• Phospha-adamantane ligands and phosphorous ionic liquids for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions /

      Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      New and robust methodologies have been designed for palladiumcatalyzed cross-coupling reactions involving a library of novel tertiary phosphine ligands incorporating a phospha-adamantane framework. The secondary phosphine, l,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,4,8-trioxa-6-phospha-adamantane was converted into a small library of tertiary phosphine derivatives and the ability of these tertiary phosphaadamantanes to act as effective ligands in the palladium-catalyzed amination reaction and p-alkyl-Suzuki cross-coupling was examined. l,3,5,7-Tetramethyl-6- phenyl-2,4,8-trioxa-6-phosphaadamantane (PA-Ph) used in combination with Pd2(dba)3 CHCI3 facilitated the reaction of an array of aryl iodides, bromides and chlorides with a variety secondary and primary amines to give tertiary and secondary amines respectively in good to excellent yields. 8-(2,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)- l,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,4,6-trioxa-8-phospha-tricyclo[3.3.1.1*3,7*]decane used in combination with Pd(0Ac)2 permitted the reaction of an array of alkyl iodides, and bromides with a variety aryl boronic acids and alkyl 9-BBN compounds in good to excellent yields. Subsequent to this work, the use of phosphorous based ionic liquids, specifically tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium chloride (THPC), in the Heck reaction provided good to excellent yields in the coupling of aryl iodides and bromides with a variety of olefins.
    • Phospha-adamantanes as ligands for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions

      Adjabeng, George Maclean.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2003-07-09)
      New and robust methodologies have been designed for palladium-catalyzed crosscoupling reactions involving·a novel·class oftertiary phosphine ligand incorporating a phospha-adamantane framework. It has been realized that bulky, electron-rich phosphines, when used as ligands for palladium, allow for cross-coupling reactions involving even the less reactive aryl halide substrates with a variety of coupling partners. In an effort to design new ligands suitable for carrying out cross-coupling transformations, the secondary phosphine, 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,4,8-trioxa-6phosphaadamantane was converted into a number of tertiary phosphine derivatives. The ability of these tertiary phosphaadamantanes to act as effective ligands in the palladiumcatalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling was examined. 1,3,5,7-Tetramethyl-6-phenyl-2,4,8trioxa- 6-phosphaadamantane (PA-Ph) used in combination with Pdz(dba)3permitted the reaction of an array of aryl iodides, bromides and chlorides with a variety arylboronic acids to give biaryls in good to excellent yields. Subsequently, palladium complexes of PA-Ph were prepared and isolated in high yields as air stable palladium bisphosphine complexes. Two different kinds of crystals were isolated and upon characterization revealed two complexes, Pd(PA-Ph)z.dba and Pd(PA-Ph)zOz. Preliminary screening for their catalytic activity indicated that the former is more reactive than the latter. Pd(PAPh) z.dba was applied as the catalyst for Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions of aryl iodides and bromides and in the reactions of aryl bromides and chlorides with ketones to give a-arylated ketones at mild temperatures in high yields.