• Bis-and tris (amidine) fluoroboron cations and related systems studies by Multinuclear NMR and fast atom bombardment mass spectometry

      Yuan, Cheng.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1988-10-02)
      The formation and the isolation of fluoroboron salts, (D2BF2+)(PF6-), (DD'BF2+)(PF6-) and (D3BF2+)(PF6-)2, have been carried out. 1,8-Diazabicyclo [5,4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) and 1,5-diazabicyclo[4,3,O]non-5-ene (DBN), extremely strong organic bases, were introduced into the fluoroboron cation systems and induced a complicated redistribution reaction in the D/BF3/BC13 systems. The result was the formation of all BFnCI4-n-, D.BFnCI3-n and fluoroboron cation species which were detected by 19p and 11B NMR spectrometry. The displacement reaction of CI- from these D.BFnCI3-n (n = 1 and 2) species by the second entering ligand is much faster than in other nitrogen donor containing systems which have been previously studied. Tetramethylguanidine, oxazolines and thiazolines can also produce similar reactions in D/BF3/BCI3 systems, but no significant BFnC4-n- species were observed. As well as influences of their basicity and their steric hindrance, N=C-R(X) (X = N, 0 or S) and N=C( X)2 (X = N or S) structures of ligands have significant effects on the fonnationof fluoroboron cations and the related NMR parameters. D3BF2+ and some D2BF2+ show the expected inertness, but (DBU)2BF2+ shows an interestingly high reactivity. (D2BF2+)(X-) formed from weak organic bases such as pyridine can react with stronger organic bases and form DD'BF2+ and D'2BF2+ in acetone or nitromethane. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry is doubly meaningful to this work. Firstly, FABMS can be directly applied to the complicated fluoroboron cation containing solution systems as an excellent complementary technique to multinuclear NMR. Secondly, the gas-phase ion substitution reaction of (D2BF2+)(PF6-) with the strong organic bases is successfully observed in a FABMS ion source when the B-N bond is not too strong in these cations.
    • Comparative electron impact and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric studies of some HMPA adducts of phenyltin and phenyllead halides and studies of strong hydrogen bonding by FAB-MS

      Mondal, Humayun.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1984-07-09)
      The fragmentation patterns and mass spectra of some phenyl tin and -lead halide adducts with hexamethylphosphoramide are compared by subjecting them t~ electron impact and fast atom bombardment ionization in a mass spectrometer. This comparison is restricted to the metal-containing ions. Ligand-exchange mechanisms of some of the metal-containing species are explored by FAB-MS. Several moisturesensitive organo-metallics and H-bonded systems have been examined by FAB for attempted characterization, but without any success. Scavenging and trapping of water molecules by complex aggregates in solutions of quaternary ammonium fluorides and hydroxides are investigated by FAB to complement previous NMR-studies.
    • Fast atom bombardment and electron impact mass spectrometry studies of some aryltin compounds and ferrocenes

      Luo, Yongchong.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      Both El MS and FAB MS behavior of two groups of compounds, aryltin and ferrocene compounds, have been studied. For the aryltin compounds, the effect of substituent group position, substituent group type and ligand type on the El spectra have been explored in the El MS studies. The fragmentation mechanism has been investigated under El with linked scans, such as fragment ion scans(BJE), parent ion scans(B2JE) and constant neutral radical loss scans(B2(1-E)JE2). In the FAB MS studies, matrix optimization experiments have been carried out. The positive ion FAB MS studies focused on the effect of substituent group position, substituent group type and ligand type on the spectra. The fragmentation mechanisms of all the samples under positive ion FAB have been studied by means of the linked scans. The CA positive ion FAB fragmentation studies were also carried out for a typical sample. Negative ion FAB experiments of all the compounds have been done. And finally, the comparison of the El MS and FAB MS has been made. For ferrocenes, the studies concentrated on the fragmentation mechanism of each compound under El with linked scan techniques in the first field-free region and the applicability of positive/negative ion FAB MS to this group of compounds. The fragmentation mechanisms under positive ion FAB of those ferrocenes which can give positive ion FAB MS spectra were studied with the linked scan techniques. The CA +ve F AB fragmentation studies were carried out for a typical sample. Comparison of the E1 MS and FAB MS has been made.
    • The fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric analysis of the carbamate pesticide carbaryl

