• Reactions of some non-enolisable chloroketones with amide ion and a new synthesis of acridones /|nGuo-shyoung John Chen. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Chen, John Guo-shyoung.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1973-07-09)
      This research was directed mainly towards the investigation of the reacti.ons of· substituted chlorobenziophenones under strongly basi,c conditions. The work 'can be divided into two main sections. The Introduction deals mainly with historical studies on aryne chemistry and the Haller-Bauer reaction. Secti.on I i.s concerned with syntheses of 2-benzamido-2'chlorobenzophenone and 2-benzamido~3'-chlorobenzophenone,and with thei,r respective reactions wi.th potassium amide in ammonia. o-Chlorophenylacetic acid was converted to the acid chloride and then by Friedel-Craftsreaction with benzene to w-(o-chlorophenyl)acetophenone. Reaction wi.th phenylhydrazine and Fischer cyclization gave 3- (0chlorophenyl)- 2-phenylindole, which was ozonized to 2-benzamido-2'chlorobenzophenone. The isomeric 3' -chlor,..o ke: tone was similarly synthesised from m-chlorophenylacetic acid. Both the 2'- and 3' -ch.loroketones gave N-benzoylacridone on treatment with potassium amide in ammonia; an aryne mechanism is involved for the 3'-chloroketone but aryne and nucleophilic substitution mechanisms are possible for the 2'-chloroketone. Hydrolysis of the 2'- and 3'-chloroketones gave 2-amino-2'chlorobenzophenone and 2-amino-3'-chlorobenzophenone respectively. A second new acridone synthesis is given in the Appendix involving reactions of these two ketones with potassium t-butoxide in t-butylbenzene. i Section 2 deals with the investigation of the reaction of some tricyclic ch1orobenzophenones with potassium amide in liquid ammonia. These were 1-ch1orof1uorenone; which was pr~pared in several steps from f1uoranthene, and 1- and 2-ch1oroanthraquinones. 1-Ch1orof1uorenone gave 1-aminof1uorenone ; 1-ch1oroanthraquinone gave 1- and 2-aminoanthraquinones; 2-ch1oroanthraquinone was largely recovered from the attempted reaction.
    • The suppression of the Haller-Bauer scission for synthetic purposes /|nby S. M. Vines. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Vines, S. M.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1971-07-09)
      A number of 2-chlorobenzophenones, containing electron releasing groups (e.g. hydroxy, thiomethoxy and methoxy) in the 4' - position, were prepared by the Friess rearrangement, or the Friedel-Crafts reaction. These ketones, when treated with potassamide in liquid ammonia, underwent partial Haller-Bauer scission, unlike 2-chlorobenzophenone which is known to undergo complete scission. Under similar conditions 4-nitrobenzophenone also underwent partial scission, but the main reaction in this case was nucleophilic amination of the nitro containing ring. This amination reaction was shown not to be a useful general reaction for aromatic nitro compounds. 3-Methylxanthone was then prepared by treatment of 2- and 3- chloro-2'-hydroxy-5'-methylbenzophenone with . little, if any, attendant scission. The corresponding 2fluoro- compound also gave the xanthone, but as the 3-fluoro compound did not, it was concluded that the 2-fluoro compound reacted through a nucleophilic substitution mechanism, rather than the benzyne mechanism invoked for the chloro and bromo compounds. 3-Methylthioxanthone was synthesised by treatment of methyl 4-tolyl sulphide and 2-chlorobenzoyl chloride with aluminum chloride in carbon disu1phide, followed.by heating. This compound was also prepared by treatment of 3-chloro-2'thiomethoxy- 5'-methylbenzophenone with potassamide in liquid ammonia.