Browsing M.Sc. Chemistry by Subject "Alkaloids."
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An aryne route to aporphine alkaloids and related topics / |nIjaz Ahmad Chanda. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],This research was directed towards the investigation and development of an aryne route to the syntheses of aporphi ne and dibenzopyrrocolinium (dibenzoindolizinium) alkaloids and to the stability of the latter under the conditions used for aryne formation. The work c an be divided into three main sections . i) - Synthesis of Glaucine 6-Bromo-3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetic acid, prepared by the action of bromine i n acetic acid on3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetic a cid, was converted into its acid chloride by t he action of thionyl chloride. This on treatment with 3,4- dimethoxyphenylethylamine pr ovided N-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenylethyl)- 2-(2-bromo-4,S-dimethoxyphenyl)-acetamide which on dehydration with phosphoryl chloride (Bischler Napieralski reaction) in dry benzene afforded l -(2-bromo-4,S-dimethoxybenzyl)- 3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline, isolated as hydrochl oride. A new method o f destroying the excess of phosphoryl chloride was developed which proved to be quite useful. Methylation of the dihydroisoquinoline'with methyl iodide in methanol , and subsequent reduction with sodium borohydride provided (±)-6-bromolaudanosine. Act ion of potassamide or sodamide in anhydrous liquid ammonia on (±)-6-bromolaudanosine yielded the corresponding amino derivative along with other products. Diazotization and ring closure of (±)-6-aminolaudanosine then a f forded (±)-glaucine which was isolated as methiodide. ii) - Intramolecular Capture of Aryne During Glaucine Synthesis, and Subsequent Reactions . This section deals with the by-products formed under the conditions of the aryne stage of t he glaucine synthesis. The crude product, obtained in the reaction of potassamide or sodamide in liquid ammonia on (±)-6-bromolaudanosine, was s eparated by chromatography, Three products were separated and identified. a ) - 5,6-Dimethoxy-2-( 3,4-dimethoxy-6-ethylphenyl)-lmethylindole. Two mechanisms are proposed for the formation of this interesting product. This compound also was prepared by the action of potassamide in l,iquid ammonia on 5,6 ,l2,l2atetrahydro- 2,3,9,lO-tetramethoxy-7-methyldibenz[b,g]indolizinium i odide . b) - 5,6-Dimethoxy-2-(3,4-dimethoxy-6-vinylphenyl)-lmethylindoline. Its formation represented a new method of Hofmann degradation . Further confirmation of structure was done by performing the normal Hofmann reaction on 5, 6,12,12a-tetrahydro -2/3,9,lO-tetramethoxy ~7-methyldibe nz[ b,g]indolizinium iodide. The indoline prepared i n this way was identical in all respects with that prepared above . c) - 1- (2-amino-4,5-dimethoxybenzyl ) -l,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2- methyl-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline, was converted t o glaucine as stated in section 1 . iii) - Attempt:,ed Sxnthesis of Liriodenine Piperonal was converted into 3,4-methylenedioxyinitrostyrene which on reduction with lithium aluminium hydride provided 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylethylamine. The method of extraction after the reduction was improved t o some extent. The amine on condensation with m-chlorophenylacetyl chloride, prepared by the action of oxalyl chloride on 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylacetic acid, provided N-[ ~ -(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)- e thyl)-3-chlorophenylacetamide. This on dehydration with phosphoryl chloride in dry benzene followed by air oxidation afforded l-(3-chlorobenzoyl)-6,7-methylenedioxyi soquinoline. This compound on r eaction with potassamide in liquid ammonia afforded a crude product from which. one product was separated by chromatography i n a pure condition . This yellow compound analysed as,c17Hl ON2021 and was t he main product i n the reaction ; a t entative structure is proposed. A second compound, not obtained in pure condition, was submitted to Pschorr reaction in the hope of obtaining liriodenine, but without success.
Biosynthesis of benzyliasoquinoline alkaloidsThis research was carried out to obtain a convenient route for the synthesis of [7_ 14C]-p-hydroxy benzaldehyde. Section 1 of the thesis includes a route involving intermediates with protecting groups like benzyl and methyl ethers of the phenols. The benzyl ethers afforded the product in relatively better yield. The overall synthesis involves four steps. Section 2 describes the reactions carried out directly on phenols, and a three step pathway is obtained for the synthesis of p-hydroxy benzaldehyde, which was repeated on labelled compounds to obtain [7_14C]p- hydroxy benzaldehyde. The synthesis involves the reaction of p-bromophenol with Cu14CN to yield [7_ 14C]-p-cyano phenol, which is then reduced to the aldehyde by means of a simple and clean photolysis method. The same route was tried out to get 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and was found to work equally well for the synthesis of this compound. Section 3 deals with the isolation of labelled alkaloids, corydaline, protopine and reticu1ine from [2-3H,1-14C]-dopamine (3H/ 14C ratio = 4) fed Corydalis solida. 3H/14C ratios in the labelled alkaloids were determined. The uncorrected values showed almost 50% loss of 3H relative to 14C in reticuline, and roughly 75% loss of the 3H relative to 14C in corydaline and protopine.