      Waters, Gregory J.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1987-07-09)
      The carbamate pesticide, carbaryl, was quantitatively studied using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). Mass spectra were obtained in the positive ion-mode using both 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) and 3-nitrobenzyl alcohol (NBA) as matrix liquids. The sample was applied by three different techniques; simple mixing, solvent mixing and surface precipitation. Smaller volumes of matrix liquid were found to produce more favourable ion currents. Detection limits were largely independent of the matrix or application technique used. The relationship between ion current and the mass of analyte was found to be intricately related to the choice of matrix liquid.
    • Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of the coordination complexes of the ligand 5, 5, 7, 12, 12, 14- hexamenthyl-1, 4, 8, 11-tetraazacycloteradecane

      MacLaurin, Cindy Lee.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1985-07-09)
      A number of metal complexes containing the ligand 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-l,4,8,11-tetra-azatetradecane were synthesized and analyzed using electron impact (EI) and fast atom bombardment (FAB). The FAB mass spectra were obtained in positive and negative ion mode. FAB in the positive ion mode proved to be the most successful technique for the identification of these compounds. In the majority of cases the spectra obtained using positive ion FAB were structurally informative, although not all showed molecular (M+) or quasimolecular ([M+H]+) ions. The fragmentations observed were characteristic of the ligands, and were interpreted based on the chemistry of these compounds.
    • Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry studies of ruthenium (II) polypyridy coordination complexes and of group V Triptycenes and related complexes

      Nye, Jeffrey W.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1986-07-09)
      In order to investigate the use of Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry (FAB-MS) as a tool for structural characterization, two groups of complexes are analyzed. The first group is a set of ruthenium(II) coordination complexes containing bidentate polypyridyl ligands. The positive and negative ion FAB-MS spectra are found to be sufficient to allow for an almost complete characterization of the central metal atom, the ligands and the counter anions contained in the intact complex. An unusual observation of mUltiply charged ions in the positive ion FAB-MS spectra (i.e. [RUL 3 ]2+) is explained to be as a result of the oxidative quenching of the excited state of the doubly charged ion by the matrix, 3-nitrobenzyl alcohol. An analysis of a mixture shows that the technique is a good one for identifying components therein. A group of triptycene and related complexes containing Group V elements is also analyzed by FAB-MS and the results. in terms of relative abundances of fragment ions, are found to be consistent with known metal-carbon bond strengths.
    • A fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry study of tris (3, 6-dioxaheptyl) amine-alkali metal halide complexes and hydrogen bonded complexes

      Théberge, Roger.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1987-07-09)
      The objective of this thesis was to demonstrate the potential of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) as a probe of condensed phase systems and its possible uses for the study of hydrogen bonding. FABMS was used to study three different systems. The first study was aimed at investigating the selectivity of the ligand tris(3,6-dioxaheptyl) amine (tdoha) for the alkali metal cations. FABMS results correlated well with infrared and nmr data. Systems where a crown ether competed with tdoha for a given alkali metal cation were also investigated by fast atom bombardment. The results were found to correlate with the cation affinity of tdoha and the ability of the crown ether to bind the cation. In the second and third studies, H-bonded systems were investigated. The imidazole-electron donor complexes were investigated and FABMS results showed the expected H-bond strength of the respective complexes. The effects of concentration, liquid matrix, water content, deuterium exchange, and pre-ionization of the complex were also investigated. In the third system investigated, the abundance of the diphenyl sulfone-ammonium salt complexes (presumably H-bonded) in the FABMS spectrum were found to correlate with qualitative considerations such as steric hindrance and strength of ion pairs.
    • Investigation of the composition of linear alkylbenzenes with emphasis on the identification and quantitation of some trace compounds using GS/MS system in both electron impact and chemical ionization modes

