• Asymmetric cyclopropanation via catalysts incorporating the 1,4-diol ligands and the newly designed dioxaborolane /

      Ye, Feng.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2000-07-14)
      The development of new methodology for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral organic compounds is a major focus in modem organic chemistry. The use of chiral catalysts is replacing chiral auxiliaries as a new tool for synthetic chemists. An efficient chiral catalyst allows for large quantities of optically active product to be obtained on use of relatively small amount of enantiopure material, without the need for the removal and recovery of a chiral auxiliary. Furthermore, the most practical catalytic methods utilize an inexpensive and readily available chiral ligand that can provide high and predictable enantioselectivity across a wide range of substrates. In our project, two type of versatile, upgraded chiral ligands have been designed and synthesized. Their application in Simmons-Smith type cyclopropanation is investigated, and the pleasing results suggest that they are the potential catalytic enantioselective candidates to build C-C bonds.
    • Biotransformations of water insoluble substrates in aqueous, two-phase and encapsulated systems /

      Iezzi, Diana.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1999-05-21)
      The biotransformation of water insoluble substrates by mammalian and bacterial cells has been problematic, since these whole cell reactions are primarily performed in an aqueous environment The implementation of a twophase or encapsulated system has the advantages of providing a low water system along with the physiological environment the cells require to sustain themselves. Encapsulation of mammalian cells by formation of polyamide capsules via interfacial polymerization illustrated that the cells could not survive this type of encapsulation process. Biotransformation of the steroid spironolactone [3] by human kidney carcinoma cells was performed in a substrate-encapsulated system, yielding canrenone [4] in 70% yield. Encapsulation of nitrile-metabolizing Rhodococcus rhodochrous cells using a polyamide membrane yielded leaky capsules, but biotransformation of 2-(4- chlorophenyl)-3-methylbutyronitrile (CPIN) [6] in a free cell system yielded CPIN amide [7] in 40% yield and 94% ee. A two-phase biotransformation of CPIN consisting of a 5:1 ratio of tris buffer, pH 7.2 to octane respectively, gave CPIN acid [8] in 30% yield and 97% ee. It was concluded that Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 17895 contained a nonselective nitrile hydratase and a highly selective amidase enzyme.
    • Modifications to the Suzuki reaction and mechanistic insights on the NBS mediated cleavage of benzylidene acetals /

      Wilson, Jeffery J.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2003-07-14)
      One of the most challenging tasks for a synthetic organic chemist today, is the development of chemo, regio, and stereoselective methodologies toward the total synthesis of macromolecules. r . The objective of my thesis was to develop methodologies towards this end. The first part of my project was to develop highly functionalized chirons from D-glucose, a cheap, chiral starting material, to be utilized in this capacity. The second part of the project dealt with modifying the carbon-carbon bond forming Suzuki reaction, which is utilized quite often as a means of combining molecular sub units in total synthesis applications. As previously stated the first area of the project was to develop high value chirons from D-glucose, but the mechanism of their formation was also investigated. The free radical initiated oxidative fragmentation of benzylidene acetals was investigated through the use of several test-case substrates in order to unravel the possible mechanistic pathways. This was performed by reacting the different acetals with N-bromosuccinimide and benzoyl peroxide in chlorobenzene at 70^C in all cases. Of the three mechanistic pathways discussed in the literature, it was determined, from the various reaction products obtained, that the fragmentation of the initial benzylic radical does not occur spontaneously but rather, oxidation proceeds to give the benzyl bromide, which then fragments via a polar pathway. It was also discovered that the regioselectivity of the fragmentation step could be altered through incorporation of an allylic system into the benzylidene acetal. This allows for the acquisition of a new set of densely functionalized. chiral, valuable synthetic intermediates in only a few steps and in high yields from a-Dglucose. The second part of the project was the utilization of the phosphonium salt room temperature ionic liquid tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium chloride (THPC) as an efficient reusable medium for the palladium catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of aryl halides, including aryl chlorides, under mild conditions. The cross-coupling reactions were found to proceed in THPC containing small amounts of water and toluene using potassium phosphate and 1% Pd2(dba)3. Variously substituted iodobenzenes, including electron rich derivatives, reacted efficiently in THPC with a variety of arylboronic acids and afforded complete conversion within 1 hour at 50 ^C. The corresponding aryl bromides also reacted under these conditions with the addition of a catalytic amount of triphenylphosphine that allowed for complete conversion and high isolated yields. The reactions involving aryl chlorides were considerably slower, although the addition of triphenylphosphine and heating at 70 ^C allowed high conversion of electron deficient derivatives. Addition of water and hexane to the reaction products results in a triphasic system in which the top hexane phase contained the biaryl products, the palladium catalyst remained fully dissolved in the central THPC layer, while the inorganic salts were extracted into the lower aqueous phase. The catalyst was then recycled by removing the top and bottom layers and adding the reagents to the ionic liquid which was heated again at 50 ^C; resulting in complete turnover of iodobenzene. Repetition of this procedure gave the biphenyl product in 82-97% yield (repeated five times) for both the initial and recycled reaction sequences.
    • Phospha-adamantane ligands and phosphorous ionic liquids for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions /

      Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      New and robust methodologies have been designed for palladiumcatalyzed cross-coupling reactions involving a library of novel tertiary phosphine ligands incorporating a phospha-adamantane framework. The secondary phosphine, l,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,4,8-trioxa-6-phospha-adamantane was converted into a small library of tertiary phosphine derivatives and the ability of these tertiary phosphaadamantanes to act as effective ligands in the palladium-catalyzed amination reaction and p-alkyl-Suzuki cross-coupling was examined. l,3,5,7-Tetramethyl-6- phenyl-2,4,8-trioxa-6-phosphaadamantane (PA-Ph) used in combination with Pd2(dba)3 CHCI3 facilitated the reaction of an array of aryl iodides, bromides and chlorides with a variety secondary and primary amines to give tertiary and secondary amines respectively in good to excellent yields. 8-(2,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)- l,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,4,6-trioxa-8-phospha-tricyclo[*3,7*]decane used in combination with Pd(0Ac)2 permitted the reaction of an array of alkyl iodides, and bromides with a variety aryl boronic acids and alkyl 9-BBN compounds in good to excellent yields. Subsequent to this work, the use of phosphorous based ionic liquids, specifically tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium chloride (THPC), in the Heck reaction provided good to excellent yields in the coupling of aryl iodides and bromides with a variety of olefins.
    • Synthesis of isotope-labelled methoxypyrazine compounds as internal standards and quantitative determination of aroma methoxypyrazines in water and wines by solid-phase extraction with isotope dilution-GC-MS /

      Chen, Xiaonan.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2005-06-15)
      An efficient way of synthesizing the deuterium labelled analogues of three methoxypyrazine compounds: 2-d3-methoxy-3-isopropylpyrazine, 2-d3-methoxy-3- isobutylpyrazine, and 2-d3-methoxy-3-secbutylpyrazine, has been developed. To confirm that the deuterium labels had been incorporated into the expected positions in the molecules synthesized, the relevant characterization by NMR, HRMS and GC/MS analysis was conducted. Another part of this work involved quantitative determination of methoxypyrazines in water and wines. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) proved to be a suitable means for the sample separation and concentration prior to GC/MS analysis.Such factors as the presence of ethanol, salt, and acid have been investigated which can influence the recovery by SPE for the pyrazines from the water matrix. Significantly, in this work comparatively simple fractional distillation was attempted to replace the conventional steam distillation for pre-concentrating a sample with a relatively large volume prior to SPE. Finally, a real wine sample spiked with the relevant isotope-labelled methoxypyrazines was quantitatively analyzed, revealing that the wine with 10 beetles per litre contained 138 ppt of 2-methoxy-3-isopropylpyrazine. Interestingly, we have also found that 2-methoxy-3-secbutylpyrazine exhibits an extremely low detection limit in GC/MS analysis compared with the detection limit of the other two methoxypyrazines: 2- methoxy-3-isopropylpyrazine and 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine.
    • Towards the enantioselective synthesis of lycoricidine alkaloids /

      Mo, Ruowei.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1998-05-21)
      Two efficient, regio- and stereo controlled synthetic approaches to the synthesis of racemic analogs of pancratistatin have been accomplished and they serve as the model systems for the total synthesis of optically active 7-deoxy-pancratistatin. In the Diels-Alder approach, an efficient [4+2] cycloaddition of 3,4-methylenedioxyco- nitrostyrene with Danishefsky's diene to selectively form an exo-nitro adduct has been developed as the key step in the construction of the C-ring of the target molecule. In the Michael addition approach, the key step was a conjugate addition of an organic zinc-cuprate to the 3,4-methylenedioxy-(B-nitrostyrene, followed by a diastereocontroUed closure to form the cyclohexane C-ring of the target molecule via an intramolecular nitro-aldol cyclization on a neutral alumina surface. A chair-like transition state for such a cyclization has been established and such a chelation controlled transition state can be useful in the prediction of diastereoselectivity in other related 6-exo-trig nitroaldol reactions. Cyclization of the above products fi^om both approaches by using a Bischler-Napieralski type reaction afforded two lycoricidine derivatives 38 and 50 in good yields. The initial results from the above modeling studies as well as the analysis of the synthetic strategy were directed to a chiral pool approach to the total synthesis of optically active 7-deoxy-pancratistatin. Selective monsilylation and iodination of Ltartaric acid provided a chiral precursor for the proposed key Michael transformation. The outlook for the total synthesis of 7-deoxy-pancratistatin by this approach is very promising.A concise synthesis of novel designed, optically pure, Cz-symmetrical disulfonylamide chiral ligands starting from L-tartaric acid has also been achieved. This sequence employs the metallation of indole followed by Sfj2 replacement of a dimesylate as the key step. The activity for this Cz-symmetric chiral disulfonamide ligand in the catalytic enantioselective reaction has been confirmed by nucleophilic addition to benzaldehyde in the disulfonamide-Ti (0-i-Pr)4-diethylzinc system with a 48% yield and a 33% e.e. value. Such a ligand tethered with a suitable metal complex should be also applicable towards the total synthesis of 7-deoxy-pancratistatin.