Browsing M.Sc. Chemistry by Subject "Alkenes."
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Kinetic and mechanistic studies for the molybdenum- catalyzed oxidation of organic sulfides and olefins by t- DuO2HThis research was focussed on the effects of light, solvent and substituents in the molybdenum-catalyzed oxidation of phenylmethyl sulfides with t-Bu02H and on the effect of light in the molybdenum-catalyzed epoxidation of l-octene with t-Bu02H. It was shown that the Mo(CO)6-catalyzed oxidation of phenylmethyl sulfide with t-Bu02H~ at 35°C, proceeds 278 times faster underUV light than under laboratory lighting, whereas the Mo02(acac)2-catalyzed oxidation proceeds only 1.7 times faster under UV light than under normal laboratory lighting. The difference between the activities of both catalysts was explained by the formation of the catalytically active species, Mo(VI). The formation of the Mo(VI) species, from Mo(CO)6 was observed from the IR spectrum of Mo(CO)6 in the carbonyl region. The Mo(CO)6-catalyzed epoxidation of l-octene with t-Bu02H showed that the reaction proceeded 4.6 times faster under UV light than in the dark or under normal laboratory lighting; the rates of epoxidations were found to be the same in the dark and under normal laboratory lighting. The kinetics of the epoxidations of l-octene with t-Bu02H, catalyzed by Mo02(acac)2 were found to be complicated; after fast initial rates, the epoxidation rates decreased with time. The effect of phenylmethyl sulfide on the Mo(CO)6-catalyzed epoxidation of l-octene waS studied. It was shown that instead of phenylmethyl sulfide, phenylmethyl sulfone, which formed rapidly at 85°C, lowered the reaction rate. The epoxidation of l-octene was found to be 2.5 times faster in benzene than in ethanol. The substituent effect on the Mo02(acac)2-catalyzed oxidations of p-OH, p-CHgO, P-CH3' p-H, p-Cl, p-Br, p-CHgCO, p-HCO and P-N02 substituted phenylmethyl sulfides were studied. The oxidations followed second order kinetics for each case; first order dependency on catalyst concentration was also observed in the oxidation of p-CHgOPhSMeand PhSMe. It was found that electron-donating groups on the para position of phenylmethyl sulfide increased the rate of reaction, while electronwithdrawing groups caused the reaction rate to decrease. The reaction constants 0 were determined by using 0, 0- and 0* constants. The rate effects were paralleled by the activation energies for oxidation. The decomposition of t-Bu02H in the presence of M.o (CO)6, Mo02 (acac)2 and VO(acac)2 was studied. The rates of decomposition were found to be very small compared to the oxidation rates at high concentration of catalysis. The relative rates of the Mo02(acac)2-catalyzed oxidation of p-N02PhSMe by t-Bu02H in the presence of either p-CH30PhSMe or PhSMe clearly show that PhSMe and p-CHgOPhSMe act as co-catalysts in the oxidation of p-N02PhSMe. Benzene, mesity1ene and cyclohexane were used to determine the effect of solvent in the Mo02 (acac)2 and Mo(CO)6-catalyzed oxidation of phenylmethyl sulfide. The results showed that in the absence of hydroxylic solvent, a second molecule of t-Bu02H was involved in the transition state. The complexation of the solvent with the catalyst could not be explained.The oxidations of diphenyl sulfoxide catalyzed by VO(acac)2, Mo(CO)6 and Mo02(acac)2 showed that VO(acac)2 catalyzed the oxidation faster than Mo(CO)6 and Mo02 (acac)2_ Moreover, the Mo(CO)6-catalyzed oxidation of diphenyl sulfoxide proceeded under UV light at 35°C.