• 1,1-enediamines and β-substituted enamines in heterocyclic synthesis

      Namdev, Nivedita D.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1992-07-09)
      The work in this thesis mainly deals with l,l-enediamines and ~ -substituted enamines (push-pull olefines) and their reactions, leading to the formation of a number of heterocycles. Various ~-substituted enamines were prepared by a 'one pot synthesis' in which a l,l-enediamine presumably acts as an intermediate. These enamines, various substituted crotonamides and propenamides, were made by using two different orthoesters, various secondary and primary amines and cyanoacetamide. Their structures, mechanism of formation and geometry are discussed. A synthetic route to various unsymmetrically substituted pyridines was examined. Two substituted pyridinones were obtained by using two different ~-substituted enamines and cyanoacetamide. In one case a dihydropyridine was isolated. This dihydropyridine, on heating in acidic conditions, gave a pyridinone, which confirmed this dihydropyridine as an intermediate in this pyridine synthesis. A new synthetic method was used to make highly substituted pyridinones, which involved the reaction of l,l-enediamines with the ~-substituted enamines. A one pot synthesis and an interrupted one pot synthesis were used to make these pyridinones. Two different orthoesters and three different secondary amines were used. Serendipitous formation of a pyrimidinone was observed when pyrrolidine was used as the secondary amine and triethyl orthopropionate was used as the orthoester. In all cases cyanoacetamide was used as the carbon acid. This pyridine synthesis was designed with aI, l-enediamine as the Michael donor and the ~ -substituted enamines as Michael acceptors. Substituted ureas were obtained in two cases, which was a surprise. Some pyrimidines were made by reacting two substituted enamines with two different amidines. When benzamidine was used, the expected pyrimidines were obtained. But, when 2-benzyl-2-thiopseudourea (which is also an amidine) was used, of the two expected pyrimidines, only one was obtained. In the other case, an additional substitution reaction took place in which the S-benzyl group was lost. An approach to quinazolone and benzothiadiazine synthesis is discussed. Two compounds were made from 1, I-dimorpholinoethene
    • Iridium(I) complexes of phenanthroline-derived benzimidazolylidenes : synthetic, structural and catalytic studies

      Du, Xiangdong.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2009-02-16)
      N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have undergone rapid development in recent years. Due to their strong a-electron donation and structural variability properties, NHCs are becoming a major class of ligands in organometallic chemistry. Compared with the other two types of NHCs (imidazolylidenes and imidazolinylidenes), benzimidazolylidenes have not been well represented. Limited synthetic approaches may impede the development ofbenzimidazolylidenes. This thesis is focused on the synthesis of phenanthroline-derived benzimidazolylidene ligands and their metal complexes. A series of benzimidazolylidene-iridium complexes were synthesized and characterized spectroscopically and crystallographic ally. All of the new complexes showed varying degrees of catalytic activity and enantioselectivity toward transfer hydrogenation and asymmetric hydrogenation. The best results were achieved in hydrogenation of methyl-2-acetamidoacrylate, which afforded (-)-(R)-methyl-2-acetamidopropanoate in 97% yield and 81 % ee.