• Polytypism and Silicon carbide : a solid state nuclear magnetic resonance study

      Winsborrow, Beatrice G.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1987-07-09)
      A survey of predominantly industrial silicon carbide has been carried out using Magic Angle Spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS nmr); a solid state technique. Three silicon carbide polytypes were studied; 3C, 6H, and 15R. The 13C and 29 Si MAS nmr spectra of the bulk SiC sample was identified on the basis of silicon (carbon) site type in the d iff ere n t pol Y t Y pes • Out to 5.00 A fro mac en t r a lsi 1 i con (0 r carbon) atom four types of sites were characterized using symmetry based calculations. This method of polytype analysis was also considered, in the prelminary stages, for applications with other polytypic material; CdBr 2 , CdI 2 , and PbI 2 " In an attempt to understand the minor components of silicon carbide, such as its surface, some samples were hydrofluoric acid washed and heated to extreme temperatures. Basically, an HF removable species which absorbs at -110 ppm (Si0 2 ) in the 29 Si MAS nmr spectrum is found in silicon carbide after heating. Other unidentified peaks observed at short recycle delays in some 29 Si MAS nmr spectra are considered to be impurities that may be within the lattice. These components comprise less than 5% of the observable silicon. A Tl study was carried out for 29 Si nuclei in a 3C ii polytype sample, using the Driven Equilibrium Single-Pulse Observation of T1 (DESPOT) technique. It appears as though there are a number of nuclei that have the same chemical shift but different T1 relaxation times. The T1 values range from 30 seconds to 11 minutes. Caution has to be kept when interpreting these results because this is the first time that DESPOT has been used for solid samples and it is not likely in full working order. MAS nmr indicates that the 13C and 29 Si ~sotropic chemical shifts of silicon carbide appear to have a reciprocal type of relationship_ Single crystal nmr analysis of a 6H sample is accordance with this finding when only the resultant isotropic shift is considered. However, single crystal nmr also shows that the actual response of the silicon and carbon nuclear environment to the applied magnetic field at various angles is not at all reciprocal. Such results show that much more single crystal nmr work is required to determine the actual behavior of the local magnetic environment of the SiC nuclei.
    • Solid state NMR chemical shifts as an alternative to diffraction data in the determination of SIC polytypic structures

      Guo, Degi.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1988-07-09)
      Silicon carbide, which has many polytypic modifications of a very simple and very symmetric structure, is an excellent model system for exploring, the relationship between chemical shift, long-range dipolar shielding, and crystal structure in network solids. A simple McConnell equation treatment of bond anisotropy effects in a poly type predicts chemical shifts for silicon and carbon sites which agree well with the experiment, provided that contributions from bonds up to 100 A are included in the calculation. The calculated chemical shifts depend on three factors: the layer stacking sequence, electrical centre of gravity, and the spacings between silicon and carbon layers. The assignment of peaks to lattice sites is proved possible for three polytypes (6H, 15R, and 3C). The fact that the calculated chemical shifts are very sensitive to layer spacings provides us a potential way to detennine and refine a crystal structure. In this work, the layer spacings of 6H SiC have been calculated and are within X-ray standard deviations. Under this premise, the layer spacings of 15R have been detennined. 29Si and 13C single crystal nmr studies of 6H SiC polytype indicate that all silicons and carbons are magnetically anisotropic. The relationship between a magnetic shielding tensor component and layer spacings has been derived. The comparisons between experimental and semi-empirical chemical shielding tensor components indicate that the paramagnetic shielding of silicon should be included in the single crystal chemical shift calculation.