quantitatively studied using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). Mass spectra were obtained in the positive ion-mode using both 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) and 3-nitrobenzyl alcohol (NBA) as matrix liquids. The sample was applied by three different techniques; simple mixing, solvent mixing and surface precipitation. Smaller volumes of matrix liquid were found to produce more favourable ion currents. Detection limits were largely independent of the matrix or application technique used. The relationship between ion current and the mass of analyte was found to be intricately related to the choice of matrix liquid.
    • Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of the coordination complexes of the ligand 5, 5, 7, 12, 12, 14- hexamenthyl-1, 4, 8, 11-tetraazacycloteradecane

      MacLaurin, Cindy Lee.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1985-07-09)
      A number of metal complexes containing the ligand 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-l,4,8,11-tetra-azatetradecane were synthesized and analyzed using electron impact (EI) and fast atom bombardment (FAB). The FAB mass spectra were obtained in positive and negative ion mode. FAB in the positive ion mode proved to be the most successful technique for the identification of these compounds. In the majority of cases the spectra obtained using positive ion FAB were structurally informative, although not all showed molecular (M+) or quasimolecular ([M+H]+) ions. The fragmentations observed were characteristic of the ligands, and were interpreted based on the chemistry of these compounds.
    • Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry studies of ruthenium (II) polypyridy coordination complexes and of group V Triptycenes and related complexes

      Nye, Jeffrey W.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1986-07-09)
      In order to investigate the use of Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry (FAB-MS) as a tool for structural characterization, two groups of complexes are analyzed. The first group is a set of ruthenium(II) coordination complexes containing bidentate polypyridyl ligands. The positive and negative ion FAB-MS spectra are found to be sufficient to allow for an almost complete characterization of the central metal atom, the ligands and the counter anions contained in the intact complex. An unusual observation of mUltiply charged ions in the positive ion FAB-MS spectra (i.e. [RUL 3 ]2+) is explained to be as a result of the oxidative quenching of the excited state of the doubly charged ion by the matrix, 3-nitrobenzyl alcohol. An analysis of a mixture shows that the technique is a good one for identifying components therein. A group of triptycene and related complexes containing Group V elements is also analyzed by FAB-MS and the results. in terms of relative abundances of fragment ions, are found to be consistent with known metal-carbon bond strengths.
    • A fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry study of tris (3, 6-dioxaheptyl) amine-alkali metal halide complexes and hydrogen bonded complexes

      Théberge, Roger.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1987-07-09)
      The objective of this thesis was to demonstrate the potential of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) as a probe of condensed phase systems and its possible uses for the study of hydrogen bonding. FABMS was used to study three different systems. The first study was aimed at investigating the selectivity of the ligand tris(3,6-dioxaheptyl) amine (tdoha) for the alkali metal cations. FABMS results correlated well with infrared and nmr data. Systems where a crown ether competed with tdoha for a given alkali metal cation were also investigated by fast atom bombardment. The results were found to correlate with the cation affinity of tdoha and the ability of the crown ether to bind the cation. In the second and third studies, H-bonded systems were investigated. The imidazole-electron donor complexes were investigated and FABMS results showed the expected H-bond strength of the respective complexes. The effects of concentration, liquid matrix, water content, deuterium exchange, and pre-ionization of the complex were also investigated. In the third system investigated, the abundance of the diphenyl sulfone-ammonium salt complexes (presumably H-bonded) in the FABMS spectrum were found to correlate with qualitative considerations such as steric hindrance and strength of ion pairs.
    • Flow injection analysis (FIA) determination of lead by hydride generation in banded coral skeletons /

