• Chelated fluoroboron cations : synthesis and multinuclear nmr studies

      Shoemaker, James A. Winston.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1999-07-09)
      The preparation of chelated difluoroboron cations (DD)BF2+, where DD is a saturated polydentate tertiary-amine or polydentate aromatic ligand, has been systematically studied by using multinuclear solution and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Three new methods of synthesis of (DD)BF2+ cations are reported, and compared with the previous method of reacting a chelating donor with Et20.BF3. The methods most effective for aromatic donors such as 1,1O-phenanthroline are ineffective for saturated polydentate tertiary-amines like N,N,N' ,Nil ,Nil-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine. Polydentate tertiary-amine donors that form 5-membered rings upon bidentate chelation were found to chelate effectively when the BF2 source contained two leaving groups (a heavy halide and a Lewis base such as pyridine =pyr or isoxazole =ISOX), i.e., pyr.BF2X (X = CI or Br), ISOX.BF2X and (pyr)2BF2+. Those that would form 6membered rings upon chelation do not chelate by any of the four methods. Polydentate aromatic ligands chelate effectively when the BF2 source contained a weak Lewis base, e.g., ISOX.BF3, ISOX.BF2X and Et20.BF3. Bidentate chelation by polydentate tertiaryamine and aromatic donors leads to nmr parameters that are significantly different then their (D)2BF2+ relatives (D =monod~ntate t-amines or pyridines). The chelated haloboron cations (DD)BFCI+, and (DD)BFBr+ were generated from D.BFX2 adducts for all ligands that form BF2+ cations above. In addition, the (DD)BCI2+ and (DD)BBr2+ cations were formed from D.BX3 adducts by the chelating aromatic ligands, except for the aromatic ligand 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene, which formed only the (DD)BF2+ cation, apparently due to its extreme steric hindrance. Chelation by a donor is a two-step reaction. For polydentate tertiary-amine ligands, the two rates appear to be very dependent on the two possible leaving groups on the central boron atom. The order of increasing ease of displacement for the donors was: pyr < Cl < Br < ISOX. The rate of chelation by polydentate aromatic ligands appears to be dependent on the displacement of the first ligand from the boron. The order of increasing ease of displacement for the donors was: pyr < CI < ISOX ~ Br < Et20.
    • NMR studies of strong hydrogen bond to fluoride ion

      Kanippayoor, Raveendran K.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      Systems such as MF/diol (M = alkali metal) and }1F/carboxylic acid were subjected to IH, I9F and 13C nmr study to investigate the nature of the very strong H-bonding of fluoride ions with these systems. Evidence indicates a strong H-bond in diol-fluoride systems (~H ~ -(56) kJ mol-I) which is stronger than most 'typical' H-bonds (~H = -(12-40) kJ mol-I), but weaker than that reported for carboxylic acid-fluoride systems (~H ~ -(120) kJ mol-I). Approximate fluoride H-bonded shifts (o(OH)OHF) were evaluated for MF/diol systems from IH chemical shift measurements. No direct correlation was observed between I9F chemical shift and H-bond strength. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated from temperature dependent IH and 19F shifts. Preliminary studies of BUn 4NF-acetylacetone by I9F nmr were conducted at low temperatures and a possible Jmax (ca. 400 Hz) is reported for the fluoride ion H-bonded to acetylacetone. Highfield shift for non-protonated carbons and downfield shift for protonated carbons were observed in carboxylic acid/KF systems. Significant decreas$in I3C TI due to strong H-bonding to fluoride ions were also detected in both diol and carboxylic acid systems. Anomalous results were obtained, such as increasing NOE with increasing temperature in neat 1,2-ethanediol (values above the theoretical maximum of 1.988) and in 1,2-ethanediol/KF. The large 13C NOE's for carboxy carbons in neat carboxylic acids which are. further enhanced by the addition of KF are also unusual.