• A Bicyclic L-Proline Derived Chiral Auxiliary for Asymmetric Synthesis

      Emberson, Kassandra; Department of Chemistry
      This thesis describes the use of an L−proline-derived chiral auxiliary for diastereoselective lithiation and ligand synthesis. Such compounds have been utilized in the Metallinos research group previously for the synthesis of N−substituted planar chiral ferrocenes. The first project describes the use of this chiral auxiliary as a directing group for N−benzyl substitution, providing products in up to 10:1 diastereomeric ratio (dr). These derivatives may serve as chiral ylidene precursors to serve as ligands in transition metal catalysis. In addition, an N−substituted planar chiral ferrocene ylidene ligand derived from the same chiral auxiliary was used to prepare rhodium complexes that were explored as potential catalysts for asymmetric hydroformylation.
    • Biosynthesis of benzyliasoquinoline alkaloids

      Sultana, Nighat.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      This research was carried out to obtain a convenient route for the synthesis of [7_ 14C]-p-hydroxy benzaldehyde. Section 1 of the thesis includes a route involving intermediates with protecting groups like benzyl and methyl ethers of the phenols. The benzyl ethers afforded the product in relatively better yield. The overall synthesis involves four steps. Section 2 describes the reactions carried out directly on phenols, and a three step pathway is obtained for the synthesis of p-hydroxy benzaldehyde, which was repeated on labelled compounds to obtain [7_14C]p- hydroxy benzaldehyde. The synthesis involves the reaction of p-bromophenol with Cu14CN to yield [7_ 14C]-p-cyano phenol, which is then reduced to the aldehyde by means of a simple and clean photolysis method. The same route was tried out to get 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and was found to work equally well for the synthesis of this compound. Section 3 deals with the isolation of labelled alkaloids, corydaline, protopine and reticu1ine from [2-3H,1-14C]-dopamine (3H/ 14C ratio = 4) fed Corydalis solida. 3H/14C ratios in the labelled alkaloids were determined. The uncorrected values showed almost 50% loss of 3H relative to 14C in reticuline, and roughly 75% loss of the 3H relative to 14C in corydaline and protopine.
    • Biotransformation of aromatic hydrocarbons and organic sulphides by fungi

      Munoz, Benito; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1987-10-02)
      Toluene is converted to benzyl alcohol by the fungi Mortierella isabellina and Helminthosporium species; in the latter case, the product is further metabolized. Toluene-a -d 1 , toluene-a,a-d2, and toluene-a,a,a-d 3 have been used with Mortierellaisabellina in a series of experiments to determine both primary and secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effects for the enzymic benzylic hydroxylation reaction. The values obtained, intermolecular primary kH/kD = intramolecular p rim a r y kH r kD = 1. 0 2 + O. 0 5, and sec 0 n dar y k H I kD = 1. 37 .:!. 0.05, suggest a mechanism for the reaction involving benzylic proton removal from a radical intermediate in a non-symmetrical transition state. 2H NMR (30.7 MHz) studies using ethylbenzene-l,1-d 2 , 3 -fluoroethylbenzene-l,1-d 2 , 4 -fluoroethylbenzene-l,1-d 2 , and toluene-dB as substrates with Mortierella isabellina suggest, based on the observable differences in rates of conversion between the substrates, that the hydroxylation of hydrocarbons at the benzylic position proceeds via a one electron abstraction from the aromatic ring, giving a radical cation. A series of 1,3-oxathiolanes (eight) were incubated with Mortierella isabellina , Helminthosporium , Rhizopus arrhizus , and Aspergillus niger . Sulphoxides were obtained from Mortierella isabellina and Rhizopus arrhizus using the substrates 2-phenyl-, 2-methyl-2-phenyl-, and 2-phenyl-2-tert. butyl-l,3-oxathiolane. The relative stereochemistry of 2-methyl-2-phenyl-l,3-oxathiolan-l-oxide was assigned based on lH decoupling, n.O.e, 1 and H NMR experiments. The lH NMR (200 MHz) of the methylene protons of 2-methyl-2-phenyl-l,3-oxathiolan-l-oxide was used as a diagnostic standard in assigning the relative stereochemistry of 2-phenyl-l,3-oxathiolan-l-oxide and 2-phenyl-2-tert. butyl-l,3-oxathiolan-l-oxide. The sulphoxides obtained were consistent with an oxidation occurring from the opposite side of the molecule to the phenyl substituent.
    • Biotransformation of polycylic aromatic compounds by fungi and an investigation into the oxidation of alkylbenzenes by Mortierella isabellina NRRL 1757

