Browsing M.Sc. Chemistry by Subject "Plasma radiation."
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Arsenic and germanium determination by hydride generation in the D.C. plasma optical emission spectrometerModifications to the commercial hydride generator, manufactured by Spectrametrics, resulted in improved operating procedure and enhancement of the arsenic and germanium signals. Experiments with arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) showed that identical reiults could be produced from both oxidation states. However, since arsenic(V) is reduced more slowly than arsenic(III), peak areas and not peak heights must be measured when the arsine is immediately stripped from the system (approximately 5 seconds reaction). When the reduction is allowed to proceed for 20 seconds before the arsine is stripped, peak heights may be used. For a 200 ng/mL solution, the relative standard deviation is 2.8% for As(III) and 3.8% for As(V). The detection limit for arsenic using the modified system is 0.50 ng/mL. Studies performed on As(V) standards show that the interferences from 1000 mg/L of nickel(II), cobalt(II), iron(III), copper(II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) can be eliminated with the aid of 5 M Hel and 3% L-cystine. Conditions for the reduction of germanium to the corresponding hydride were investigated. The effect of different concentrations of HCl on the reduction of germanium to the covalent hydride in aqueous media by means of NaBH 4 solutions was assessed. Results show that the best response is accomplished at a pH of 1.7. The use of buffer solutions was similarly characterized. In both cases, results showed that the element is best reduced when the final pH of the solution after reaction is almost neutral. In addition, a more sensitive method, which includes the use of (NH4)2S208' has been developed. A 20% increase in the germanium signal is registered when compared to the signal achieved with Hel alone. Moreover, under these conditions, reduction of germanium could be accomplished, even when the solution's pH is neutral. For a 100 ng/mL germanium standard the rsd is 3%. The detection limit for germanium in 0.05 M Hel medium (pH 1.7) is 0.10 ng/mL and 0.09 ng/mL when ammonium persulphate is used in conjunction with Hel. Interferences from 1000 mg/L of iron(III), copper(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), cadmium(II), lead(II), mercury(II), aluminum(III), tin(IV), arsenic(III), arsenic(V) and zinc(II) were studied and characterized. In this regard, the use of (NH4)ZS20S and Hel at a pH of 1.7 proved to be a successful mixture in the sbppression of the interferences caused by iron, copper, aluminum, tin, lead, and arsenic. The method was applied to the determination of germanium in cherts and iron ores. In addition, experiments with tin(IV) showed that a 15% increase in the tin signal can be accomplished in the presence of 1 mL of (NH4)2S20S 10% (m/V).
Arsenic speciation by ion-exchange chromatography with on- line determination by hydride generation: electronic modification of the D.C. plasma by photon countingA method using L-cysteine for the determination of arsenous acid (As(III)), arsenic acid (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) by hydride generation was demonstrated. The instrument used was a d.c. plasma atomic emission spectrometer (OCP-AES). Complete recovery was reported for As(III), As(V), and DMAA while 86% recovery was reported for MMAA. Detection limits were determined, as arsenic for the species listed previously, to be 1.2, 0.8, 1.1, and 1.0 ngemL-l, respectively. Precision values, at 50 ngemL-1 arsenic concentration, were f.80/0, 2.50/0, 2.6% and 2.6% relative standard deviation, respectively. The L-cysteine reagent was compared directly with the conventional hydride generation technique which uses a potassium iodide-hydrochloric acid medium. Recoveries using L-cysteine when compared with the conventional method provided the following results: similar recoveries were obtained for As(III), slightly better recoveries were obtained for As(V) and MMAA, and significantly better recoveries for DMAA. In addition, tall and sharp peak shapes were observed for all four species when using L-cysteine. The arsenic speciation method involved separation by ion exchange .. high perfonnance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with on-line hydride generation using the L.. cysteine reagent and measurement byOCP-AES. Total analysis time per sample was 12 min while the time between the start of subsequent runs was approximately 20 min. A binary . gradient elution program, which incorporated the following two eluents: 0.01 and 0.5 mM tri.. sodium citrate both containing 5% methanol (v/v) and both at a pH of approximately 9, was used during the separation by HPLC. Recoveries of the four species which were measured as peak area, and were normalized against As(III), were 880/0, 290/0, and 40% for DMAA, MMAA and As(V), respectively. Resolution factors between adjacent analyte peaks of As(III) and DMAA was 1.1; DMAA and MMAA was 1.3; and MMAA and As(V) was 8.6. During the arsenic speciation study, signals from the d.c. plasma optical system were measured using a new photon-signal integrating device. The_new photon integrator developed and built in this laboratory was based on a previously published design which was further modified to reflect current available hardware. This photon integrator was interfaced to a personal computer through an AID convertor. The .photon integrator has adjustable threshold settings and an adjustable post-gain device.
Investigation into the determination of arsenic by direct current plasma atomic emission spectrometerImprovements have been made on the currently available hydride generator system manufactured by SpectraMetrics Incorporated, because the system was found to be unsatisfactory with respect to the following: 1. the drying agent, anhydrous calcium chloride, 2. the special sample tube, 3. the direction of argon flow through the Buchner funnel when it came to dealing with real sample, that is, with reference only to aqueous extracts of soil samples. Changes that were made on the system included the replacement of anhydrous calcium chloride with anhydrous calcium sulphate and the replacement of the special sample tube with a modified one made from silica. Re-directing the flow of argon through the top of the Buchner funnel appeared to make the system compatible with aqueous extracts of soil samples. The interferences from 1000 ~g/mL of nickel(II) , cobalt(II), iron(III), copper(II) have been eliminated with the aid of 1.4 M hydrochloric acid and 1% (weight/volume) L-cystine. Greater than 90% recovery of 0.3 ~g/mL arsenic signal was achieved in each case. Furthermore, 103% of arsenic signal was accomplished in the presence of 1000 ~g/mL cadmium with 5 M Hel. tVhen each of the interferents was present in solution at 1000 ppm, a recovery of 85% was achieved by using 5 M hydrochloric acid and 3% (weight/volume) L-cystine. Without L-cystine and when 1.4 M hydrochloric acid was used, the recoveries were 0% (Ni), 0% (Co), 88% (Fe), 15% (Cu), 18% (Cd). Similarly, a solution containing 1000 ppm of each interferent gave a zero percent recovery of arsenic. The reduction of trivalent and pentavalent arsenic at a pH less than one has also been investigated and shown to be quantitative if peak areas are measured. The reproducibility determination of a 0.3 Vg/mL standard arsenic solution by hydride generation shows a relative standard deviation of 3.4%. The detection limits with and without Porapak Q have been found to be 0.6 ng/mL and 1.0 ng/mL, respectively.