      Tantreamjitmun, Napa.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      A flow injection hydride generation direct current plasma atomic emission spectrometric (FI-HG-DCP-AES) method was developed for the determination of lead at ng.ml-l level. Potassium ferricyanide (K3Fe(CN)6) was used along with sodium tetrahydroborate(III) (NaBH4) to produce plumbane (PbH4) in an acid medium. The design of a gas-liquid separator (hydride generator) was tested and the parameters of the flow injection system were optimized to achieve a good detection limit and sample throughput. The technique developed gave a detection limit of 0.7 ng.ml-l(3ob). The precision at 20 ng.ml"* level was 1.6 % RSD with 1 1 measurements (n=l 1). Volume of sample loop was 500 |J.l. A sample throughput of 120 h"^ was achieved. The transition elements, Fe(II), FeOH), Cd(n), Co(II), Mn(n), Ni(II) and Zn(n) do not interfere in this method but 1 mg,l'l Cu(II) will suppress 50 % of the signal from a sample containing 20 ng.ml'l Pb. This method was successfully applied to determine lead in a calcium carbonate (CaC03) matrix of banded coral skeletons from Si-Chang Island in Thailand.
    • Fluorescence spectra and ab initio theoretical studies of HCOOH /

      Ioannoni, Francesca.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1989-06-04)
      A fluorescence excitation spectrum of formic acid monomer (HCOOH) , has been recorded in the 278-246 nm region and has been attributed to an n >7r* electron promotion in the anti conformer. The S^< S^ electronic origins of the HCOOH/HCOOD/DCOOH/DCOOD isotopomers were assigned to weak bands observed at 37431.5/37461.5/37445.5/37479.3 cm'''. From a band contour analysis of the 0°^ band of HCOOH, the rotational constants for the excited state were estimated: A'=1.8619, B'=0.4073, and C'=0.3730 cm'\ Four vibrational modes, 1/3(0=0), j/^(0-C=0) , J/g(C-H^^^) and i/,(0-H^yJ were observed in the spectrum. The activity of the antisymmetric aldehyde wagging and hydroxyl torsional modes in forming progressions is central to the analysis, leading to the conclusion that the two hydrogens are distorted from the molecular plane, 0-C=0, in the upper S. state. Ab initio calculations were performed at the 6-3 IG* SCF level using the Gaussian 86 system of programs to aid in the vibrational assignments. The computations show that the potential surface which describes the low frequency OH torsion (twisting motion) and the CH wagging (molecular inversion) motions is complex in the S^ excited electronic state. The OH and CH bonds were calculated to be twisted with respect to the 0-C=0 molecular frame by 63.66 and 4 5.76 degrees, respectively. The calculations predicted the existence of the second (syn) rotamer which is 338 cm'^ above the equilibrium configuration with OH and CH angles displaced from the plane by 47.91 and 41.32 degrees.
    • Fluorometric monitoring of the properties of proteins entrapped in sol-gel derived matrices

      Flora, Kulwinder.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1998-07-09)
      The successful development of stable biosensors incorporating entrapped proteins suffers from poor understanding of the properties of the entrapped biomolecules. This thesis reports on the use of fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate the properties of proteins entrapped in sol-gel processed silicate materials. Two different single tryptophan (Trp) proteins were investigated in this thesis, the Ca2 + binding protein cod III parvalbumin (C3P) and the salicylate binding protein human serum albumin (HSA). Furthermore, the reactive single cysteine (Cys) residue within C3P and HSA were labelled with the probes iodoacetoxynitrobenzoxadiazole (C3P) and acrylodan (C3P and HSA) to further examine the structure, stability and function of the free and entrapped proteins. The results show that both C3P and HSA can be successfully entrapped into sol-gelderived matrices with retention of function and conformational flexibility.
    • FT-IR and MAS NMR analysis of montmorillonite K10 supported MF2 reagents and their activity as catalysis /

      Asseid, Fathi M.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1991-05-21)
      ZnF2, CdF2, and CUF2 have been adsorbed onto the surface of montmorillonite K10, and the infrared and 19F, 27 AI, and 29Si MAS NMR spectra of the reagents over a range of loadings have been obtained. CUF2 was observed to attack the Si02 layer and form the complex CuSiF6, Zn F2 tends to attack the aluminium oxide layer, in which Zn isomorphously replaces AI, and forms AIF3 and AIF4 - complexes. All the spectroscopic evidence ruled out the formation of any AI-F and/or Si-F free species as CdF2 is adsorbed on the surface of montmorillonite K10. The reactivity of MF2-K10 reagents towards Friedel-Crafts benzylation of benzene with benzyl chloride varied from one reagent to another. ZnF2-K10 was observed to be the most reactive and CUF2 was the least reactive.
    • A G. C./M. S. study of the reaction and decomposition products of pentafluorophenyl-grignard and lithium reagents

