• Asymmetric cyclopropanation via catalysts incorporating the 1,4-diol ligands and the newly designed dioxaborolane /

      Ye, Feng.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2000-07-14)
      The development of new methodology for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral organic compounds is a major focus in modem organic chemistry. The use of chiral catalysts is replacing chiral auxiliaries as a new tool for synthetic chemists. An efficient chiral catalyst allows for large quantities of optically active product to be obtained on use of relatively small amount of enantiopure material, without the need for the removal and recovery of a chiral auxiliary. Furthermore, the most practical catalytic methods utilize an inexpensive and readily available chiral ligand that can provide high and predictable enantioselectivity across a wide range of substrates. In our project, two type of versatile, upgraded chiral ligands have been designed and synthesized. Their application in Simmons-Smith type cyclopropanation is investigated, and the pleasing results suggest that they are the potential catalytic enantioselective candidates to build C-C bonds.
    • Chelated fluoroboron cations : synthesis and multinuclear nmr studies

      Shoemaker, James A. Winston.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1999-07-09)
      The preparation of chelated difluoroboron cations (DD)BF2+, where DD is a saturated polydentate tertiary-amine or polydentate aromatic ligand, has been systematically studied by using multinuclear solution and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Three new methods of synthesis of (DD)BF2+ cations are reported, and compared with the previous method of reacting a chelating donor with Et20.BF3. The methods most effective for aromatic donors such as 1,1O-phenanthroline are ineffective for saturated polydentate tertiary-amines like N,N,N' ,Nil ,Nil-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine. Polydentate tertiary-amine donors that form 5-membered rings upon bidentate chelation were found to chelate effectively when the BF2 source contained two leaving groups (a heavy halide and a Lewis base such as pyridine =pyr or isoxazole =ISOX), i.e., pyr.BF2X (X = CI or Br), ISOX.BF2X and (pyr)2BF2+. Those that would form 6membered rings upon chelation do not chelate by any of the four methods. Polydentate aromatic ligands chelate effectively when the BF2 source contained a weak Lewis base, e.g., ISOX.BF3, ISOX.BF2X and Et20.BF3. Bidentate chelation by polydentate tertiaryamine and aromatic donors leads to nmr parameters that are significantly different then their (D)2BF2+ relatives (D =monod~ntate t-amines or pyridines). The chelated haloboron cations (DD)BFCI+, and (DD)BFBr+ were generated from D.BFX2 adducts for all ligands that form BF2+ cations above. In addition, the (DD)BCI2+ and (DD)BBr2+ cations were formed from D.BX3 adducts by the chelating aromatic ligands, except for the aromatic ligand 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene, which formed only the (DD)BF2+ cation, apparently due to its extreme steric hindrance. Chelation by a donor is a two-step reaction. For polydentate tertiary-amine ligands, the two rates appear to be very dependent on the two possible leaving groups on the central boron atom. The order of increasing ease of displacement for the donors was: pyr < Cl < Br < ISOX. The rate of chelation by polydentate aromatic ligands appears to be dependent on the displacement of the first ligand from the boron. The order of increasing ease of displacement for the donors was: pyr < CI < ISOX ~ Br < Et20.
    • Design and synthesis of new monoterpenoid derived ligands for asymmetric catalysis /

      Millar, Monte J.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1999-05-21)
      The work to be presented herein illustrates several important facts. First, the synthesis of BIBOL (19), a 1,4-diol derived from the monoterpene camphor has allowed us to demonstrate that oxidative dimerizations of enolates can, and do proceed with nearly complete diastereoselectivity under kinetically controlled conditions. The yield of BIBOL is now 50% on average, with a 10% yield of a second diastereomer, which is likely the result of a non-kinetic hydride reduction, thereby affording the epimeric alcohol, 20, coupled on the exo face of camphor. This implies the production of 60% of a single coupling diastereomer. No other diastereomers from the reduction were observed. The utility of BEBOL has been illustrated in early asymmetric additions of diethylzinc to aryl aldehydes, with e.e.'s as high as 25-30%. '^' To further the oxidative coupling work, the same methodology which gave rise to BIBOL was applied to the chiral pool ketone, menthone. Interestingly, this gave an excellent yield of the a-halohydrin (31), which is the result of a chlorination of menthone. This result clearly indicates the high stereoselectivity of the process regardless of the outcome, and has illustrated an interesting dichotomy between camphor and menthone. The utility of the chlorination product as a precursor other chiral ligands is currently being investigated. > ' Finally, a new series of 1,3-diols as well as a new aminoalcohol have successfully been synthesized from highly diastereoselective aldol/mannich reactions. Early studies have indicated their potential in asymmetric catalysis, while employing pi-stack interactions as a means of controlling enantioselective aldol reactions.
    • Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of the coordination complexes of the ligand 5, 5, 7, 12, 12, 14- hexamenthyl-1, 4, 8, 11-tetraazacycloteradecane

      MacLaurin, Cindy Lee.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1985-07-09)
      A number of metal complexes containing the ligand 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-l,4,8,11-tetra-azatetradecane were synthesized and analyzed using electron impact (EI) and fast atom bombardment (FAB). The FAB mass spectra were obtained in positive and negative ion mode. FAB in the positive ion mode proved to be the most successful technique for the identification of these compounds. In the majority of cases the spectra obtained using positive ion FAB were structurally informative, although not all showed molecular (M+) or quasimolecular ([M+H]+) ions. The fragmentations observed were characteristic of the ligands, and were interpreted based on the chemistry of these compounds.
    • Studies of some cocondensations of nickel atoms with unsaturated organic ligands and with mixed ligand systems

      Kelusky, Eric Charles.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      The cocondensation of nickel with a number of unsaturated ligands was studied, as was the cocondensation with a number of mixed ligand systems. Enamines were found not to react with nickel while acrylonitrile was polymerized. In the mixed ligand syst.ems different products were obtained than when the ligands were cocondensed individually. Cocondensations of benzyl halide/allyl halide mixtures gave unstable products that were not observed when the halides were cocondensed individually. The effect of Kao-Wool insulation on nickel/benzyl halide cocondensations was found to be significant. Kao-Wool caused the bulk of the benzyl halide to be polymeri zed to a number of poly-benzylic species. An alkali metal reactor was designed for the evaporation of sodium and potassium atoms into cold solutions of metal halide and an or ganic substrate. This apparatus was used to synthesize Ni(P¢3 )3' but proved unsuccessful for synthesizing a nickel-enamine compound.