      Zalewski, Teresa Maria.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      Linear alkylbenzenes, LAB, formed by the Alel3 or HF catalyzed alkylation of benzene are common raw materials for surfactant manufacture. Normally they are sulphonated using S03 or oleum to give the corresponding linear alkylbenzene sulphonates In >95 % yield. As concern has grown about the environmental impact of surfactants,' questions have been raised about the trace levels of unreacted raw materials, linear alkylbenzenes and minor impurities present in them. With the advent of modem analytical instruments and techniques, namely GCIMS, the opportunity has arisen to identify the exact nature of these impurities and to determine the actual levels of them present in the commercial linear ,alkylbenzenes. The object of the proposed study was to separate, identify and quantify major and minor components (1-10%) in commercial linear alkylbenzenes. The focus of this study was on the structure elucidation and determination of impurities and on the qualitative determination of them in all analyzed linear alkylbenzene samples. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, (GCIMS) study was performed o~ five samples from the same manufacturer (different production dates) and then it was followed by the analyses of ten commercial linear alkylbenzenes from four different suppliers. All the major components, namely linear alkylbenzene isomers, followed the same elution pattern with the 2-phenyl isomer eluting last. The individual isomers were identified by interpretation of their electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectra. The percent isomer distribution was found to be different from sample to sample. Average molecular weights were calculated using two methods, GC and GCIMS, and compared with the results reported on the Certificate of Analyses (C.O.A.) provided by the manufacturers of commercial linear alkylbenzenes. The GC results in most cases agreed with the reported values, whereas GC/MS results were significantly lower, between 0.41 and 3.29 amu. The minor components, impurities such as branched alkylbenzenes and dialkyltetralins eluted according to their molecular weights. Their fragmentation patterns were studied using electron impact ionization mode and their molecular weight ions confirmed by a 'soft ionization technique', chemical ionization. The level of impurities present i~ the analyzed commercial linear alkylbenzenes was expressed as the percent of the total sample weight, as well as, in mg/g. The percent of impurities was observed to vary between 4.5 % and 16.8 % with the highest being in sample "I". Quantitation (mg/g) of impurities such as branched alkylbenzenes and dialkyltetralins was done using cis/trans-l,4,6,7-tetramethyltetralin as an internal standard. Samples were analyzed using .GC/MS system operating under full scan and single ion monitoring data acquisition modes. The latter data acquisition mode, which offers higher sensitivity, was used to analyze all samples under investigation for presence of linear dialkyltetralins. Dialkyltetralins were reported quantitatively, whereas branched alkylbenzenes were reported semi-qualitatively. The GC/MS method that was developed during the course of this study allowed identification of some other trace impurities present in commercial LABs. Compounds such as non-linear dialkyltetralins, dialkylindanes, diphenylalkanes and alkylnaphthalenes were identified but their detailed structure elucidation and the quantitation was beyond the scope of this study. However, further investigation of these compounds will be the subject of a future study.
    • Investigations into the extraction and the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water by solid-phase extraction and capillary gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry

      Elrutb, Mohamed.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      Factors affecting the detennination of PAHs by capillary GC/MS were studied. The effect of the initial column temperature and the injection solvent on the peak areas and heights of sixteen PAHs, considered as priority pollutants, USillg crosslinked methyl silicone (DB!) and 5% diphenyl, 94% dimethyl, 1% vinyl polysiloxane (DBS) columns was examined. The possibility of using high boiling point alcohols especially butanol, pentanol, cyclopentanol, and hexanol as injection solvents was investigated. Studies were carried out to optimize the initial column temperature for each of the alcohols. It was found that the optimum initial column temperature is dependent on the solvent employed. The peak areas and heights of the PAHs are enhanced when the initial column temperature is 10-20 c above the boiling point of the solvent using DB5 column, and the same or 10 C above the boiling point of the solvent using DB1 column. Comparing the peak signals of the PAHs using the alcohols, p-xylene, n-octane, and nonane as injection solvents, hexanol gave the greatest peak areas and heights of the PAHs particularly the late-eluted peaks. The detection limits were at low pg levels, ranging from 6.0 pg for fluorene t9 83.6 pg for benzo(a)pyrene. The effect of the initial column temperature on the peak shape and the separation efficiency of the PARs was also studied using DB1 and DB5 columns. Fronting or splitting of the peaks was obseIVed at very low initial column temperature. When high initial column temperature was used, tailing of the peaks appeared. Great difference between DB! and.DB5 columns in the range of the initial column temperature in which symmetrical.peaks of PAHs can be obtained is observed. Wider ranges were shown using DB5 column. Resolution of the closely-eluted PAHs was also affected by the initial column temperature depending on the stationary phase employed. In the case of DB5, only the earlyeluted PAHs were affected; whereas, with DB1, all PAHs were affected. An analytical procedure utilizing solid phase extraction with bonded phase silica (C8) cartridges combined with GC/MS was developed to analyze PAHs in water as an alternative method to those based on the extraction with organic solvent. This simple procedure involved passing a 50 ml of spiked water sample through C8 bonded phase silica cartridges at 10 ml/min, dried by passing a gentle flow of nitrogen at 20 ml/min for 30 sec, and eluting the trapped PAHs with 500 Jll of p-xylene at 0.3 ml/min. The recoveries of PAHs were greater than 80%, with less than 10% relative standard deviations of nine determinations. No major contaminants were present that could interfere with the recognition of PAHs. It was also found that these bonded phase silica cartridges can be re-used for the extraction of PAHs from water.
    • Mass spectrometric studies on aryltin compounds and alkali halides /

