Browsing M.Sc. Chemistry by Subject "Pesticides."
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The development of automated methods for the determination of trace concentrations of carbomate pesticides in water using solid sorbent pre-concentration methods and high performance liquid chromatography /Several automated reversed-phase HPLC methods have been developed to determine trace concentrations of carbamate pesticides (which are of concern in Ontario environmental samples) in water by utilizing two solid sorbent extraction techniques. One of the methods is known as on-line pre-concentration'. This technique involves passing 100 milliliters of sample water through a 3 cm pre-column, packed with 5 micron ODS sorbent, at flow rates varying from 5-10 mUmin. By the use of a valve apparatus, the HPLC system is then switched to a gradient mobile phase program consisting of acetonitrile and water. The analytes, Propoxur, Carbofuran, Carbaryl, Propham, Captan, Chloropropham, Barban, and Butylate, which are pre-concentrated on the pre-column, are eluted and separated on a 25 cm C-8 analytical column and determined by UV absorption at 220 nm. The total analytical time is 60 minutes, and the pre-column can be used repeatedly for the analysis of as many as thirty samples. The method is highly sensitive as 100 percent of the analytes present in the sample can be injected into the HPLC. No breakthrough of any of the analytes was observed and the minimum detectable concentrations range from 10 to 480 ng/L. The developed method is totally automated for the analysis of one sample. When the above mobile phase is modified with a buffer solution, Aminocarb, Benomyl, and its degradation product, MBC, can also be detected along with the above pesticides with baseline resolution for all of the analytes. The method can also be easily modified to determine Benomyl and MBC both as solute and as particulate matter. By using a commercially available solid phase extraction cartridge, in lieu of a pre-column, for the extraction and concentration of analytes, a completely automated method has been developed with the aid of the Waters Millilab Workstation. Sample water is loaded at 10 mL/min through a cartridge and the concentrated analytes are eluted from the sorbent with acetonitrile. The resulting eluate is blown-down under nitrogen, made up to volume with water, and injected into the HPLC. The total analytical time is 90 minutes. Fifty percent of the analytes present in the sample can be injected into the HPLC, and recoveries for the above eight pesticides ranged from 84 to 93 percent. The minimum detectable concentrations range from 20 to 960 ng/L. The developed method is totally automated for the analysis of up to thirty consecutive samples. The method has proven to be applicable to both purer water samples as well as untreated lake water samples.
A mass spectrometric study of some pesticides /|nK. S. Subramanian. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],The fragmentation processes in the mass spectra of a series of organophosphorus, organochlorine, thio and dithiocarbamate as well as a number of miscellaneous pesticides have been studied i n detail by using the Bendix timeof- flight, MS-12 single-focussing and MS-30 double-focussing mass spectrometers. Interpretation of all the spectra have been presented; their mode s of dissociation elucidated, aided by metastable transitions wherever possible and the structures of the various f ragmentation species postulated wherever f easible. The fragmentation mechanisms are based on the concepts of inductive, resonance and steric ef~ects. Multiple bond cleavages accompanied by simultaneous bond formation and rearrangement reactions involving cycli c t r ansition states have clarified t he formation of various ions . Due emphasis has been placed on the effect of the functional groups or substituents in altering the mass spectral behaviour of the pesticides as they form the basis for the identifi cation of the otherwise identical pesticides. The organophosphorus pesticides which have been studied include i) the phosphates (eg: DDVP and Phosdrin ); ii) phosphorothionates (eg: Parathion, 0-2, 4 dichloro phenyl 0, O-diethyl thionophosphate); iii) phosphorothioites (eg: Tributyl phosphorotrithioite); i V) phosphorothioates (eg: Ethion) and