Browsing M.Sc. Chemistry by Author "Carter, Ian M."
An investigation into the oxidation of organic sulphides, organic selenides and simple hydrocarbons by Mortierella isabellina NRRL 1757Carter, Ian M.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 1983-07-09)The work presented in this thesis is divided into three separate sections 4!> Each' 'section is involved wi th a different problem, however all three are involved with a microbial oxidation of a substrate~ A series of 'aryl substituted phenyl a.nd be,nzyl methyl sulphides were oxidized to the corre~pondi~g sulphoxides by 'Mo:rtierellai's'a'b'e'llina NRR.L17'S7 @ For this enzymic Qxidation, based on 180 labeled experiments, the oxygen atom is derived fr'orn the atmosphere and not from water. By way of an u~.traviolet analysis, the rates of oxidation, in terms of sulphox~ de appearance, were obtained and correlated with the Hatnmett p s~grna constants for the phenyl methyl sulphide series. A value of -0.67 was obtained and, is interpreted in terms of a mechanism of oxidation that involves an electrophilic attack on the sulphide sulphur by an enzymic ironoxygen activated complex and the conversion of the resulti!lg sulphur cation to sulphoxide. A series of alkyl phenyl selen~des have been incubated with the fu~gi, Aspergillus niger ATCC9l42, Aspergillus fO'etidus NRRL 337, MIIJisabellina NF.RLl757 and'He'lminth'osparium sp'ecies NRRL 4671 @l These fu?gi have been reported to be capable of carrying out the efficient oxidation of sulphide to sulphoxide, but in no case was there any evidence to supp'ort the occurrence of a microbialox,idation. A more extensive inves·t~gation was carried out with'M,e 'i's'a'b'e'l'l'i'na, this fu~gus was capable of oxidizing the correspondi~g sulphides to sulphoxi.de·s·$ Usi:ng a 1abel.edsubstra.te, [Methyl-l4c]-methyl phenyl selenide, the fate of this compound was invest~gated followi!lg an i'ncubation wi th Me isabellina .. BeSUldes th. e l4C-ana1YS1Q S-,'. a quant"ltta"lve selen'lum ana1Y"S1S was carried out with phenyl methyl selenide. These techniques indicate that thesel'enium was capable of enteri!1g thefu!1gal cell ef'ficiently but that s'ome metabolic cleav~ge of the seleni'um-carbon bond' may take plac'e Ie The l3c NMR shifts were assigned to the synthesized alkyl phenyl sulphides and selenides@ The final section involved the incubation ofethylben~ zene and p-e:rtr.hyltoluene wi th'M ~ 'isab'e'llina NRRL 17574b Followi~ g this incubation an hydroxylated product was isolated from the medium. The lH NMR and mass spectral data identify the products as I-phenylethanol and p-methyl-l-phenylethanol. Employi!lg a ch'iral shift re~gent,tri~ (3-heptafluorobutyl-dcamphorato)'- europium III, the enantiomeric puri ty of these products was invest~gated. An optical rotation measurement of I-phenylethanol was in ~greement with the results obtained with the chiral shift re~gen,te 'M.isabe'l'lina is capable of carryi~g out an hydroxylation of ethylbenzene and p-ethyltoluene at the ~ position.