      Yan, Wenhong.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1997-07-14)
      The fragmentation behavior of aryltin compounds [(p-ThAnis)nSnPh4.n (n=l-4); (p-ThAnis)3SnX (X=C1, Br, I); (o-CH30C6H4)3SnCl; Ph3Sn(o-pyr)] have been studied comparatively under EI and FAB ionization modes. Alkali halides were run under FAB mode. For the aryltin compounds, the effect of ligand type on the spectra have been explored in both EI and FAB modes. The fragmentation mechanisms have been examined with linked scans, such as fragment ion scans (B/E) and parent ion scans (B^/E). Ab Initio molecular orbital calculations were used to determine the structures of the fragments by comparing their relative stabilities. In the EI MS studies, negative ion EI mode has also been used for some of the aryltin compounds, to examine the possible ion molecule reactions under low pressures at 70eV. In the positive ion FAB MS studies, matrix optimization experiments have been carried out. Negative ion FAB experiments of all the compounds have been done in two different ways. Finally, the comparison of the two methods, EI MS and FAB MS, have been made.For alkali halides, the studies focused on the FAB MS behavior under different conditions. The intensities of cluster ions were reported, and the anomalies in the intensity distribution was also discussed.
    • A mass spectrometric study of some pesticides /|nK. S. Subramanian. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Subramanian, K. S.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1972-07-09)
      The fragmentation processes in the mass spectra of a series of organophosphorus, organochlorine, thio and dithiocarbamate as well as a number of miscellaneous pesticides have been studied i n detail by using the Bendix timeof- flight, MS-12 single-focussing and MS-30 double-focussing mass spectrometers. Interpretation of all the spectra have been presented; their mode s of dissociation elucidated, aided by metastable transitions wherever possible and the structures of the various f ragmentation species postulated wherever f easible. The fragmentation mechanisms are based on the concepts of inductive, resonance and steric ef~ects. Multiple bond cleavages accompanied by simultaneous bond formation and rearrangement reactions involving cycli c t r ansition states have clarified t he formation of various ions . Due emphasis has been placed on the effect of the functional groups or substituents in altering the mass spectral behaviour of the pesticides as they form the basis for the identifi cation of the otherwise identical pesticides. The organophosphorus pesticides which have been studied include i) the phosphates (eg: DDVP and Phosdrin ); ii) phosphorothionates (eg: Parathion, 0-2, 4 dichloro phenyl 0, O-diethyl thionophosphate); iii) phosphorothioites (eg: Tributyl phosphorotrithioite); i V) phosphorothioates (eg: Ethion) and v) phosphorodithioates (eg: Carbophenolthion). Cleavages and rearrangements of the ester moiety dominate the spectrum of phosdrin while that of DDVP is + dominated by t he fragmentation modes of the (OH30)2P=0 + moiety. Fragmentation §f the (CH30)2P=S characterises the spectrum of (OH30)2"P -Cl while cleavages of the + (C2H50 )2P=S species mark the spectra of parathion and 0-2, 4- di chlorophenyl O, O-diethyl thiophosphate. The 0(, cl eavages of the thioether f unction rather than + cleavages of the (C2H50)2P=S signify the spectrum of carbophenolthion. Tributyl phosphorotrithioite behaves more like an aliphatic hydrocarbon than like the corresponding phosphites. The isopropyl and butyl esters of 2, 4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid show cleavage and rearrangement ions typical of an ester. In spite of its structural similari ty to pp' - DDT and pp' - DDD, Kalthane has a completely different mass spectral behaviour due to the influence of its hydroxyl function. The thiocarbamate pesticides studied include Eptam and Perbulate. Both are structurally similar but having different alkyl substituents on nitrogen and sulphur. This structurQlsimilarity leads to similar types of (N-C), (O-S) and (S-alkyl cleavages). However, perbulate differs from Eptam in showing a rearrangement ion at mle 161 and in forming an isocyanate ion as the base peak. In Eptam the base peak i s the alkyl ion. The dithiocarbamate, Vegadex, resembles the thiocarbamates in undergoing simple cleavages but it differs from them in having a weak parent ion; in the formation of its base peak and in undergoing a series of rearrangement reactions. The miscellaneous pesticides studied include 1-Naphthalene acetic aCid- methyl ester, Fiperonyl butoxide and Allethrin. The ester i s stable to electron impact and shows only fewer ions. Piper onyl butoxide, a polyether, shows characteristics of an et her, alcohol and aldehyde . Allethrin is regarded as an ester of the type R-C-O-R1 with n R being a substituted cyclopr opane moiety and o Rt, a substituted cyclopentenone mOiety. Accordingly it shows cleavage ions typical of an aliphatic ester and undergoes bond ruptures of the cyclic moieties to give unusual ions. Its base peak is an odd electron ion, quite contrary to expectations.
    • Residues in soils : a gas chromatography - mass spectrometry study