      Khan, Shaheer Hasan.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1985-07-09)
      Incubations of several polycyclic heteroaromatic compounds and two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with a series of common fungi have been performed. The fungi Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 26269, Rhizopus arrhizus ATCC 11145, and Mortierella isabellina NRRL 1757 were studied in this regard. Of the aza heteroaromatics, only dibenzopyrrole gave a ring hydroxylated product following the incubation with C. elegans. From the thio heteroaromatics studied, dibenzothiophene was metabolized by all the three fungi and thioxanthone by C. elegans and M. isabellina giving sulfones and sulphoxides. Thiochromanone was metabolized stereoselectively to the corresponding sulphoxide by C. elegans. Methyl substituted thioxanthones on incubation with C. elegans produced oxidative products, arising from S -oxidation and hydroxylation at the methyl group. Of the cyclic ketones studied, only fluorenone was reduced to hydroxyfluorene and this metabolism is compared with that reported with cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases of hepatic microsomes. A series of para-substituted ethylbenzenes has been transformed stereoselectively to the 1-phenylethanols by incubation with M. isabellina. Comparisons of the enantiomeric purities obtained from products with their respective para substituent of the same steric size but different electronic properties indicate that the stereoselectivity of hydroxylation at benzylic carbon may be susceptible to electron donating or withdrawing factors in some cases, but that observation is not va lid in all the comparisons. The stereochemistry of the reaction is discussed in terms of three possible steps, ethylbenzene ---) 1-phenylethanol ---) acetophenone ---) 1-phenylethanol. This metabolic pathway could account for the inconsistencies observed in the comparisons of optical purities and electronic character of para substituents. Furthermore, formation of 2-phenylethanol (in some cases), l-(p-acetylphenyl)ethanol from p-diethylbenzene, and N-acetylation of p-ethylaniline was observed. n-Propylbenzene was also converted to optically active 1-phenylpropanol. Acetophenone, p-ethylacetophenone, and o(,~,~-trifluoroacetophenone were transformed to 1-phenylethanol, l-(p-ethylphenyl)ethanol, and 1-phenyl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, respectively, with high chemical and excellent optical yields. The 13 C NMR spectra of several substrates and metabolic products have been reported and assigned for the first time.
    • Biotransformations of water insoluble substrates in aqueous, two-phase and encapsulated systems /

      Iezzi, Diana.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1999-05-21)
      The biotransformation of water insoluble substrates by mammalian and bacterial cells has been problematic, since these whole cell reactions are primarily performed in an aqueous environment The implementation of a twophase or encapsulated system has the advantages of providing a low water system along with the physiological environment the cells require to sustain themselves. Encapsulation of mammalian cells by formation of polyamide capsules via interfacial polymerization illustrated that the cells could not survive this type of encapsulation process. Biotransformation of the steroid spironolactone [3] by human kidney carcinoma cells was performed in a substrate-encapsulated system, yielding canrenone [4] in 70% yield. Encapsulation of nitrile-metabolizing Rhodococcus rhodochrous cells using a polyamide membrane yielded leaky capsules, but biotransformation of 2-(4- chlorophenyl)-3-methylbutyronitrile (CPIN) [6] in a free cell system yielded CPIN amide [7] in 40% yield and 94% ee. A two-phase biotransformation of CPIN consisting of a 5:1 ratio of tris buffer, pH 7.2 to octane respectively, gave CPIN acid [8] in 30% yield and 97% ee. It was concluded that Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 17895 contained a nonselective nitrile hydratase and a highly selective amidase enzyme.
    • Bis-and tris (amidine) fluoroboron cations and related systems studies by Multinuclear NMR and fast atom bombardment mass spectometry

