• Analysis Of The A11a22 X 11a11 And A 33a22 X 1 electronic transitions in selenocarbonyl difluoride

      Boluk, Mehmet Yaman.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1982-10-02)
      The absorption spectrum of F2CSe in the 18800-21900 cm-1 region has been recorded at -770 C and 220 C under the conditions of medium resolution. The responsible electronic promotion is TI* + n excitation which leads to 3A2 and lA2 excited states. Progressions in vI', v2', v3" v4' and v4" have been identified in the spectrum and have been analyzed in terms of vibronic transitions between a planar ground state and a nQnplanar excited state. The - 3 - 1 - 1 - 1 origins of the a A2 + X Al and A A2 + X Al systems were assigned to the bands at 19018 cm-l and 19689 cm-l . This has given a singlet-triplet splittl. n g lA2 - 3A2 P f 671 cm -1 The out-of-plane wagging levels were found to be anharmonic. 1 -1 Barrier heights of 2483 cm- and 2923 cm were obtained for the lA2 and 3A2 upper states from a fitting of the energy levels of a Lorentzian-quadratic function to the observed levels in the out-of-plane wagging modes. 1 3 For the A2 and A2 states nonplanar equilibrium angles of 30.10 and 31.40 have been evaluated respectively. i
    • An analysis of the methyl rotation dynamics in the So (x' A) and T (a A) states of thioacetaldehyde from Pyrolysis jet spectra /

      Bascal, Hafed Ashur.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1991-07-14)
      Jet-cooled, laser-induced phosphorescence excitation spectra (LIP) of thioacetaldehyde CH3CHS, CH3CDS, CD3CHS and CD3CDS have been observed over the region 15800 - 17300 cm"^ in a continuous pyrolysis jet. The vibronic band structure of the singlet-triplet n -* n* transition were attributed to the strong coupling of the methyl torsion and aldehydic hydrogen wagging modes . The vibronic peaks have been assigned in terms of two upper electronic state (T^) vibrations; the methyl torsion mode v^g, and the aldehydic hydrogen wagging mode v^^. The electronic origin O^a^ is unequivocally assigned as follows: CH3CHS (16294.9 cm"'' ), CH3CDS (16360.9 cm"'' ), CD3CHS (16299.7 cm"^ ), and CD3CDS (16367.2 cm"'' ). To obtain structural and dynamical information about the two electronic states, potential surfaces V(e,a) for the 6 (methyl torsion) and a (hydrogen wagging) motions were generated by ab initio quantum mechanical calculations with a 6-3 IG* basis in which the structural parameters were fully relaxed. The kinetic energy coefficients BQ(a,e) , B^(a,G) , and the cross coupling term B^(a,e) , were accurately represented as functions of the two active coordinates, a and 9. The calculations reveal that the molecule adopts an eclipsed conformation for the lower Sq electronic state (a=0°,e=0"') with a barrier height to internal rotation of 541.5 cm"^ which is to be compared to 549.8 cm"^ obtained from the microwave experiment. The conformation of the upper T^ electronic state was found to be staggered (a=24 . 68° ,e=-45. 66° ) . The saddle point in the path traced out by the aldehyde wagging motion was calculated to be 175 cm"^ above the equilibrium configuration. The corresponding maxima in the path taken by methyl torsion was found to be 322 cm'\ The small amplitude normal vibrational modes were also calculated to aid in the assignment of the spectra. Torsional-wagging energy manifolds for the two states were derived from the Hamiltonian H(a,e) which was solved variationally using an extended two dimensional Fourier expansion as a basis set. A torsionalinversion band spectrum was derived from the calculated energy levels and Franck-Condon factors, and was compared with the experimental supersonic-jet spectra. Most of the anomalies which were associated with the interpretation of the observed spectrum could be accounted for by the band profiles derived from ab initio SCF calculations. A model describing the jet spectra was derived by scaling the ab initio potential functions. The global least squares fitting generates a triplet state potential which has a minimum at (a=22.38° ,e=-41.08°) . The flatter potential in the scaled model yielded excellent agreement between the observed and calculated frequency intervals.
    • Synthesis and spectral studies of methyl heterocylic systems

      Doyle, Paul P.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      2-Carboxy-2?-methyldiphenyl sulfide was prepared by the Ullmann reaction and cyclodehydrated by sulfuric acid to afford 4-methylthioxanthone. 1-Methylthioxanthone was separated from the reaction mixture obtained upon cyclodehydration of 2-carboxy-3f-methyldiphenyl sulfide. In addition, 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-methylthioxanthone 10,10-dioxides were synthesized by oxidation of the corresponding thioxanthones. o-, m- and p-N-Tolylanthranilic acids were prepared by the Ullmann reaction and used as precursors for the preparation of 1-, 2- and 4- methyl-9-chloroacridine and finally 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-methylacridone. High resolution, 60 MHz PMR spectra were obtained on the four monomethyl isomers of xanthone, thioxanthone, thioxanthone 10,10-dioxide and acridone, and on 1-, 2- and 4-methyl-9-chloroacridine. For some compounds, coupling of all three different aromatic protons to the methyl was observed, two of the couplings typically being smaller than the third. With the large (ortho) coupling being on the order of 0.5 to 1.0 Hz, it was necessary to decouple the aromatic part of the spectrum. The magnitude of the ortho benzylic constant may be related to an incomplete Tr-bond delocalization in the molecules.
    • Synthesis of isotope-labelled methoxypyrazine compounds as internal standards and quantitative determination of aroma methoxypyrazines in water and wines by solid-phase extraction with isotope dilution-GC-MS /

      Chen, Xiaonan.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2005-06-15)
      An efficient way of synthesizing the deuterium labelled analogues of three methoxypyrazine compounds: 2-d3-methoxy-3-isopropylpyrazine, 2-d3-methoxy-3- isobutylpyrazine, and 2-d3-methoxy-3-secbutylpyrazine, has been developed. To confirm that the deuterium labels had been incorporated into the expected positions in the molecules synthesized, the relevant characterization by NMR, HRMS and GC/MS analysis was conducted. Another part of this work involved quantitative determination of methoxypyrazines in water and wines. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) proved to be a suitable means for the sample separation and concentration prior to GC/MS analysis.Such factors as the presence of ethanol, salt, and acid have been investigated which can influence the recovery by SPE for the pyrazines from the water matrix. Significantly, in this work comparatively simple fractional distillation was attempted to replace the conventional steam distillation for pre-concentrating a sample with a relatively large volume prior to SPE. Finally, a real wine sample spiked with the relevant isotope-labelled methoxypyrazines was quantitatively analyzed, revealing that the wine with 10 beetles per litre contained 138 ppt of 2-methoxy-3-isopropylpyrazine. Interestingly, we have also found that 2-methoxy-3-secbutylpyrazine exhibits an extremely low detection limit in GC/MS analysis compared with the detection limit of the other two methoxypyrazines: 2- methoxy-3-isopropylpyrazine and 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine.