• Analyses, persistence an degradation of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticides permethrin and fenvalerate

      Tan, Cynthia Shwe Yin.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1983-07-09)
      Studies on persistence and degradation of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, permethrin and fenvalerate, were carried out under natural environmental conditions of the Niagara Peninsula. Permethrin and fenvalerate were treated on apple foliage atrat~s of 0.21 kg(AI)!ha and 0.14 kg(AI)/ha, respectively. The initial cis- and trans-permethrin spray deposits were found to be 13.5 ppm and 19.2 ppm, respectively and 38.0 ppm was observed for the fenvalerate treated sample. Twenty-three days and 84 days after spray application, permethrin residues were 4.0 ppm and 2.7 ppm for the cis-isomer, whereas they were 7.9 ppm and 4.7 ppm for the trans-isomer, respectively. Residues of fenvalerate 23 days and 84 days after spray application were 13.4 ppm and 8.0 ppm, respectively. The values of observed half-life of cis-permethrin, trans-permethrin and fenvalerate were found to be 42 days, 46 days and 51 days, respectively. Studies were extended to quantitatively determine some of the major degradation compounds of permethrin and fenvalerate, which were expected to be produced as results of ester cleavage of the parent compounds. A permethrin treated sample, 84 days after initial spray application, showed 0.25 and 0.8 ppm of cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (C12CA (18), respectively. These two acids were not found as free acids, but found as conjugated compounds. The other expected degradation compounds, 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol (PBalc (~)),3-phenoxybenz.aldehyde (PBald (38)) and 2- (4-chlorophenyl) isovaleric acid (CPIA (31)) were not detected by the methods employed in this study. The results indicate that these degradation compounds were not present, or, if they were present, their concentrations were too low to detect by the methods used.
    • Studies on the insecticide - nematicide-oxamyl and its quantitative determination by gas chromatographic method

      Lee, Stephen.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      Ox amyl , an insecticide/nematicide with the chemical name; methyl ~'. ~·-dimethyl-~-(methylcarbamoyl)oxy-l-thiooxamimidate, and its major degradation compound; oxime or oximino compound, methyl ~',~'-dimethyl-~-hydroxy-l-thiooxamimidate were studied in this work. NMR and mass spectrometry were utilized in the structural studies. An attempt was made to explain the fragmentation patterns of some major peaks in the mass spectra of oxamyl and oxime. A new gas chromatographic method for the detection and determination of submicrogram levels of intact oxamyl using a electron-capture detector was developed. The principle of this method is to produce a derivative which is highly sensitive to an electron-capture detector. The derivative described is dinitrophenyl methylamine( DNPMA ) • Experimental conditions such as pH , reaction temperature , reaction time, the amount of reagent ( Dinitrofluaro benzene) etc. were thoroughly investigated and optimized. This method was successfully applied to the determination of oxamyl residues in tobacco leaves and soil. Throughout this J9D:oject , thin layer chromatography was also used in the separation:and clean up of oxamyl and oxime samples.
    • Synthesis of 4-hydroxycinnamic amides of di-, tri-, and tetraamines : potential insect toxins /

      Fixon-Owoo, Solomon N. K.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2000-05-21)
      The monoconjugates of phenolic acids (i.e. coumaric acid) with polyamines such as spermidine and spermine are strikingly similar to some toxins from spiders and predatory wasps. Many plants contain phenolic acid polyamine conjugates and there is some reliable information supporting their roles as plant defense chemicals. Eleven monoacylated compounds of diamines, triamines, tetraamines and oxa-polyamine amines were prepared in three to seven steps: 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 and 32. The synthesis proceeds through stepwise construction of the polyamine backbone (as in 62 and 72), followed by protection and deprotection steps of the amino functions. Desymmetrization of readily available and prepared symmetrical polyamines is a key step in the synthesis. The protecting groups employed were tert-butoxycarbonyl (BOC) and trifluoroacetyl (TFA) group which were removed under different conditions: acid and base respectively. Deprotection and refunctionalization of the polyamine reagent demonstrated the versatility of these systems for N-acylation.