Browsing M.Sc. Chemistry by Subject "Derivatives (Chemicals)"
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Investigation of molecular polarizabilities and derivatives in halomethanesThe research undertaken was to obtain absolute Raman intensities for the symmetric stretching vibrations of the methyl halides, CH3X with (X=F, CI, Br), by experiment and theory. The intensities were experimentally measured using the Ar+ ion gas laser as excitation source, a Spex 14018 double monochromator and a RCA C-31034 photomultiplier tube as detector. These intensities arise from changes in the derivative of the polarizability (8 a'), with respect to vibration along a normal coordinate (8qi). It was intended that these derivatives obtained with respect to normal coordinates would be converted to derivatives with respect to internal coordinates, for a quantitative comparison with theory. Theoretical numerical polarizability derivatives for the stretching vibrations are obtained using the following procedure. A vibration was simulated in the molecule by increasi.ng and decreasing the respective bond by the amount ±o.oosA for the C-H bonds and ±o.oIA for the C-X (X=F, CI, Br) bond. The derivative was obtained by taking the difference in the polarizability for the equilibrium geometry and the geometry when a particular bond is changed. This difference, when divided by the amount of change in each bond and the number of bonds present results in the derivative of the polarizability with respect to internal coordinate i.e., !1u/!1r. These derivatives were obtained by two methods: I} ab initio molecular orbital calculation and 2} theory of atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis. Due to errors in the experimental setup only a qualitative analysis of the results was undertaken relative to the theory. Theoretically it is predicted that the symmetric carbonhalogen stretch vibrations are more intense than the respective carbon-hydrogen stretch, but only for the methyl chloride and bromide. The carbon fluorine stretch is less intense than the carbon-hydrogen stretch, a fact which is attributed to the small size and high electronegativity of the fluorine atom. The experimental observations are seen to agree qualitatively with the theory results. It is hoped that when the experiment is repeated, a quantitative comparison can be made. The analysis by the theory of atoms in molecules, along with providing polarizabilities and polarizability derivatives, gives additional information outlined below. The theory provides a pictorial description of the main factors contributing to the molecular polarizability and polarizability derivative. These contributions are from the charge transfer and atomic dipole terms i.e., transfer of charge from one atom to another and the reorganization of atomic electronic charge distribution due to presence of an electric field. The linear relationship between polarizability and molecular volume was also observed.