• Sample preparation and heavy metal determination by atomic spectrometry /

      Xiao, Jing.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2004-06-29)
      Microwave digestions of mercury in Standards Reference Material (SRM) coal samples with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in quartz vessels were compared with Teflon® vessel digestion by using flow injection cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Teflon® vessels gave poor reproducibiUty and tended to deliver high values, while the digestion results from quartz vessel show good agreement with certificate values and better standard deviations. Trace level elements (Ag, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sn, Ti, V and Zn) in used oil and residual oil samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Different microwave digestion programs were developed for each sample and most of the results are in good agreement with certified values. The disagreement with values for Ag was due to the precipitation of Ag in sample; while Sn, V and Zn values had good recoveries from the spike test, which suggests that these certified values might need to be reconsidered. Gold, silver, copper, cadmium, cobalt, nickel and zinc were determined by continuous hydride generation inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The performance of two sample introduction systems: MSIS™ and gas-liquid separator were compared. Under the respective optimum conditions, MSIS^"^ showed better sensitivity and lower detection limits for Ag, Cd, Cu, Co and similar values for Au, Ni and Zn to those for the gas-liquid separator.
    • Synthesis of nanoporous materials for preconcentration and determination of trace elements by ICP-AES ; Investigation and elimination of the memory effects of mercury, gold, silver and boron in ICP-AES

      Chen, Wencan.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1999-07-09)
      Nanoporous materials with large surface area and well-ordered pore structure have been synthesized. Thiol groups were grafted on the materials' surface to make heavy metal ion pre-concentration media. The adsorption properties ofthe materials were explored. Mercury, gold and silver can be strongly adsorbed by these materials, even in the presence of alkaline earth metal ion. Though the materials can adsorb other heavy metal ions such as lead and copper, they show differential adsorption ability when several ions are present in solution. The adsorption sequence is: mercury> == silver> copper » lead and cadmium. In the second part of this work, the memory effects of mercury, gold, silver and boron were investigated. The addition of 2% L-cysteine and 1% thiourea eliminates the problems of the three metal ions completely. The wash-out time for mercury dropped from more than 20 minutes to 18 seconds, and the wash-out time for gold decreased from more than 30 minutes to 49 seconds. The memory effect of boron can be reduced by the use of mannitol.