• Biotransformations of water insoluble substrates in aqueous, two-phase and encapsulated systems /

      Iezzi, Diana.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1999-05-21)
      The biotransformation of water insoluble substrates by mammalian and bacterial cells has been problematic, since these whole cell reactions are primarily performed in an aqueous environment The implementation of a twophase or encapsulated system has the advantages of providing a low water system along with the physiological environment the cells require to sustain themselves. Encapsulation of mammalian cells by formation of polyamide capsules via interfacial polymerization illustrated that the cells could not survive this type of encapsulation process. Biotransformation of the steroid spironolactone [3] by human kidney carcinoma cells was performed in a substrate-encapsulated system, yielding canrenone [4] in 70% yield. Encapsulation of nitrile-metabolizing Rhodococcus rhodochrous cells using a polyamide membrane yielded leaky capsules, but biotransformation of 2-(4- chlorophenyl)-3-methylbutyronitrile (CPIN) [6] in a free cell system yielded CPIN amide [7] in 40% yield and 94% ee. A two-phase biotransformation of CPIN consisting of a 5:1 ratio of tris buffer, pH 7.2 to octane respectively, gave CPIN acid [8] in 30% yield and 97% ee. It was concluded that Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 17895 contained a nonselective nitrile hydratase and a highly selective amidase enzyme.
    • The investigation of the reduction mechanism of the 5a-reductase enzyme of Penicillium decumbens /

      Hsü, Wei-li.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1990-05-21)
      The 5a-reductase of Penicillium decumbens ATCC 10436 was used as a model for the mammalian enzyme to investigate the mechanism of reduction of testosterone to 5adihydrotestosterone . The purpose of this study was to search for specific 5a-reductase inhibitors which antagonize prostate cancer . In a whole-cell biotransformation mode, this organism reduced testosterone (1) to 5a-dihydrosteroids (8) and 5aandrostane- 3, 17-dione (9) in yields of 28% and 37% respectively. Control experiments have shown that 5aandrostane- 3, 17-dione (9) can be produced from the corresponding alcohol (8) in a subsequent reaction separate from that catalysed by the 5a-reductase enzyme . Androst-4- ene-3, 17-dione (2) is reduced to give only (9) with a recovery of 80% The stereochemistry of the reduction was determined by 500 MHz ^H NMR analysis of the products resulting from the deuterium labelled substrates. The results were obtained by an analysis of the NOE difference spectra, double-quantum filtered phase sensitive COSY 2-D spectra, and ^^c-Ir 2-D shift correlation spectra of deuterium labelled products. According to the unambiguous assignment of the signals due to H-4a and H-4Ii in 5a-dihydro steroids, the NMR data show clearly that addition of hydrogen to the 4{5)K bond has occurred in a trans manner at positions 413 and 5a. To Study the reduction mechanism of this enzyme, several substrates were prepared as following; 3-methyleneandrost-4-en- 17fi-ol(3), androst-4-en-17i5-ol(5) , androst-4-en-3ii, 17fi-diol (6) and 4, 5ii-epoxyandrostane-3, 17-dione (7) . Results suggest that this enzyme system requires an oxygen atom at the 3-position of the steroid in order to bind the substrate. Furthermore, the mechanism of this 5a-reductase may proceed via direct addition of hydrogen at the 4,5 position without involvement of a carbonyl group as an intermediate.