      Yuan, Cheng.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1988-10-02)
      The formation and the isolation of fluoroboron salts, (D2BF2+)(PF6-), (DD'BF2+)(PF6-) and (D3BF2+)(PF6-)2, have been carried out. 1,8-Diazabicyclo [5,4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) and 1,5-diazabicyclo[4,3,O]non-5-ene (DBN), extremely strong organic bases, were introduced into the fluoroboron cation systems and induced a complicated redistribution reaction in the D/BF3/BC13 systems. The result was the formation of all BFnCI4-n-, D.BFnCI3-n and fluoroboron cation species which were detected by 19p and 11B NMR spectrometry. The displacement reaction of CI- from these D.BFnCI3-n (n = 1 and 2) species by the second entering ligand is much faster than in other nitrogen donor containing systems which have been previously studied. Tetramethylguanidine, oxazolines and thiazolines can also produce similar reactions in D/BF3/BCI3 systems, but no significant BFnC4-n- species were observed. As well as influences of their basicity and their steric hindrance, N=C-R(X) (X = N, 0 or S) and N=C( X)2 (X = N or S) structures of ligands have significant effects on the fonnationof fluoroboron cations and the related NMR parameters. D3BF2+ and some D2BF2+ show the expected inertness, but (DBU)2BF2+ shows an interestingly high reactivity. (D2BF2+)(X-) formed from weak organic bases such as pyridine can react with stronger organic bases and form DD'BF2+ and D'2BF2+ in acetone or nitromethane. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry is doubly meaningful to this work. Firstly, FABMS can be directly applied to the complicated fluoroboron cation containing solution systems as an excellent complementary technique to multinuclear NMR. Secondly, the gas-phase ion substitution reaction of (D2BF2+)(PF6-) with the strong organic bases is successfully observed in a FABMS ion source when the B-N bond is not too strong in these cations.
    • The characterization of new benzimidazole fungicides /

      Lundrigan, John A.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      Extensive studies have been initiated to generate enough data to register the methyl homologue (MBC-MIC, see List of Abbreviations, page 14) of benomyl (MBC-BIC) as a commercial product through a joint effort between the federal government and Canadian industry. The objective of this study, as part of the whole project, was to generate fundamental data on the physical properties of the series of benomyl homologues (MBC-MIC, MBC-EIC, MBC-PIC and MBC-BIC). These data include the half lives of these compounds in water at the pH range from 2 to 12; they ranged from 0.7 to 10. 1 hours. Standard solutions of these compounds in concentrated acid were found to be stable for at least two weeks, and in the case of MBC-MIC it was stable at least 1 month. Another major goal of this study was to determine the solubility of each compound in water at different pHs in the range of 1 to 12. The solubility of the compounds ranged from 0.6 jig/mL to 396 fig/mL. In addition, it was possible to prepare stable stock solutions at concentrations > 1 000 |ig/mL in concentrated nitric acid. Several aspects of analytical methods have been improved to accurately assess the solubility and rate of degradation of benomyl and its homologues in alkaline conditions. The determination of melting points was attempted but all compounds decomposed before melting.To complement the studies of the benomyl homologue series attempts were made to explore the presence of any relationships between the structures of the compounds and their properties. Although there were some exceptions, the compound's solubility decreased and half life increased as the molecular size increased from the methyl to the butyl analogue.
    • Chelated fluoroboron cations : synthesis and multinuclear nmr studies

      Shoemaker, James A. Winston.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1999-07-09)
      The preparation of chelated difluoroboron cations (DD)BF2+, where DD is a saturated polydentate tertiary-amine or polydentate aromatic ligand, has been systematically studied by using multinuclear solution and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Three new methods of synthesis of (DD)BF2+ cations are reported, and compared with the previous method of reacting a chelating donor with Et20.BF3. The methods most effective for aromatic donors such as 1,1O-phenanthroline are ineffective for saturated polydentate tertiary-amines like N,N,N' ,Nil ,Nil-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine. Polydentate tertiary-amine donors that form 5-membered rings upon bidentate chelation were found to chelate effectively when the BF2 source contained two leaving groups (a heavy halide and a Lewis base such as pyridine =pyr or isoxazole =ISOX), i.e., pyr.BF2X (X = CI or Br), ISOX.BF2X and (pyr)2BF2+. Those that would form 6membered rings upon chelation do not chelate by any of the four methods. Polydentate aromatic ligands chelate effectively when the BF2 source contained a weak Lewis base, e.g., ISOX.BF3, ISOX.BF2X and Et20.BF3. Bidentate chelation by polydentate tertiaryamine and aromatic donors leads to nmr parameters that are significantly different then their (D)2BF2+ relatives (D =monod~ntate t-amines or pyridines). The chelated haloboron cations (DD)BFCI+, and (DD)BFBr+ were generated from D.BFX2 adducts for all ligands that form BF2+ cations above. In addition, the (DD)BCI2+ and (DD)BBr2+ cations were formed from D.BX3 adducts by the chelating aromatic ligands, except for the aromatic ligand 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene, which formed only the (DD)BF2+ cation, apparently due to its extreme steric hindrance. Chelation by a donor is a two-step reaction. For polydentate tertiary-amine ligands, the two rates appear to be very dependent on the two possible leaving groups on the central boron atom. The order of increasing ease of displacement for the donors was: pyr < Cl < Br < ISOX. The rate of chelation by polydentate aromatic ligands appears to be dependent on the displacement of the first ligand from the boron. The order of increasing ease of displacement for the donors was: pyr < CI < ISOX ~ Br < Et20.
    • Chemical synthesis of glycosylated oligoribonucleotides for siRNA development

      Zhao, Yuyan.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      In this study, an efficient methodology for the preparation of carbohydrate-RNA conjugates was established, which involved the use of 3,4~diethoxy-3-cyclobutene-l,2- dione (diethyl squarate) as the linking reagent. First, a glycan moiety containing an amino group reacted with diethyl squarate to form an activated glycan, which further reacted with an amino modified oligoribonucleotide to form a glycoconjugate under slightly basic conditions. The effect of glycosylation on the stability of RNA molecules was evaluated on two glycoconjugates, monomannosyl UlO-mer and dimannosyl UlO-mer. In the synthesis of aromatic fluorescent ribosides, perbenzylated ribofuranosyl pyrene and phenanthrene were synthesized from perbenzylated ribolactone. Deprotection of benzyl-protected ribofuranosyl phenanthrene and pyrene by boron tribromide gave ribofuranosyl phenanthrene and ribopyranosyl pyrene, respectively. UV/vis and fluorescent properties of the ribosides were characterized.
    • The chemistry of heterocyclic methine bases and of their acyl and thioacyl derivatives

      Gupta, Ajay.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1987-07-09)
      The work described in this thesis has been dtvided into six sections . The first section involves the reaction of 3,5-diphenyl-2-methyl-l,3,4-oxadiazolium perchlorate with acetic and benzoic anhydrides. The second section deals with the preparation and reactions of 1,3,4-thia diazolium salts. Some monomeric 1,3,4-thiadiazoline methine bases have also been prepared by reacting 1,3,4-thia d iaz ol ium s al t s with concen trated ammonium hydroxide solution. Variable temperature p.m.r. of 2-(3-acetylacetonylidene)-3,5-diphenyl-A4 -1,3,4-thiadiazoline has also been described. The third section deals with prepar a tion and reactions of some compounds in benzoxazole series. The fourth section deals with the prep a ration and reactions of N-alkyl-2-methylbenzothi azolium salts with base , a nd with some a cetylating and thioacetylating agents. Treatment of 2,3-dimethylbenzothiazolium iodide and of 3-ethyl-2-methylbenzothia zolium iodide with base wa s found to give the corresponding dimeric methine b a ses and evidence supporting their structure is also given. Thiol acetic acid was found to exchange 0 for S in its reactions with 2-acetonylidene-3-methylbenzothiazoline and 2-acetophenonylidene-3-methylbenzothi a zoline. (ii) In th e fifth section, the r eactions of 2,3-dimethylbenzselenazolium iodide with a variety of ac e tylating and thioacetylating agents has been described. The treatment of 2,3-dimethylbenzselenazolium iodide with base was found to give rise to a dimeric methine base and evidence supporting its structure is also given. The reactions of this dimeric methine b a se with benzoic anhydride and phenylisothiocyanate have also been described. The sixth section deals with the preparation and reactions of l-alkyl-2-methylquinolinium salts. Treatment of 1,2-dimethylquinolinium iodide and l-ethyl-2-methylquinolinium iodide was found to give the corresponding monomeric methine bases and evidence supporting their structure is also given. The E-type geometry of the olefinic bond in 2-acetonylidene-l-methylquinoline has been established on the basis of an N.O.E. experiment.
    • Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of ent-Neopinone

      Piercy, T. Graeme; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2013-04-11)
      The present thesis describes the chemoenzymatic synthesis of ent-neopinone. The total synthesis of neopinone was accomplished in 14 steps from B-bromoethylbenzene. The synthesis began with a microbial oxidation of bromobenzene by Escherichia coli JM109(pDTG601) and features a Heck reaction, aldol condensation and a 1,6-conjugate addition.
    • Comparative electron impact and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric studies of some HMPA adducts of phenyltin and phenyllead halides and studies of strong hydrogen bonding by FAB-MS

