• The investigation of the reduction mechanism of the 5a-reductase enzyme of Penicillium decumbens /

      Hsü, Wei-li.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1990-05-21)
      The 5a-reductase of Penicillium decumbens ATCC 10436 was used as a model for the mammalian enzyme to investigate the mechanism of reduction of testosterone to 5adihydrotestosterone . The purpose of this study was to search for specific 5a-reductase inhibitors which antagonize prostate cancer . In a whole-cell biotransformation mode, this organism reduced testosterone (1) to 5a-dihydrosteroids (8) and 5aandrostane- 3, 17-dione (9) in yields of 28% and 37% respectively. Control experiments have shown that 5aandrostane- 3, 17-dione (9) can be produced from the corresponding alcohol (8) in a subsequent reaction separate from that catalysed by the 5a-reductase enzyme . Androst-4- ene-3, 17-dione (2) is reduced to give only (9) with a recovery of 80% The stereochemistry of the reduction was determined by 500 MHz ^H NMR analysis of the products resulting from the deuterium labelled substrates. The results were obtained by an analysis of the NOE difference spectra, double-quantum filtered phase sensitive COSY 2-D spectra, and ^^c-Ir 2-D shift correlation spectra of deuterium labelled products. According to the unambiguous assignment of the signals due to H-4a and H-4Ii in 5a-dihydro steroids, the NMR data show clearly that addition of hydrogen to the 4{5)K bond has occurred in a trans manner at positions 413 and 5a. To Study the reduction mechanism of this enzyme, several substrates were prepared as following; 3-methyleneandrost-4-en- 17fi-ol(3), androst-4-en-17i5-ol(5) , androst-4-en-3ii, 17fi-diol (6) and 4, 5ii-epoxyandrostane-3, 17-dione (7) . Results suggest that this enzyme system requires an oxygen atom at the 3-position of the steroid in order to bind the substrate. Furthermore, the mechanism of this 5a-reductase may proceed via direct addition of hydrogen at the 4,5 position without involvement of a carbonyl group as an intermediate.
    • Study of the application of the high performance liquid chromatography-particle beam interface-mass spectrometry technique on some pesiticides and the reduction phenomena in the system

      Ziao, He.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      This work includes two major parts. The first part of the work concentrated on the studies of the application of the highperfonnance liquid chromatography-particle beam interface-mass spectrometry system of some pesticides. Factors that have effects on the detection sensitivity were studied. The linearity ranges and detection limits of ten pesticides are also given in this work. The second part of the work concentrated on the studies of the reduction phenomena of nitro compounds in the HPLC-PB-MS system. Direct probe mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques were also used in the work. Factors that have effects on the reduction of the nitro compounds were studied, and the possible explanation is proposed. The final part of this work included the studies of reduction behavior of some other compounds in the HPLC-PB-MS system, included in them are: quinones, sulfoxides, and sulfones.