• Chelated fluoroboron cations : synthesis and multinuclear nmr studies

      Shoemaker, James A. Winston.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1999-07-09)
      The preparation of chelated difluoroboron cations (DD)BF2+, where DD is a saturated polydentate tertiary-amine or polydentate aromatic ligand, has been systematically studied by using multinuclear solution and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Three new methods of synthesis of (DD)BF2+ cations are reported, and compared with the previous method of reacting a chelating donor with Et20.BF3. The methods most effective for aromatic donors such as 1,1O-phenanthroline are ineffective for saturated polydentate tertiary-amines like N,N,N' ,Nil ,Nil-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine. Polydentate tertiary-amine donors that form 5-membered rings upon bidentate chelation were found to chelate effectively when the BF2 source contained two leaving groups (a heavy halide and a Lewis base such as pyridine =pyr or isoxazole =ISOX), i.e., pyr.BF2X (X = CI or Br), ISOX.BF2X and (pyr)2BF2+. Those that would form 6membered rings upon chelation do not chelate by any of the four methods. Polydentate aromatic ligands chelate effectively when the BF2 source contained a weak Lewis base, e.g., ISOX.BF3, ISOX.BF2X and Et20.BF3. Bidentate chelation by polydentate tertiaryamine and aromatic donors leads to nmr parameters that are significantly different then their (D)2BF2+ relatives (D =monod~ntate t-amines or pyridines). The chelated haloboron cations (DD)BFCI+, and (DD)BFBr+ were generated from D.BFX2 adducts for all ligands that form BF2+ cations above. In addition, the (DD)BCI2+ and (DD)BBr2+ cations were formed from D.BX3 adducts by the chelating aromatic ligands, except for the aromatic ligand 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene, which formed only the (DD)BF2+ cation, apparently due to its extreme steric hindrance. Chelation by a donor is a two-step reaction. For polydentate tertiary-amine ligands, the two rates appear to be very dependent on the two possible leaving groups on the central boron atom. The order of increasing ease of displacement for the donors was: pyr < Cl < Br < ISOX. The rate of chelation by polydentate aromatic ligands appears to be dependent on the displacement of the first ligand from the boron. The order of increasing ease of displacement for the donors was: pyr < CI < ISOX ~ Br < Et20.
    • Studies of nucleophilic attack on tris (pentafluorophenyl) phosphine and its oxides

      Hanna, Hanna Rizk.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      The reaction of tris(pentafluorophenyl)phosphine [5] with the nucleophiles dimethyl formamide (DMF), hexamethylphosphoric triamide (HMPA), diethyl formamide (DEF), hexaethylphosphoric triamide (HEPA), hydrazine, N,N-dimethyl hydrazine (in presence and/or absence of KF), phenylhydrazine, ammonium hydroxide, formamide, aniline, sodium hydrogen sulfide, and hexaethylphosphorous triamide was investigated. The reaction of [5] with DMF and HMPA gave the same product, namely tris-[4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl]phosphine [12] but in higher yield in the case of HMPA. Compound (5] also reacted with DEF to give tris[4-(N,N-diethylamino)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl] phosphine [14]. When [51 was treated with HEPA, it gave a mixture of bis(pentafluorophe~yl)-(N,N-diethylamino-tetrafluorophenyl)phosphine, pentafluorophenyl-bis-(N,N-diethylamino-tetrafluorophenyl)phosphine and tris (N,N-diethylamino-tetrafluorophenyl)phosphine. Treatment of [5] with aqueeus hydrazine solution in excess ethanol gave tris(4-hydrazo-2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)phosphine [1s1 in high yield while reaction with aqueous hydrazine led to C-P cleavage and production of tetrafluorophenyl hydrazine. With N,N-dimethyl hydrazine, [5] gave tris(4-N,N-dimethylhydrazine-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl) phosphine {20j. The latter could be obtained in higher yield and shorter reaction time, by the addition of KF. The reaction of compound {51 with phenylhydrazine in THF gave bis(pentafluorophe~yl)-4-S-phenylhydrazino- 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl phosphine [22] in low yield. Reaction of [5] with ammonium hydroxide in THF at high pressure in the presence of KF gave tris-~4-amino-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)phosphine [25]. Similarly, formamide led to a mixture of (C6F4NHZ)3P, (C6F4NHZ)ZPC6FS, (C6F4NHZ)ZPC6F4NHCHO, and C6F4NHZP(C6Fs)(C6F4NHCHO). When [5] was treated with aniline, a mixture of mono-, di-, and tri-substituted products was obtained. Sodium hydrogen sulfide in ethylene glycol/ pyridine led to C-P cleavage and the isolation of pentafluorobenzene and tetrafluorothiophenol. Reaction of [5] and its oxide [35] with different alkoxides in the corresponding alcohols led mainly to C-P bond cleavage products, with the exception of one case where sodium methoxide was used in ether, and which led to tris-(4-methoxy-2,3,9,6-tetrafluorophenyl)phosphine [37]. On the basis of various spectroscopic data, it was concluded that the para position in compound [5] was generally the favoured site of attack.