      Mondal, Humayun.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1984-07-09)
      The fragmentation patterns and mass spectra of some phenyl tin and -lead halide adducts with hexamethylphosphoramide are compared by subjecting them t~ electron impact and fast atom bombardment ionization in a mass spectrometer. This comparison is restricted to the metal-containing ions. Ligand-exchange mechanisms of some of the metal-containing species are explored by FAB-MS. Several moisturesensitive organo-metallics and H-bonded systems have been examined by FAB for attempted characterization, but without any success. Scavenging and trapping of water molecules by complex aggregates in solutions of quaternary ammonium fluorides and hydroxides are investigated by FAB to complement previous NMR-studies.
    • Conformational analysis of antibody binding site using EDMA methods /

      Chen, Xiaohong.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2008-06-15)
      Euclidean distance matrix analysis (EDMA) methods are used to distinguish whether or not significant difference exists between conformational samples of antibody complementarity determining region (CDR) loops, isolated LI loop and LI in three-loop assembly (LI, L3 and H3) obtained from Monte Carlo simulation. After the significant difference is detected, the specific inter-Ca distance which contributes to the difference is identified using EDMA.The estimated and improved mean forms of the conformational samples of isolated LI loop and LI loop in three-loop assembly, CDR loops of antibody binding site, are described using EDMA and distance geometry (DGEOM). To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time the EDMA methods are used to analyze conformational samples of molecules obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Therefore, validations of the EDMA methods using both positive control and negative control tests for the conformational samples of isolated LI loop and LI in three-loop assembly must be done. The EDMA-I bootstrap null hypothesis tests showed false positive results for the comparison of six samples of the isolated LI loop and true positive results for comparison of conformational samples of isolated LI loop and LI in three-loop assembly. The bootstrap confidence interval tests revealed true negative results for comparisons of six samples of the isolated LI loop, and false negative results for the conformational comparisons between isolated LI loop and LI in three-loop assembly. Different conformational sample sizes are further explored by combining the samples of isolated LI loop to increase the sample size, or by clustering the sample using self-organizing map (SOM) to narrow the conformational distribution of the samples being comparedmolecular conformations. However, there is no improvement made for both bootstrap null hypothesis and confidence interval tests. These results show that more work is required before EDMA methods can be used reliably as a method for comparison of samples obtained by Monte Carlo simulations.
    • Continuous hydride generation in the presence of L- cysteine for the determination of arsenic, bismuth, antimony and tin in steels by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

      Chanvaivit, Sirirat.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1998-07-09)
      Arsenic, bismuth, germanium, antimony and tin were simultaneously determined by continuous hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry . I Hydrides were introduced into four different types of gas-liquid separators. Two of the gas-liquid separators were available in-house. A third was developed for this project and a fourth was based on a design used by CET AC. The best signal intensity was achieved by the type II frit-based gas-liquid separator, but the modified Cetac design gave promise for the future, due to low relative standard deviation. A method was developed for the determination of arsenic, bismuth, antimony and tin in low-alloy steels. Four standard reference materials from NIST were dissolved in 10 mL aqua regia without heat. Good agreement was obtained between experimental values and certified values for arsenic, bismuth, antimony and tin. The method was developed to provide the analyst with the opportunity to determine the analytes by using simple aqueous standards to prepare calibration lines. Within the limits of the samples analyzed, the method developed is independent of matrix.
    • The crystal and molecular structure of 18-Crown-6 HgC12 and 18-Crown-6 Cdc12

      Paige, Christopher Robin.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1982-07-09)
      Hg(18-Crown-6)C12 and Cd(18-Crown-6)C12 are isostructura1, space group Cl~ Z = 2. For the mercury compound, a = 10.444(2) A° , b = 11. 468(1) A° , c = 7.754(1) A° , a = 90.06(1)°, B = 82.20(1)°, Y = 90.07(1)°, Dobs = 1.87, Dca1c = 1.93, V = 920.05 13, R = 4.66%. For the cadmium compound, 000 a = 10.374(1) A, b = 11.419(2) A, c = 7.729(1) A, a = 89.95(1)°, B = 81.86(2)°, Y = 89.99(1)°, Dobs = 1.61, Dcalc = 1.64, V = 906.4613, R = 3.95%. The mercury and cadmium ions exhibit hexagonal bipyramidal coordination, with the metal ion located on a centre of symmetry in the plane of the oxygen atoms. The main differences between the two structures are an increase in the metal-oxygen distance and a reduction in the metalchloride distance when the central ion changes from Cd2+ to Hg2+. These differences may be explained in terms of the differences in hardness or softness of the metal ions and the donor atoms.
    • The crystal and molecular structure of bis (pyridoxamine) copper (II) dinitrate monohydrate

