• Reactions of steroidal epoxides with strong organic bases and an investigation into the syntheses of some labelled pregnane derivatives

      Jahangir.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1982-10-02)
      Reactions of 5,6- and 4,5-epoxycholestane derivatives with strong bases were investigated. Epoxidation of 3a-acetoxycholest-5-ene also gave a new compound along with the anticipated epoxides. Interconversions of the latter were observed. Some possible mechanisms of its formation and rearrangements have been pIioposed. No reaction was observed with any of the 5,6- and 4,5-steroidal epoxides employed in the present study, using potassium tertiary butoxide under refluxing conditions. n-Butyllithium reacted only with 5,6-epoxycholestanes bearing a ketal moiety at the C3 carbon. Opening of the ketal group was observed with n-butyllithium in the case of a ~-epoxide. The reaction was also investigated in the absence of epoxide functionality. A possible mechanism for the opening of ketal group has been proposed. Lithium diethylamide (LDEA) was found effective in rearranging 5,6- and 4,5-epoxides to their ~orresponding allylic alcohols. These rearrangements presumably proceed via syn-eliminations, however the possibility of a corresponding anti-elimination has not been eliminated. A substituent effect of various functional groups (R = H, OH, OCH2CH20) at C3 has-been observed on product distribution in the LDEApromoted rearrangements of the corresponding epoxides. No reaction of these epoxides was observed with lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) • In the second part of the project, several attempts were made towards the sYRthesis of deoxycorticoste~one~17,2l,2l~d3' a compound desirable for the 2l-dehydroxylation studies of deoxycorticosterone. Several routes were investigated, and some deuterium labelled pregnane derivatives were prepared in this regard. Microbial 21-hydroxylation of progesteronel7,21,21,2l- d4 by ~ niger led to loss of deuterium from C21 of the product. An effort was made to hydroxylate progesterone microbially under neutral condtions.
    • Strong hydrogen bonding in organic synthesis

      So, Kwok-Hung.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      The preparation of phenacyl and para-phenylphenacyl esters, the reactions of carboxylic acids, phenols, 2-nitropropane and alcohols with alkyl halides in the presence of fluoride anion are described. The reactions are thought to be accelerated by the formation of hydrogen bonds between the fluoride anion and the organic electron acceptor. The fluoride ,carboxylic acids, fluoride-phenols and fluoride-2-nitropropane are better reaction systems than the fluoride-alcohol. The source of the fluoride anion and the choice of solvents are also discussed.
    • Synthesis and spectral studies of methyl heterocylic systems

      Doyle, Paul P.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      2-Carboxy-2?-methyldiphenyl sulfide was prepared by the Ullmann reaction and cyclodehydrated by sulfuric acid to afford 4-methylthioxanthone. 1-Methylthioxanthone was separated from the reaction mixture obtained upon cyclodehydration of 2-carboxy-3f-methyldiphenyl sulfide. In addition, 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-methylthioxanthone 10,10-dioxides were synthesized by oxidation of the corresponding thioxanthones. o-, m- and p-N-Tolylanthranilic acids were prepared by the Ullmann reaction and used as precursors for the preparation of 1-, 2- and 4- methyl-9-chloroacridine and finally 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-methylacridone. High resolution, 60 MHz PMR spectra were obtained on the four monomethyl isomers of xanthone, thioxanthone, thioxanthone 10,10-dioxide and acridone, and on 1-, 2- and 4-methyl-9-chloroacridine. For some compounds, coupling of all three different aromatic protons to the methyl was observed, two of the couplings typically being smaller than the third. With the large (ortho) coupling being on the order of 0.5 to 1.0 Hz, it was necessary to decouple the aromatic part of the spectrum. The magnitude of the ortho benzylic constant may be related to an incomplete Tr-bond delocalization in the molecules.