• A29 NMR spin-lattice relaxation study of paramagnetics -doped orthosilictes

      Sliwinski, David R.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1991-10-02)
      A ~si MAS NMR study of spin-lattice relaxation behaviour in paramagnetic-doped crystalline silicates was undertaken, using synthetic magnesium orthosilicate (forsterite) and synthetic zinc orthosilicate (willemite) doped with 0.1% to 20% of Co(II), Ni(II), or CU(II), as experimental systems. All of the samples studied exhibited a longitudinal magnetization return to the Boltzmann distribution of nuclear spin states which followed a stretched-exponential function of time: Y=exp [- (tjTn) n], O<n<l For the most reliable experimental data, there is a bias toward n=O.Sj the few genuine cases of deviation from 1/2power are for dopant concentrations equal to or exceeding 2.5 percent dopant. In some cases we find agreement with theory, and observe a direct proportionality between the spin-lattice relaxation time and paramagnetic dopant ion concentration, with Tni[M2+]i=Tnj[M2+]j for a given dopant and mineral. There are many cases where this correlation is not apparent, however, and this is attributed to the structural, phase, and ion distribution complexities inherent in many of these systems.
    • Bis-and tris (amidine) fluoroboron cations and related systems studies by Multinuclear NMR and fast atom bombardment mass spectometry

      Yuan, Cheng.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1988-10-02)
      The formation and the isolation of fluoroboron salts, (D2BF2+)(PF6-), (DD'BF2+)(PF6-) and (D3BF2+)(PF6-)2, have been carried out. 1,8-Diazabicyclo [5,4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) and 1,5-diazabicyclo[4,3,O]non-5-ene (DBN), extremely strong organic bases, were introduced into the fluoroboron cation systems and induced a complicated redistribution reaction in the D/BF3/BC13 systems. The result was the formation of all BFnCI4-n-, D.BFnCI3-n and fluoroboron cation species which were detected by 19p and 11B NMR spectrometry. The displacement reaction of CI- from these D.BFnCI3-n (n = 1 and 2) species by the second entering ligand is much faster than in other nitrogen donor containing systems which have been previously studied. Tetramethylguanidine, oxazolines and thiazolines can also produce similar reactions in D/BF3/BCI3 systems, but no significant BFnC4-n- species were observed. As well as influences of their basicity and their steric hindrance, N=C-R(X) (X = N, 0 or S) and N=C( X)2 (X = N or S) structures of ligands have significant effects on the fonnationof fluoroboron cations and the related NMR parameters. D3BF2+ and some D2BF2+ show the expected inertness, but (DBU)2BF2+ shows an interestingly high reactivity. (D2BF2+)(X-) formed from weak organic bases such as pyridine can react with stronger organic bases and form DD'BF2+ and D'2BF2+ in acetone or nitromethane. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry is doubly meaningful to this work. Firstly, FABMS can be directly applied to the complicated fluoroboron cation containing solution systems as an excellent complementary technique to multinuclear NMR. Secondly, the gas-phase ion substitution reaction of (D2BF2+)(PF6-) with the strong organic bases is successfully observed in a FABMS ion source when the B-N bond is not too strong in these cations.
    • FT-IR and MAS NMR analysis of montmorillonite K10 supported MF2 reagents and their activity as catalysis /