v) phosphorodithioates (eg: Carbophenolthion). Cleavages and rearrangements of the ester moiety dominate the spectrum of phosdrin while that of DDVP is + dominated by t he fragmentation modes of the (OH30)2P=0 + moiety. Fragmentation §f the (CH30)2P=S characterises the spectrum of (OH30)2"P -Cl while cleavages of the + (C2H50 )2P=S species mark the spectra of parathion and 0-2, 4- di chlorophenyl O, O-diethyl thiophosphate. The 0(, cl eavages of the thioether f unction rather than + cleavages of the (C2H50)2P=S signify the spectrum of carbophenolthion. Tributyl phosphorotrithioite behaves more like an aliphatic hydrocarbon than like the corresponding phosphites. The isopropyl and butyl esters of 2, 4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid show cleavage and rearrangement ions typical of an ester. In spite of its structural similari ty to pp' - DDT and pp' - DDD, Kalthane has a completely different mass spectral behaviour due to the influence of its hydroxyl function. The thiocarbamate pesticides studied include Eptam and Perbulate. Both are structurally similar but having different alkyl substituents on nitrogen and sulphur. This structurQlsimilarity leads to similar types of (N-C), (O-S) and (S-alkyl cleavages). However, perbulate differs from Eptam in showing a rearrangement ion at mle 161 and in forming an isocyanate ion as the base peak. In Eptam the base peak i s the alkyl ion. The dithiocarbamate, Vegadex, resembles the thiocarbamates in undergoing simple cleavages but it differs from them in having a weak parent ion; in the formation of its base peak and in undergoing a series of rearrangement reactions. The miscellaneous pesticides studied include 1-Naphthalene acetic aCid- methyl ester, Fiperonyl butoxide and Allethrin. The ester i s stable to electron impact and shows only fewer ions. Piper onyl butoxide, a polyether, shows characteristics of an et her, alcohol and aldehyde . Allethrin is regarded as an ester of the type R-C-O-R1 with n R being a substituted cyclopr opane moiety and o Rt, a substituted cyclopentenone mOiety. Accordingly it shows cleavage ions typical of an aliphatic ester and undergoes bond ruptures of the cyclic moieties to give unusual ions. Its base peak is an odd electron ion, quite contrary to expectations.
Studies on oxamyl : analytical method development and investigation of fate in peach seedlings and corn seedsA high performance liquid chromatographic method employing two columns connected in series and separated~y·a.switching valve has been developed for the analysis of the insecticide/ nematicide oxamyl (methyl-N' ,N'-dimethyl-N-[(methylcarbamoyl) oxy]-l-thiooxarnimidate) and two of its metabolites. A variation of this method involving two reverse phase columns was employed to monitor the persistence and translocation of oxamyl in treated peach seedlings. It was possible to simultaneously analyse for oxamyl and its corresponding oxime (methyl-N',N'-dimethyl-N-hydroxy-l-thiooxamimidate}, a major metabolite of oxamyl in plants, without prior cleanup of the samples. The method allowed detection of 0.058 pg oxamyl and 0.035 p.g oxime. On treated peach leaves oxamyl was found to dissipate rapidly during the first two-week period, followed by a period of slow decomposition. Movement of oxamyl or its oxime did not occur in detectable quantities to untreated leaves or to the root or soil. A second variation of the method which employed a size exclusion column as·the first column and a reverse phase column as the second was used to monitor the degradation of oxamyl in treated, planted corn seeds and was suitable for simultaneous analysis of oxamyl, its oxime and dimethylcyanoformamide (DMCF), a metabolite of oxamyl. The method allowed detection of 0.02 pg oxamyl, 0.02 p.g oxime and 0.005 pg DMCF. Oxamyl was found to persist for a period of 5 - 6 weeks, which is long enough to permit oxamyl seedtreatment to be considered as a potential means of protecting young corn plants from nematode attack. Decomposition was found to be more rapid in unsterilized soil than in sterililized soil. DMCF was found to have a nematostatic effect at high concentrations ( 2,OOOpprn), but at lower concentrations no effect on nematode mobility was observed. Oxamyl, on the other hand, was found to reduce the mobility of nematodes at concentrations down to 4 ppm.