Browsing M.Sc. Chemistry by Subject "Steroids."
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The 21-dehydroxylation of corticosteroids: evidence for an enol intermediate and the hydroxylation of steroids by fungal cyto-chrome P450: evidence for a stepwise mechanismTwo enzyme mechanisms were examined: the 21-dehydroxylation of corticosteroids by the anaerobe Eubacterium l en tum, and the hydroxylation of steroids by fungal cytochrome P450. Deuterium labelling techniques were used to study the enzymic dehydroxylation. Corticosteroids doubly labelled (2H) at the C-21 position were incubated with a culture of Eubacterium lentum. It was found that t he enzymic dehydroxylation proceeded with the loss of one 2H f rom C-21 per molecule of substrate. The kinetic isotope ef fect f or the reaction was found to be k~kD = 2. 28. These results suggest that enzyme/substr ate binding in this case may proceed via t he enol form of the substrate. Also , it appears that this binding is, at least in part, the rate determining step of t he reaction. The hydroxylation of steroids by fungal cytochrome P450 was examined by means of a product study. Steroids with a double bond at the A8 (9), ~( lO ), or ~ (ll) position were synthesized. These steroids were then incubated with fungal strains known to use a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase to hydroxylate at positions allylic to these doubl e bonds. The products formed in these incubations indicated that the double bonds had migrated during allylic hydroxylat ion. This suggests that a carbon centred radical or ion may be an intermediate i n the cytochrome P450 cat alytic cycle.
An investigation into fungal metabolism of halogenated and related steroidsFungal metabolism of halogenated and related steroids was investigated. The fungi Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142, Curvularia lunata NRRL 2380 and Rhizopus stolonifer ATCC6227b were studied in this regard. 2l-Fluoro-, 2l-chloro, 2l-bromo- and 2l-methyl-pregn-4-ene-3,20diones were prepared and incubated with ~ niger (a C-2l-hydroxylator) in order to observe the effect of the C-2l substituent on the metabolism of these substrates. In all four cases, the C-2l substituent prevented any significant metabolism of these substrates. llB-Fluoropregn-4-ene-3,20-dione was prepared and incubated with C. lunata (an llB-hydroxylator) and ~ stolonifer (an lla-hydroxylator). With ~ lunata, the ll-fluoro- substituent prevent hydroxylation at the 11 position, but diverted it to a site remote from the fluorine atom. In contrast, with ~ stolonifer the llB-fluoro- substituent, although slowing the apparent rate of hydroxylation, did not prevent its occurrence at the 11a- position. llB-Hydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione was also incubated with R. stolonifer. The llB-hydroxy-;group did not appear to have any significant effect on hydroxylation at the lla- position. The incubation of a substrate, unsaturated at a favoured site of hydroxylation with Rhizopus arrhizus ATCC 11145 provided a complex mixture of products; among them were both the a and S epoxides. The formation of these products is rationalized as arising because of the lack of regio- and stereospecificity of the hydroxylase enzyme(s) involved.
Reactions of steroidal epoxides with strong organic bases and an investigation into the syntheses of some labelled pregnane derivativesReactions of 5,6- and 4,5-epoxycholestane derivatives with strong bases were investigated. Epoxidation of 3a-acetoxycholest-5-ene also gave a new compound along with the anticipated epoxides. Interconversions of the latter were observed. Some possible mechanisms of its formation and rearrangements have been pIioposed. No reaction was observed with any of the 5,6- and 4,5-steroidal epoxides employed in the present study, using potassium tertiary butoxide under refluxing conditions. n-Butyllithium reacted only with 5,6-epoxycholestanes bearing a ketal moiety at the C3 carbon. Opening of the ketal group was observed with n-butyllithium in the case of a ~-epoxide. The reaction was also investigated in the absence of epoxide functionality. A possible mechanism for the opening of ketal group has been proposed. Lithium diethylamide (LDEA) was found effective in rearranging 5,6- and 4,5-epoxides to their ~orresponding allylic alcohols. These rearrangements presumably proceed via syn-eliminations, however the possibility of a corresponding anti-elimination has not been eliminated. A substituent effect of various functional groups (R = H, OH, OCH2CH20) at C3 has-been observed on product distribution in the LDEApromoted rearrangements of the corresponding epoxides. No reaction of these epoxides was observed with lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) • In the second part of the project, several attempts were made towards the sYRthesis of deoxycorticoste~one~17,2l,2l~d3' a compound desirable for the 2l-dehydroxylation studies of deoxycorticosterone. Several routes were investigated, and some deuterium labelled pregnane derivatives were prepared in this regard. Microbial 21-hydroxylation of progesteronel7,21,21,2l- d4 by ~ niger led to loss of deuterium from C21 of the product. An effort was made to hydroxylate progesterone microbially under neutral condtions.