      Asseid, Fathi M.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1991-05-21)
      ZnF2, CdF2, and CUF2 have been adsorbed onto the surface of montmorillonite K10, and the infrared and 19F, 27 AI, and 29Si MAS NMR spectra of the reagents over a range of loadings have been obtained. CUF2 was observed to attack the Si02 layer and form the complex CuSiF6, Zn F2 tends to attack the aluminium oxide layer, in which Zn isomorphously replaces AI, and forms AIF3 and AIF4 - complexes. All the spectroscopic evidence ruled out the formation of any AI-F and/or Si-F free species as CdF2 is adsorbed on the surface of montmorillonite K10. The reactivity of MF2-K10 reagents towards Friedel-Crafts benzylation of benzene with benzyl chloride varied from one reagent to another. ZnF2-K10 was observed to be the most reactive and CUF2 was the least reactive.
    • NMR studies of mixed tetrahaloborates and some related boron trihalide complexes /|nGary John Schrobilgen. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Schrobilgen, Gary John.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1971-07-09)
      Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to study donor-acceptor complexes of boron trifluoride with several ureas, tetramethylthiourea, tetramethylselenourea, and tetramethylquanidine as well as adducts of tetramethyl- -urea with BF2Cl, BFC1 2 , and BC1 3 - A large number of mixed tetrahaloborate ions, including some of the ternary ones such as BF2CIBr-,have been obtained by ligand exchange reactions and studied by NMR techniques. The bonding in these ions is of the same inherent interest as the bonding in the isoelectronic tetrahalomethanes which have been the subject of many detailed studies and have been involved in a controversy concerning the existence of and the nature of "fluorine hyperconjugation" or C-F P1T- Pn bonding_ Ligand exchange reactions also gave rise to the difluoroboron cation, (TMU)20BF2+o The difluoroboron cation has been observed in solutions of TMU-BF3 , and has been proposed as a possible intermediate for fluorine exchange reactions in BF3 adducts.
    • NMR studies of the exchange reactions of CH3CN.BX3 with excess CH3CN /|nJoseph Fogelman. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Fogelman, Joseph.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1970-07-09)
      Exchange reactions between molecular complexes and excess acid or base are well known and have been extensively surveyed in the literature(l). Since the exchange mechanism will, in some way involve the breaking of the labile donor-acceptor bond, it follows that a discussion of the factors relating to bonding in molecular complexes will be relevant. In general, a strong Lewis base and a strong Lewis acid form a stable adduct provided that certain stereochemical requirements are met. A strong Lewis base has the following characteristics (1),(2) (i) high electron density at the donor site. (ii) a non-bonded electron pair which has a low ionization potential (iii) electron donating substituents at the donor atom site. (iv) facile approach of the site of the Lewis base to the acceptor site as dictated by the steric hindrance of the substituents. Examples of typical Lewis bases are ethers, nitriles, ketones, alcohols, amines and phosphines. For a strong Lewis acid, the following properties are important:( i) low electron density at the acceptor site. (ii) electron withdrawing substituents. (iii) substituents which do not interfere with the close approach of the Lewis base. (iv) availability of a vacant orbital capable of accepting the lone electron pair of the donor atom. Examples of Lewis acids are the group III and IV halides such (M=B, AI, Ga, In) and MX4 - (M=Si, Ge, Sn, Pb). The relative bond strengths of molecular complexes have been investigated by:- (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v] (vi) dipole moment measurements (3). shifts of the carbonyl peaks in the IIIR. (4) ,(5), (6) .. NMR chemical shift data (4),(7),(8),(9). D.V. and visible spectrophotometric shifts (10),(11). equilibrium constant data (12), (13). heats of dissociation and heats of reactions (l~), (16), (17), (18), (19). Many experiments have bben carried out on boron trihalides in order to determine their relative acid strengths. Using pyridine, nitrobenzene, acetonitrile and trimethylamine as reference Lewis bases, it was found that the acid strength varied in order:RBx3 > BC1 3 >BF 3 • For the acetonitrile-boron trihalide and trimethylamine boron trihalide complexes in nitrobenzene, an-NMR study (7) showed that the shift to lower field was. greatest for the BB~3 adduct ~n~ smallest for the BF 3 which is in agreement with the acid strengths. If electronegativities of the substituents were the only important effect, and since c~ Br ,one would expect the electron density at the boron nucleus to vary as BF3<BC1~ BBr 3 and therefore, the acid strength would vary as BF~BC1)BBr3: However, for the boron trihalides, the trend is in the opposite direction as determined experimentally. Considerable back-bonding (20), (21) between the halogen and the boron atoms has been proposed as the predominating factor, i.e. ~rt- back-bond between a lone electron pair on the halogen and the vacant orbital on the boron site. The degree of back-bonding varies inversely as the bo~on halogen distance and one would therefore expect the B-F bond to exhibit greater back-bonding character than the B-Cl or B-Br bonds. Since back-bonding transfers electron density from substituent to the boron atom site, this process would be expected to weaken the Lewis acid strength. This explains the Lewis acid strength increasing in the order BF 3 BC1 3 BBr 3 . When the acetonitrile boron trihalide complex is formed, the boron atom undergoes ~_cbange of hybridization from sp2 to sp3. From a linear relationship between the heat of formation of ethyl acetate adducts and the shift in the carbonyl I.R. stretch, Drago (22) et al have proposed that the angular di~tortion of the X-B-X bonds from sp2 (12 ) to sp3 (10 hybridization is proportional to the amount of charge transferred, i.e. to the nature of the base, and they have rejected the earlier concept of reorganization energy in explaining the formation of the adduct bond (19).
    • Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of boron trihalide complexes of 1,1-BIS (dimethylamino) ethylene and related bases