      Lin, Sechoing.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-10-02)
      Decomposition and side reactions of, and the synthetic use of, pentafluorophenylmagnesium bromide and pentafluorophenyllithium have been investigated using G,C9/M.S, techniques• Their reactions with reagents such as CgF^X (X - H, F, CI, Br, 1), C6F4X2 (X - H, CI)f C6F3C13, C6H6. (CgX5)3P (X = H, F), (C6X5)3P=0 (X = H, F), (CgX5)Si (CH3)3 (X = H, F) and (CH0K SiCl , n = 1,2, in ether or ether/n-hexane were studied• In addition to the principal reaction of synthetic use, namely the replacement of a halogen by a pentafluorophenyl group, two types of side reactions were observed* These were (i) intermolecular loss of LiF via a nucleophilic substitution, and (ii) intramolecular loss of LiF, followed by the addition of either inorganic salts such as lithium or magnesium halides, or organometal compounds such as organolithium or organo-Grigaard* G.C«/M.S. techniques were routinely employed to study complicated reaction mixtures. Although mass spectrometry alone has disadvantages for the identification of isomers, deduction of the most probable pathway often helps overcome this problem.
    • Gas chromatographic electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometric (GC/ECNI/MS) determination of unique fluorinated compounds in the sediments of Lake Ontario and the effect of high-boiling alcohols (as injection solvents) on chromatographic behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in gas chromatography

      Zielinski-Lawrence, Rosalie Krystyna.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Part I - Fluorinated Compounds A method has been developed for the extraction, concentration, and determination of two unique fluorinated compounds from the sediments of Lake Ontario. These compounds originated from a common industrial landfill, and have been carried to Lake Ontario by the Niagara River. Sediment samples from the Mississauga basin of Lake Ontario have been evaluated for these compounds and a depositional trend was established. The sediments were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and then underwent clean-up, fractionation, solvent exchange, and were concentrated by reduction under nitrogen gas. The concentrated extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography - electron capture negative ionization - mass spectrometry. The depositional profile determined here is reflective of the operation of the landfill and shows that these compounds are still found at concentrations well above background levels. These increased levels have been attributed to physical disturbances of previously deposited contaminated sediments, and probable continued leaching from the dumpsite. Part II - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is the most common method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from various matrices. Mass discrimination of high-boiling compounds in gas chromatographic methods is well known. The use of high-boiling injection solvents shows substantial increase in the response of late-eluting peaks. These solvents have an increased efficiently in the transfer of solutes from the injector to the analytical column. The effect of I-butanol, I-pentanol, cyclopentanol, I-hexanol, toluene and n-octane, as injection solvents, was studied. Higher-boiling solvents yield increased response for all PAHs. I -Hexanol is the best solvent, in terms of P AH response, but in this solvent P AHs were more susceptible to chromatographic problems such as peak splitting and tailing. Toluene was found to be the most forgiving solvent in terms of peak symmetry and response. It offered the smallest discrepancies in response, and symmetry over a wide range of initial column temperatures.
    • Heats of formation of some hydrates /|nA. Phillipson. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Phillipson, A.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-07-09)
      A great deal of data on the heats of formation of various hydrates has been compiled i n the J.A.N.A.F. and other tables such as the National Bureau of Standards circulars. Comparison of the heat of f ormation of a hydrate with that of the corresponding anhydrate exposes anomalies i n a surprising number of cases. Some of the results are so discordant that i t is apparent that one or the other value is seriously mistaken. No attempt has been made i n this work to determine which value may be correct, but measurements have been made of the difference between these two values. The procedure adopted has been to dissolve the hydrate and the anhydrate, to achieve the same final concentration of the compound in solution, and so to measure the difference in heats of solution .. Measurements were made at OOC in a modified Bunsen ice calorimeter, well insulated and surrounded by an icewater mixture . The observed differences in heats of solut ion were corrected t o 25°0 by using appropriate heat capacity data. These differences offer a direct measure of the enthalpy involved in binding a mole of water into the crystal structure and so should shed light on the nature of binding involved. The following hydrates were studied : MgS04.nH20 (n = 1,4,7), MnC12.nH20 (n = 1, 2), LiI. nH20 (n = 1,3), MnS04. nH20 (n = 1,4), CaC12. nH20 (n = 2,6) , K2C03.1~H20, LiCl.H20, LiBr.2H20, CdC12.2t H2o, and N2H4eH20.
    • A high resolution study of the 4¹â bands of ¹³CHâ O and CHâ ¹⠸O