      Franklin, Kenneth James.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      The crystal structure of Cu(PM)2(N03hoH20 (where PM is pyridoxamine, CSHI2N202) has been determined from three dimensional x-ray diffraction data. The crystals are triclinic, space group pI, a = 14.248 (2), b = 8.568 (1), c = 9.319 (1) 1, a = 94.08 (1), e = 89.73 (1), y~~ 99.18 (1)°, z = 2, jl(MoK) = 10.90 em-I, Po = 1.61 g/cm3 and Pc = 1.61 g/em3• The structure a was solved by Patterson techniques from data collected on a Picker 4-circle diffractometer to 26max = 45°. All atoms, including hydrogens, have been located. Anisotropic thermal parameters have been refined for all nonhydrogen atoms. For the 2390 independent reflections with F ? 3cr(F) , R = 0.0408. The results presented here provide the first detailed structural information of a metal complex with PM itself. The copper atoms are located on centres of symmetry and each is chela ted by two PM zwitterions through the amino groups and phenolate oxygen atoms. The zwitterionic form found in this structure involves the loss of a proton from the phenolate group and protonation of the pyridine ring nitrogen atoms. The two independent Cu(PM)2 moieties are symmetrically bridged by a single oxygen atom from one of the nitrate groups. The second nitrate group is not coordinated to the copper atoms but is central to an extensive hydrogen bonding network involving the water molecule and uncoordinated functional groups of PM.
    • The crystal and molecular structure of thiamine hydroiodide /|nWilliam Edward Lee. -- 260 St. Catharines [Ont.] : Dept. of Chemistry, Brock University,

      Lee, William Edwards.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-07-09)
      The x-ray crystal structure of thiamine hydroiodide,C1ZH18N40S12' has been determined. The unit cell parameters are a = 13.84 ± 0.03, o b = 7.44 ± 0.01, c = 20.24 ± 0.02 A, 8 = 120.52 ± 0.07°, space group P2/c, z = 4. A total of 1445 reflections having ,2 > 2o(F2), 26 < 40° were collected on a Picker four-circle diffractometer with MoKa radiation by the 26 scan technique. The structure was solved by the heavy atom method. The iodine and sulphur atoms were refined anisotropically; only the positional parameters were refined for the hydrogen atoms. Successive least squares cycles yielded an unweighted R factor of 0.054. The site of protonation of the pyrimidine ring is the nitrogen opposite the amino group. The overall structure conforms very closely to the structures of other related thiamine compounds. The bonding surrounding the iodine atoms is distorted tetrahedral. The iodine atoms make several contacts with surrounding atoms most of them at or near the van der Waal's distances A thiaminium tetrachlorocobaltate salt was produced whose molecular and crystal structure was j~dged to be isomorphous to thiaminium tetrachlorocadmate.
    • Design and synthesis of new monoterpenoid derived ligands for asymmetric catalysis /

      Millar, Monte J.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1999-05-21)
      The work to be presented herein illustrates several important facts. First, the synthesis of BIBOL (19), a 1,4-diol derived from the monoterpene camphor has allowed us to demonstrate that oxidative dimerizations of enolates can, and do proceed with nearly complete diastereoselectivity under kinetically controlled conditions. The yield of BIBOL is now 50% on average, with a 10% yield of a second diastereomer, which is likely the result of a non-kinetic hydride reduction, thereby affording the epimeric alcohol, 20, coupled on the exo face of camphor. This implies the production of 60% of a single coupling diastereomer. No other diastereomers from the reduction were observed. The utility of BEBOL has been illustrated in early asymmetric additions of diethylzinc to aryl aldehydes, with e.e.'s as high as 25-30%. '^' To further the oxidative coupling work, the same methodology which gave rise to BIBOL was applied to the chiral pool ketone, menthone. Interestingly, this gave an excellent yield of the a-halohydrin (31), which is the result of a chlorination of menthone. This result clearly indicates the high stereoselectivity of the process regardless of the outcome, and has illustrated an interesting dichotomy between camphor and menthone. The utility of the chlorination product as a precursor other chiral ligands is currently being investigated. > ' Finally, a new series of 1,3-diols as well as a new aminoalcohol have successfully been synthesized from highly diastereoselective aldol/mannich reactions. Early studies have indicated their potential in asymmetric catalysis, while employing pi-stack interactions as a means of controlling enantioselective aldol reactions.
    • The design, synthesis and characterization of new building blocks for the preparation of molecule-based magnetic materials /

