• The nucleophillic substitution of various chloroanthraquinones of their possible rearrangement via aryne intermediates

      Ruediger, Edward H.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      The work in this thesis deals mainly with nucleophilic substitution of chloroanthraquinones as a route to various starting materials which might rearrange, via aryne intermediates to afford fused-ring heterocy1ic carboxylic acids. 1-Amino-5-chloroanthraquinone was successfully prepared by reacting 1,5-dichloroanthraquinone with sodium aZide in ref1uxing dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). It could also be prepared from the same starting material by reaction with ammonia (gas) in DMSO in the presence of potassium fluoride. Treatment of l-amino-5-chloroanthraquinone with potassium amide in liquid ammonia or with potassium t-butoxide in t-butylbenzene returned mainly starting material, although in the latter case some 1-amino-5-hydroxyanthraquinone was also isolated. 1-Hydroxy-5-chloroanthraquinone was ultimately prepared by diazotization of the amino-analog. It was recovered almost quantitatively after treatmenu'with potassium amide in liquid ammonia. The reaction with potassium t-butoxide in t-buty1benzene was anomalous and gave 1-hydroxyanthraquinone as the only iso1able product. Acridines were successfully prepared by the action of 70% sulfuric acid on 1,5-bis(p-toluidino)-anthraquinone and 1-p-toluidino-5- ch10roanthraquinone, and in the latter case, cleavage to give an acridinecarboxylate was attempted. Substituted anthraquinones reacted with sodium azide in sulfuric acid to give azepindiones by -NH insertion. Methods for separating and identifying isomeric mixtures of these compounds were examined. Attempted decarbonylation of selected azepindiones to give acridones gave mainly what were thought to be amino-benzophenone derivatives. Chloroanthraquinones were found to react with hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) to give mixtures of the dimethylamino- and methylaminoderivatives. Under the same conditions halogeno-nitrobenzenes and nitrophenols were substituted to give the appropriate dimethyl aminobenzenes, except in two cases. 3-Chloronitrobenzene reacted anomalously to give a small amount of 3,3'-dichloroazobenzene and a trace of 4-dimethylamino-nitrobenzene. Pentachlorophenol reacted to give a pentachlorophenylphosphorodiamidate in good yield.