      Shah, Arvind K.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
    • High-Spin and Emissive Molecular Materials: Synthesis and Characterization of New Polynuclear Ni(II) Complexes from the Use of Aromatic Schiff Bases as Bridging Ligands

      Perlepe, Panagiota; Department of Chemistry
      The employment of the bridging/chelating Schiff bases, N-salicylidene-4-methyl-o-aminophenol (samphH2) and N-naphthalidene-2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid (nacbH2), in nickel cluster chemistry has afforded eight polynuclear Ni(II) complexes with new structural motifs, interesting magnetic and optical properties, and unexpected organic ligand transformations. In the present thesis, Chapter 1 deals with all the fundamental aspects of polynuclear metal complexes, molecular magnetism and optics, while research results are reported in Chapters 2 and 3. In the first project (Chapter 2), I investigated the coordination chemistry of the organic chelating/bridging ligand, N-salicylidene-4-methyl-o-aminophenol (samphH2). The general NiII/tBuCO2-/samphH2 reaction system afforded two new tetranuclear NiII clusters, namely [Ni4(samph)4(EtOH)4] (1) and [Ni4(samph)4(DMF)2] (2), with different structural motifs. Complex 1 possessed a cubane core while in complex 2 the four NiII ions were located at the four vertices of a defective dicubane. The nature of the organic solvent was found to be of pivotal importance, leading to compounds with the same nuclearity, but different structural topologies and magnetic properties. The second project, the results of which are summarized in Chapter 3, included the systematic study of a new optically-active Schiff base ligand, N-naphthalidene-2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid (nacbH2), in NiII cluster chemistry. Various reactions between NiX2 (X- = inorganic anions) and nacbH2 were performed under basic conditions to yield six new polynuclear NiII complexes, namely (NHEt3)[Ni12(nacb)12(H2O)4](ClO4) (3), (NHEt3)2[Ni5(nacb)4(L)(LH)2(MeOH)] (4), [Ni5(OH)2(nacb)4(DMF)4] (5), [Ni5(OMe)Cl(nacb)4(MeOH)3(MeCN)] (6), (NHEt3)2[Ni6(OH)2(nacb)6(H2O)4] (7), and [Ni6(nacb)6(H2O)3(MeOH)6] (8). The nature of the solvent, the inorganic anion, X-, and the organic base were all found to be of critical importance, leading to products with different structural topologies and nuclearities (i.e., {Ni5}, {Ni6} and {Ni12}). Magnetic studies on all synthesized complexes revealed an overall ferromagnetic behavior for complexes 4 and 8, with the remaining complexes being dominated by antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. In order to assess the optical efficiency of the organic ligand when bound to the metal centers, photoluminescence studies were performed on all synthesized compounds. Complexes 4 and 5 show strong emission in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Finally, the ligand nacbH2 allowed for some unexpected organic transformations to occur; for instance, the pentanuclear compound 5 comprises both nacb2- groups and a new organic chelate, namely the anion of 5-chloro-2-[(3-hydroxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl)amino]benzoic acid. In the last section of this thesis, an attempt to compare the NiII cluster chemistry of the N-naphthalidene-2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid ligand with that of the structurally similar but less bulky, N-salicylidene-2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid (sacbH2), was made.
    • Host-parasite relationships in mycoparasite /