      Wang, Jian.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2007-06-29)
      Two new families of building blocks have been prepared and fully characterized and their coordination chemistry exploited for the preparation of molecule-based magnetic materials. The first class of compounds were prepared by exploiting the chemistry of 3,3'-diamino-2,2'-bipyridine together with 2-pyridine carbonyl chloride or 2-pyridine aldehyde. Two new ligands, 2,2'-bipyridine-3,3'-[2-pyridinecarboxamide] (Li, 2.3) and N'-6/s(2-pyridylmethyl) [2,2'bipyridine]-3,3'-diimine (L2, 2.7), were prepared and characterized. For ligand L4, two copper(II) coordination compounds were isolated with stoichiometrics [Cu2(Li)(hfac)2] (2.4) and [Cu(Li)Cl2] (2.5). The molecular structures of both complexes were determined by X-ray crystallography. In both complexes the ligand is in the dianionic form and coordinates the divalent Cu(II) ions via one amido and two pyridine nitrogen donor atoms. In (2.4), the coordination geometry around both Cu11 ions is best described as distorted trigonal bipyramidal where the remaining two coordination sites are satisfied by hfac counterions. In (2.5), both Cu(II) ions adopt a (4+1) distorted square pyramidal geometry. One copper forms a longer apical bond to an adjacent carbonyl oxygen atom, whereas the second copper is chelated to a neighboring Cu-Cl chloride ion to afford chloride bridged linear [Cu2(Li)Cl2]2 tetramers that run along the c-axis of the unit cell. The magnetic susceptibility data for (2.4) reveal the occurrence of weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the copper(II) ions. In contrast, variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements for (2.5) reveal more complex magnetic properties with the presence of ferromagnetic exchange between the central dimeric pair of copper atoms and weak antiferromagnetic exchange between the outer pairs of copper atoms. The Schiff-base bis-imine ligand (L2, 2.7) was found to be highly reactive; single crystals grown from dry methanol afforded compound (2.14) for which two methanol molecules had added across the imine double bond. The susceptibility of this ligand to nucleophilic attack at its imine functionality assisted via chelation to Lewis acidic metal ions adds an interesting dimension to its coordination chemistry. In this respect, a Co(II) quaterpyridine-type complex was prepared via a one-pot transformation of ligand L2 in the presence of a Lewis acidic metal salt. The rearranged complex was characterized by X-ray crystallography and a reaction mechanism for its formation has been proposed. Three additional rearranged complexes (2.13), (2.17) and (2.19) were also isolated when ligand (L2, 2.7) was reacted with transition metal ions. The molecular structures of all three complexes have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The second class of compounds that are reported in this thesis, are the two diacetyl pyridine derivatives, 4-pyridyl-2,6-diacetylpyridine (5.5) and 2,2'-6,6'-tetraacetyl-4,4'-bipyridine (5.15). Both of these compounds have been designed as intermediates for the metal templated assembly of a Schiff-base N3O2 macrocycle. From compound (5.15), a covalently tethered dimeric Mn(II) macrocyclic compound of general formula {[Mn^C^XJCl-FkO^Cl-lO.SFbO (5.16) was prepared and characterized. The X-ray analysis of (5.16) reveals that the two manganese ions assume a pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry with the macrocycle occupying the pentagonal plane and the axial positions being filled by a halide ion and a H2O molecule. Magnetic susceptibility data reveal the occurrence of antiferromagnetic interactions between covalently tethered Mn(II)-Mn(II) dimeric units. Following this methodology a Co(II) analogue (5.17) has also been prepared which is isostructural with (5.16).
    • The determination of sinigrin in Brassica, and investigations into the use of allyl-isothiocyanate as a nematicide