      Yetman, Ronald R.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-10-02)
      Boron tribalide complexes of 1,1-bis(dimethylamino)ethylene (DME) , t etramethylurea (TMU), tetramethylguanidine (TMG) , and pentamethylguanidine (PMG) and also mixed boron t r ihalide adducts of DME have been investigated by 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopy. Both nitrogen and the C-Q-H carbon of DME are possible donor a toms to boron trihal ides but complexation has been found to occur only at carbon of DME. The initial adduct acts as a Bronsted acid and gives up a proton to free DME in solut ion. A side reaction in the DME-BF, system gives rise to trace amounts of a complex aSSigned as (DME)2BF2+. (DME)2BF2+ is produced in much larger quantities in t he DME-BF3-BC13 and DME-BF,-BBr, systems by reaction of free DME with DME:BF2X (X = Cl, Br). Restricted r otation about the C-N bonds of TMUlBC13 and n1U:BBr3 has been observed at low temperatures. This complements previous work in this system and confirms oxygen donation of TMU to boron trihalides . Restricted rotation at low temperatures also has been observed in DMEboron trihalide systems
    • Polytypism and Silicon carbide : a solid state nuclear magnetic resonance study

      Winsborrow, Beatrice G.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1987-07-09)
      A survey of predominantly industrial silicon carbide has been carried out using Magic Angle Spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS nmr); a solid state technique. Three silicon carbide polytypes were studied; 3C, 6H, and 15R. The 13C and 29 Si MAS nmr spectra of the bulk SiC sample was identified on the basis of silicon (carbon) site type in the d iff ere n t pol Y t Y pes • Out to 5.00 A fro mac en t r a lsi 1 i con (0 r carbon) atom four types of sites were characterized using symmetry based calculations. This method of polytype analysis was also considered, in the prelminary stages, for applications with other polytypic material; CdBr 2 , CdI 2 , and PbI 2 " In an attempt to understand the minor components of silicon carbide, such as its surface, some samples were hydrofluoric acid washed and heated to extreme temperatures. Basically, an HF removable species which absorbs at -110 ppm (Si0 2 ) in the 29 Si MAS nmr spectrum is found in silicon carbide after heating. Other unidentified peaks observed at short recycle delays in some 29 Si MAS nmr spectra are considered to be impurities that may be within the lattice. These components comprise less than 5% of the observable silicon. A Tl study was carried out for 29 Si nuclei in a 3C ii polytype sample, using the Driven Equilibrium Single-Pulse Observation of T1 (DESPOT) technique. It appears as though there are a number of nuclei that have the same chemical shift but different T1 relaxation times. The T1 values range from 30 seconds to 11 minutes. Caution has to be kept when interpreting these results because this is the first time that DESPOT has been used for solid samples and it is not likely in full working order. MAS nmr indicates that the 13C and 29 Si ~sotropic chemical shifts of silicon carbide appear to have a reciprocal type of relationship_ Single crystal nmr analysis of a 6H sample is accordance with this finding when only the resultant isotropic shift is considered. However, single crystal nmr also shows that the actual response of the silicon and carbon nuclear environment to the applied magnetic field at various angles is not at all reciprocal. Such results show that much more single crystal nmr work is required to determine the actual behavior of the local magnetic environment of the SiC nuclei.
    • Solid state NMR chemical shifts as an alternative to diffraction data in the determination of SIC polytypic structures

      Guo, Degi.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1988-07-09)
      Silicon carbide, which has many polytypic modifications of a very simple and very symmetric structure, is an excellent model system for exploring, the relationship between chemical shift, long-range dipolar shielding, and crystal structure in network solids. A simple McConnell equation treatment of bond anisotropy effects in a poly type predicts chemical shifts for silicon and carbon sites which agree well with the experiment, provided that contributions from bonds up to 100 A are included in the calculation. The calculated chemical shifts depend on three factors: the layer stacking sequence, electrical centre of gravity, and the spacings between silicon and carbon layers. The assignment of peaks to lattice sites is proved possible for three polytypes (6H, 15R, and 3C). The fact that the calculated chemical shifts are very sensitive to layer spacings provides us a potential way to detennine and refine a crystal structure. In this work, the layer spacings of 6H SiC have been calculated and are within X-ray standard deviations. Under this premise, the layer spacings of 15R have been detennined. 29Si and 13C single crystal nmr studies of 6H SiC polytype indicate that all silicons and carbons are magnetically anisotropic. The relationship between a magnetic shielding tensor component and layer spacings has been derived. The comparisons between experimental and semi-empirical chemical shielding tensor components indicate that the paramagnetic shielding of silicon should be included in the single crystal chemical shift calculation.