      Lee, Kwai Yiu Dennis.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-06-15)
      A mycoparasite, Piptocephalis virginiana ^ shows a resemblance to fungal parasites of higher plants in the fine structure of hyphae and haustoria. The morphology and fine structure of host and parasitic fungi have been described. The mode of penetration of the host cell, Choanephora cucurbitarum , probably involves mechanical forces. Although the presence of cell wall degrading enzyme was not detected by conventional techniques, its role in penetration can't be ruled out. A collar around the haustorial neck is formed as an extension of the host cell wall. No papilla was detected although appressorixim was seen during penetration. The young haustorium is enclosed in highly invaginating plasmalemma of the host cell and n\imerous cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum. Appearance of an electron—dense sheath around the mature haustorium seems to coincide with the disappearance of cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum from the host cystoplasm in the vicinity of the haustorium. The role of host cytoplasm particularly of endoplasmic reticulum in the development of the sheath is discussed. Extensive accumulation of spherosomes-like bodies, containing lipids, is found in haustorium, parasite and host hypha. Electron microscope revealed the parasiticculture spore has more lipid content than the axenic culture spore of P. virginiana . The biochemical and cytochemical tests also support these results. The mature spore of C. cucurbitarum possesses a thick three-layered cell wall, different from the hyphal wall. Its germination is accompanied by the formation of an elastic thin inner layer which surrounds the emerging germ tube and the growing hypha. High resolution autoradiography showed that H N-acetyl-glucosamine , a precursor of chitin, was incorporated preferentially in the thin inner layer of the spore wall and also in the cell wall of the growing hypha. When the label was fed to the infected cells, at different intervals after inoculation, grains were observed on the sheath which developed around the haustorium of P. virginiana , 30 hours after inoculation. The significance of these results in relation to the origin and composition of the sheath is discussed.
    • How Learning Styles, Chemistry Attitudes and Experiences, Confidence, and Demographics Correlate with Academic Success in First and Second Year Chemistry Courses

      Ilnicki-Stone, Elizabeth; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2013-04-08)
      At Brock University, the Faculty of Mathematics and Science currently has one of the highest percentages of students on academic probation, with many students reporting the most difficulty with Introductory Chemistry in first year and Organic Chemistry in second year. To identify strategies to improve students' performance and reduce the number of students on academic probation, a multi-year research project was undertaken involving several chemistry courses. Students were asked to complete three questionnaires, and provide consent to obtain their final Chemistry grade from the Registrar's Office. Research began at the end of the 2007-08 academic year with CHEM IPOO, and in the 2008-09 academic year, students in the larger CHEM IF92 Introductory Chemistry course were invited to participate in this research near the beginning of the academic year. Students who went on to take second year Organic and Analytical Chemistry were asked to complete these questionnaires in each second year course. The three questionnaires included the Kolb Learning Styles Inventory (Kolb, 1984) modified to include specific reference to Chemistry in each question, Dalgety, ColI, and Jones' (2002) Chemistry Attitudes and Experiences Questionnaire (CAEQ), and lastly, a demographic survey. Correlations were found between learning style and academic success; concrete learners were not as successful as abstract learners. Differences were noted between females and males with respect to learning styles, academic success, and confidence. Several differences were also noted between those who are the First in the Family to attend university and those who are not First in the Family to attend university.
    • An HPLC method for simultaneous determination of residual benomyl and MBC on apple foliage without cleanup

      Veres, Darrell Franklin.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1982-07-09)
      A simple High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC) method has been developed to identify benamyl (methyl 1- (butylcarbamoyl)-2-benzimidazole carbamate) and MBC (methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamat~ residues on apple leaves without cleanup. Sample leaves are freeze dried in a Mason jar and residues are then extracted by tumbling them in chloroform containing 5,000 microgram per milliliter of n-propyl isocyanate (PIC) at 10 C. To the extract, n-butyl isocyanate (BIC) was added at 5,000 microgram per milliliter and 20 microliter of this mixture injected onto the HPLC system. Separation is accomplished by the use of a Brownlee LiChrosorb silica gel column with a guard column and' operated with a mixed mobile phase consisting of chloroform and hexane (4:1) saturated with water. MBC, a degradation product of benomyl is identified if present as methyl l-(npropyl carbamoyl)-2-benzimidazole carbamate (MBC-n-PIC). Both benomyl and MBC-n-PIC can be detected with aKUltraviolet (UV) detector (280nm) at a concentration as low as 0.2 microgram per milliliter in apple leaves. The fate of benomyl on apple foliage after spray application of benomyl (Ben late 50 per cent wettable powder) was investigated by the method thus described. Benomyl quickly dissipated during the first 3-7 days, but the dissipatio'n sltowed down thereafter. In contrast, the concentration of MBC in leaves gradually increased after repeated applications of Benlate.
    • Hydroamidation of Vinyl Ethers by Acid-Catalyzed Multicomponent Isocyanide Addition