      Zawadzki, Michael A.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      The goal of this thesis was to study factors related to the development of Brassica juncea as a sustainable nematicide. Brassica juncea is characterized by the glycoside (glucosinolate) sinigrin. Various methods were developed for the determination of sinigrin in Brassica juncea tissue extracts. Sinigrin concentrations in plant tissues at various stages of growth were monitored. Sinigrin enzymatically breaks down into allylisothiocyanate (AITC). AITC is unstable in aqueous solution and degradation was studied in water and in soil. Finally, the toxicity of AITC against the root-lesion nematode (Pratylenchus penetrans) was determined. A method was developed to extract sinigrin from whole Brassica j uncea tissues. The optimal time of extraction wi th boiling phosphate buffer (0.7mM, pH=6.38) and methanol/water (70:30 v/v) solutions were both 25 minutes. Methanol/water extracted 13% greater amount of sinigrin than phosphate buffer solution. Degradation of sinigrin in boiling phosphate buffer solution (0.13%/minute) was similar to the loss of sinigrin during the extraction procedure. The loss of sinigrin from boiling methanol/water was estimated to be O.Ol%/minute. Brassica juncea extract clean up was accomplished by an ion-pair solid phase extraction (SPE) method. The recovery of sinigrin was 92.6% and coextractive impurities were not detected in the cleaned up extract. Several high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were developed for the determination of sinigrin. All the developed methods employed an isocratic mobile phase system wi th a low concentration of phosphate buffer solution, ammonium acetate solution or an ion-pair reagent solution. A step gradient system was also developed. The method involved preconditioning the analytical column with phosphate buffer solution and then switching the mobile phase to 100% water after sample injection.Sinigrin and benzyl-glucosinolate were both studied by HPLC particle beam negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HPLCPB- NCI-MS). Comparison of the mass spectra revealed the presence of fragments arising from the ~hioglucose moiety and glucosinolate side-chain. Variation in the slnlgrin concentration within Brassica juncea plants was studied (Domo and Cutlass cuItivars). The sinigrin concentration in the top three leaves was studied during growth of each cultivar. For Cutlass, the minimum (200~100~g/g) and maximum (1300~200~g/g) concentrations were observed at the third and seventh week after planting, respectively. For Domo, the minimum (190~70~g/g) and maximum (1100~400~g/g) concentrations were observed at the fourth and eighth week after planting, respectively. The highest sinigrin concentration was observed in flower tissues 2050±90~g/g and 2300±100~g/g for Cutlass and Domo cultivars, respectively. Physical properties of AITC were studied. The solubility of AITC in water was determined to be approximately 1290~g/ml at 24°C. An HPLC method was developed for the separation of degradation compounds from aqueous AITC sample solutions. Some of the degradation compounds identified have not been reported in the literature: allyl-thiourea, allyl-thiocyanate and diallyl-sulfide. In water, AITC degradation to' diallyl-thiourea was favored at basic pH (9.07) and degradation to diallyl-sulfide was favored at acidic pH (4 . 97). It wap necessary to amend the aqueous AITC sample solution with acetonitrile ?efore injection into the HPLC system. The acetonitrile amendment considerably improved AITC recovery and the reproducibility of the results. The half-life of aqueous AITC degradation at room temperature did not follow first-order kinetics. Beginning with a 1084~g/ml solution, the half-life was 633 hours. Wi th an ini tial AITC concentration of 335~g/ml the half-life was 865 hours. At 35°C the half-life AITC was 76+4 hours essentially independent of the iiisolution pH over the range of pH=4.97 to 9.07 (1000~g/ml). AITC degradation was also studied in soil at 35°C; after 24 hours approximately 75% of the initial AITC addition was unrecoverable by water extraction. The ECso of aqueous AITC against the root-lesion nematode (Pratylenchus penetrans) was determined to be approximately 20~g/ml at one hour exposure of the nematode to the test solution. The toxicological study was also performed with a myrosinase treated Brassica juncea extract. Myrosinase treatment of the Brassica juncea extract gave nearly quantitative conversion of sinigrin into AITC. The myrosinase treated extract was of the same efficacy as an aqueous AITC solution of equivalent concentration. The work of this thesis was focused upon understanding parameters relevant to the development of Brassica juncea as a sustainable nematicide. The broad range of experiments were undertaken in support of a research priority at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.