• Effect of iron on reactivity of vanillin in wine models /

      Pan, Ruqiu.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      Phenolic compounds are important components of grapes and wines. They have been found to have important roles in grape and wine systems and properties that are beneficial for human health. Vanillin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) is a phenolic compound coming from the oxidative degradation of lignin in oak-barrels during the aging of wine. Vanillin is an important flavour component of wine and its concentration in wine influences significantly the aroma and flavour of wine. The concentration of vanillin in wine is affected by various factors including the presence of metal ions. In this work, by using HPLC, HPLC-MS, and MS technologies, iron (III) cations were found to affect the oxidation of vanillin in a model system of wine, and the product of the oxidation was identified as divanillin. The mechanism of the redox reaction between vanillin and Fe^"^ is thought to follow that of other phenol oxidations. Increasing the concentration of Fe ^ in the model system accelerates divanillin production. The best pH condition for the divanillin production in the system is the range of 3.0 ~ 3.5. Increasing temperature from 20°C to 40°C accelerates the divanillin production. Divanillin was found to exist in three commercial red wines in this work. Keeping the storage temperature cool and decreasing the contact of grapes and wines with iron are two major measures suggested by this work in order to decrease the oxidation of vanillin during the making and aging of wine.
    • Investigations of 2-alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines in three ladybug species and wine /

      Cudjoe, Erasmus.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2005-06-15)
      Investigations of 2-alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines (2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyra2ine, 2- secbutyl-3-methoxypyrazine and 2-isobutyl-3-niethoxypyrazine) in ladybug species {Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and wine samples have been conducted. Headspace sampling coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine amounts of 2-alkyl-3-methoxypyra2ines in the ladybug species. Hippodamia convergens had the highest amount of alkybnethoxypyrazines, followed by Harmoma axyridis and the least in Coccinella septempunctata. Using a solvent extraction method, the precoccinelline alkaloid was found present in Hippodamia convergens and Coccinella septempunctata but not Harmonia axyridis. Steam distillation followed by a soHd phase extraction method as a sample preparation technique, enhanced detection while the isotope dilution method afforded accurate quantitation of the alkyknethoxypyrazines in the wine samples. Both ladybug-tainted and commercial wine samples were found to contain the 2- alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines. Wine samples prepared in 2001 generally contained higher levels than the corresponding 2003 samples. Levels of the 2-alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines found in the commercial wines ranged from a minimum value of 6 ng/L to 260 ±10 ng/L. Analyses revealed that for both ladybug species and wine samples, the 2- isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine had the highest concentration, followed by 2-isobutyl- 3-methoxypyrazine and the least being the 2-secbutyl-3-methoxypyrazine. Possible contamination of the wine samples by ladybugs is thoroughly discussed. Furthermore, attempts to remove or reduce the levels of the alkylmethoxypyrazines with molecularly imprinted polymers from wine samples are presented in detail.