      Carlson, Brenden Matthew; Department of Chemistry
      Hydroamidation of carbon–carbon double bonds is an attractive strategy for installing nitrogen functionality into molecular scaffolds and, with it, increasing molecular complexity. To date, metal-based approaches have dominated this area of chemical synthesis despite the drawbacks of air and moisture sensitivity, limited functional group tolerance, toxicity, and/or high cost often associated with using metals. Herein is enclosed an operationally simple, metal-free, one-pot, regioselective, multicomponent synthetic procedure for the hydroamidation of carbon–carbon double bonds. This method features mild reaction conditions and utilizes isocyanides and vinyl ethers for the rapid and modular synthesis of α-oxygenated amide scaffolds. Additional effort was put towards synthesizing reactive natural products as substrates to the developed methodology, and drafting a probable catalytic cycle for the main and side reactions present within this multicomponent procedure.
    • The identification, distribution and persistence of oxamyl and its degradation products in planted corn seed, seedling root and soil from oxamyl-treated corn seeds

      Fulop, Gyula J.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1987-07-09)
      A simple method was developed for treating corn seeds with oxamyl. It involved soaking the seeds to ensure oxamyl uptake, centrifugation to draw off excess solution, and drying under a stream of air to prevent the formation of fungus. The seeds were found to have an even distribution of oxamyl. Seeds remained fungus-free even 12 months after treatment. The highest nonphytotoxic treatment level was obtained by using a 4.00 mg/mL oxamyl solution. Extraction methods for the determination of oxamyl (methyl-N'N'-dimethyl-N-[(methylcarbamoyl)oxy]-l-thiooxamimidate), its oxime (methyl-N',N'-dimethyl-N-hydroxy-1-thiooxamimidate), and DMCF (N,N-dimethyl-1-cyanoformanade) in seed" root, and soil were developed. Seeds were processed by homogenizing, then shaking in methanol. Significantly more oxamyl was extracted from hydrated seeds as opposed to dry seeds. Soils were extracted by tumbling in methanol; recoveries range~ from 86 - 87% for oxamyl. Root was extracted to 93% efficiency for oxamyl by homogenizing the tissue in methanol. NucharAttaclay column cleanup afforded suitable extracts for analysis by RP-HPLC on a C18 column and UV detection at 254 nm. In the degradation study, oxamyl was found to dissipate from the seed down into the soil. It was also detected in the root. Oxime was detected in both the seed and soil, but not in the root. DMCF was detected in small amounts only in the seed.
    • The importance of hydrogen bonding in the alkylation of phenols

      Alauddin, Mian Mohannad.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1982-07-09)
      Hydrogen bond assisted alkylation of phenols is compared with the classical base assisted reactions. The influence of solvents on the fluoride assisted reactions is discussed,· with emphasis on the localization of hydrogen bond charge density. Polar aprotic solvents such as DMF favour a-alkylation, and nonpolar aprotic solvents such as toluene favourC-alkylation of phenol. For more reactive and soluble fluorides, such as tetrabu~ylammoniumfluoride, the polar aprotic solvent favours a-alkylation and nonpolar aprotic solvent favours fluorination. Freeze-dried potassium fluoride is a better catalytic agent in hydrogen bond assisted alkylation reactions of phenol than the oven-dried fluoride. The presence of water in the alkylation reactions reduces the expected yield drastically. The tolerance of the reaction to water has also been studied. The use ofa phase transfer catalyst such as tetrabutylammonium bromide in the alkylation reactions of phenol in the presence of potassium fluoride is very effective under anhydrous conditions. Sterically hindered phenols such as 2,6-ditertiarybutyl-4-methyl phenol could not be alkylated even by using the more reactive fluorides, such as tetrabutylammonium fluoride in either polar or nonpolar aprotic solvents. Attempts were also made to alkylate phenols in the presence of triphenylphosphine oxide.