      Singh, Jaspal.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1974-10-02)
      Combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry has been used to identify unknown residues in soils (especially pesticides). The effect of U.V. light on DDT and linuron and quantitative estimation of elemental sulfur in different soils has also been carried out.
    • Selected topics in fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry a)specially designed probe tips and ion generation, b)structures of vitamin B6 schiff base complexes

      Fulcher, Adrian N.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1988-07-09)
      This thesis can be broken down into two sections. Section one is a study . of the ionization mechanisms and the ion source optimization for Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB) ionization. For this study, several specially designed probe tips were created and tested under various experimental conditions. The aIm of this section is to understand the operating characteristics of a FAB IOn source better. The second section involves the study of several Vitamin B6 Schiff Base complexes using both positive and negative ion FAB MS. This section is an exploration of the usefulness of FAB MS as a structure probe for the metalcoordination complexes of Vitamin B6.
    • Studies in the mass spectra of perfluoroaromatic derivatives of phosphorus and some selected transition metals

      Jones, Timothy R. B.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1975-10-02)
      The mass spectra and fragmentation of a variety of fluoroaromatic compounds of Group V and some selected transition elements are discussed in some detail, aided by data from metastable defocussed experiments. Results of ,studies on the coupling reaction using unstable organotitanium chloride intermediate species are reported. The preparation of some 5-substituted octafluorodibenzophospho1es is also discussed. Rearrangements under electron bombardment resulting in the loss of heteroatom-fluoride fragments are discussed in the light of presently accepted mechanisms for these processes as are rearrangements observed in compounds involving thionophosphoryl bonds ( p=s ).
    • Synthesis of isotope-labelled methoxypyrazine compounds as internal standards and quantitative determination of aroma methoxypyrazines in water and wines by solid-phase extraction with isotope dilution-GC-MS /

      Chen, Xiaonan.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2005-06-15)
      An efficient way of synthesizing the deuterium labelled analogues of three methoxypyrazine compounds: 2-d3-methoxy-3-isopropylpyrazine, 2-d3-methoxy-3- isobutylpyrazine, and 2-d3-methoxy-3-secbutylpyrazine, has been developed. To confirm that the deuterium labels had been incorporated into the expected positions in the molecules synthesized, the relevant characterization by NMR, HRMS and GC/MS analysis was conducted. Another part of this work involved quantitative determination of methoxypyrazines in water and wines. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) proved to be a suitable means for the sample separation and concentration prior to GC/MS analysis.Such factors as the presence of ethanol, salt, and acid have been investigated which can influence the recovery by SPE for the pyrazines from the water matrix. Significantly, in this work comparatively simple fractional distillation was attempted to replace the conventional steam distillation for pre-concentrating a sample with a relatively large volume prior to SPE. Finally, a real wine sample spiked with the relevant isotope-labelled methoxypyrazines was quantitatively analyzed, revealing that the wine with 10 beetles per litre contained 138 ppt of 2-methoxy-3-isopropylpyrazine. Interestingly, we have also found that 2-methoxy-3-secbutylpyrazine exhibits an extremely low detection limit in GC/MS analysis compared with the detection limit of the other two methoxypyrazines: 2- methoxy-3-isopropylpyrazine and 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine.