• The performance and strategies of adolescents in learning to read artificial words /

      Whatmough, Deborah A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1991-07-14)
      The present study explored processing strategies used by individuals when they begin to read c;l script. Stimuli were artificial words created from symbols and based on an alphabetic system. The words were.presented to Grade Nine and Ten students, with variations included in the difficulty of orthography and word familiarity, and then scores were recorded on the mean number of trials for defined learning variables. Qualitative findings revealed that subjects 1 earned parts of the visual a'nd auditory features of words prior to hooking up the visual stimulus to the word's name. Performance measures-which appear to affect the rate of learning were as follows: auditory short-term memory, auditory delayed short-term memory, visual delayed short- term memory, and word attack or decod~ng skills. Qualitative data emerging in verbal reports by the subjects revealed that strategies they pefceived to use were, graphic, phonetic decoding and word .reading.
    • The person inside the nurse : the professional socialization of baccalaureate nursing students

      Biggs, Bobbi.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-07-09)
      The goal ofthis research was to gain an understanding ofthe process ofprofessional socialization by accessing role meaning ofstudents engaged in a BScN program. Students from each ofthe four years and faculty members from the school ofnursing volunteered as participants. G. Kelly's (1955) Personal Construct Theory provided the framework to determine awareness and constructed meanings. A reflective tool, called LifeMapping, was adapted and utilized to relate student experiences within education that have attributed to nurse role meaning. Focus group interviews verified data interpretation. Students are informed oftheir choice to study nursing through part-time and volunteer work, secondary school cooperative placements. Descriptions reveal that choices are tested and both positive and negative aspects ofthe role observed. Bipolar images of good and bad nurses seem to be context-related. These images may establish biases in choices related to learning experiences. The person inside ofeach aspiring nurse interprets, revises and understands experiences to incorporate individual meaning into their value and belief structures. Students are aware ofchanges and descnbe them as developments that occur personally up to Year ill and role-image changes that begin in Year II. The major difficulty that students encountered was descnbed as negative attitudes towards their anticipated role. Humanistic-interactionist philosophies are echoed in student accounts of learning experiences. Growth and role development corresponds to process factors of small group, problem-base learning.
    • Personality and neuropsychological factors involved in females' relational aggression

      Savage, Michael.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-11-04)
      The personality and neuropsychological factors associated with relational aggression were examined in a group of30 grade 6,7, and 8 girls identified through cluster analysis as being highly, yet almost exclusively, relationally aggressive and a group of 30 nonaggressive matched controls. Parents of the students in both groups completed the Coolidge Personality and Neuropsychological Inventory (1998), a 200- item DSM-IV -TR aligned, parent-as-respondent, standardized measure of c.hildren' s psychological functioning. It was found that high levels of relational aggression, in the absence of physical and verbal aggression, were associated with symptoms of DSM-IV - TR Axis I oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder and a wide variety of personality traits associated with DSM-IV -TR Axis II paranoid, borderline, narcissistic, histrionic, schizotypal, and passive aggressive personality disorders. Implications of these findings for theory, practice, and further research are discussed.
    • Personality type and self-directed learning

      Herbeson, Ellen Frances.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      This correlational study was designed to investigate the relationship between self-directed learning and personality type. A sample of 133 graduate and undergraduate education students completed the MBTI and the SDLRS. Two hypotheses were examined: (a) scores on the intuitive scale will account for a significant amount of the variance in the prediction of selfdirected learning readiness and, (b) scores on the introverted scale will account for a significant amount of the variance in self-directed learning readiness. Stepwise multiple regression analyses indicated that psychological type accounts for 28% of the variance in self-directed learning. Support for the first hypothesis was found with 15% of the variance in selfdirected learning accounted for by intuition. The second hypothesis was not supported. Introversion accounted for 13% of the variance but in a negative manner. Results of this study indicate that personality type does influence the ability of the learner to be self-directed in studies. These findings add another dimension for the adult educator to consider when attempting to develop self-directedness in learners.
    • Perspectives of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder on a Community-Based Parent Education Program

      Alves, Kelly; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2015-01-21)
      In 2012 a community-based agency that oversees Intensive Behaviour Intervention services for young children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) began delivering newly developed curricula to parents of eligible children. The curricula’s intent was to inform parents about ASD and Applied Behaviour Analysis, to increase their awareness of available community resources, and assist them to be active and engaged in their child’s learning. This mixed-method study used a program-specific survey and focus groups to explore the perspectives parents had on their involvement in these education sessions. Through constant comparison analysis 4 major and 3 minor themes emerged. In general, parents acknowledged that this parent education program included relevant content and a favourable delivery format. The study summarized a number of well-articulated, practical suggestions parents provided. Implications for practice would be applicable to educators interested in providing quality group-based education to parents of young children with ASD.
    • The physical environment and organizational behavior

      Pecyna, Henrietta.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      Research into organizational behaviour has indicated that there is an inevitable conflict between the needs of the individual and organizational demands. Psychologists have given insights into basic individual needs and contend that satisfaction of these needs constitutes a motivating force which enhances desired behavioural patterns. Behaviouralists have suggested that a basic and pervasive individual need is the culturally determined need for privacy. Anthropologists and environmental psychologists have shown that man's spatial behaviour is observable and predictable and that changes in the physical environment or the way it is perceived are accompanied by concommitant changes in behaviour. Research findings from each of the disciplines have been reviewed in an attempt to show that the physical environment is a significant factor in satisfying the needs of the individual organizational member, hence, a significant influence on organizational behaviour. A model has been generated to show the relationship between the physical setting and behaviour and to underscore the importance of making provisions within the physical setting for the attainment of a culturally determined optimal level of privacy. The physical setting, by providing for this need, becomes a significant factor in reducing the conflict between the individual and the organization and makes for acceptable role behaviour and the fulfilment of organizational goals.
    • Postsecondary Artist Teachers' Responses to Computer Technology in Their Drawing Pedagogy

      Mikolajewski, Charlotte I; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2014-09-05)
      While the influence of computer technology has been widely studied in a variety of contexts, the drawing teaching studio is a particularly interesting context because of the juxtaposition of traditional medium and computer technology. For this study, 5 Canadian postsecondary teachers engaged in a 2-round Delphi interview process to discuss their responses to computer technology on their drawing pedagogy. Data sources included transcribed interviews. Findings indicated that artist teachers are both cautious to embrace and curious to explore appropriate use of computer technology on their drawing pedagogy. Artist teachers are both critical and optimistic about the influence of computer technology.
    • Postsecondary Teaching and Learning Development Needs: Motivators and Barriers Associated With Participation in Educational Development

      Knorr, Kris; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This study investigated instructor perceptions of motivators and barriers that exist with respect to participation in educational development in the postsecondary context. Eight instructors from a mid-size, research intensive university in south-western Ontario participated in semistructured interviews to explore this particular issue. Data were analyzed using a qualitative approach. Motivation theory was used as a conceptual framework in this study, referring primarily to the work of Ryan and Deci (2000), Deci and Ryan (1985), and Pink (2009). The identified motivators and barriers spanned all 3 levels of postsecondary institutions: the micro (i.e., the individual), the meso (i.e., the department or Faculty), and the macro (i.e., the institution). Significant motivators to participation in educational development included desire to improve one’s teaching (micro), feedback from students (meso), and tenure and promotion (macro). Significant barriers to participation included lack of time (micro), the perception that an investment towards one’s research was more important than an investment to enhancing teaching (meso), and the impression that quality teaching was not valued by the institution (macro). The study identifies connections between the micro, meso, macro framework and motivation theory, and offers recommendations for practice.
    • Power Relations in Early Childhood Education: A Case Study of Perceptions, Space, and Place

      Jobb, Cory; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      Shifting philosophical and pedagogical stances in early childhood settings have resulted in two binarized positions, where philosophy and pedagogy are frequently understood as either child-centred, or teacher-directed practice. These stances have ontological and epistemological implications for the power relations between Early Childhood Educators and young children. Drawing from multiple theoretical frameworks, including reconceptualist theory in early childhood education, children’s geographies, and the work of Michel Foucault, in this qualitative three-phase case study I explored how power relations are enacted within one preschool classroom in Southern Ontario, and how power relations are affected when viewing the environment through the lens of place and space. Using semi-structured interviews, classroom observation, and reflective journaling with a teaching team of two Early Childhood Educators, this study sought to answer the following two research questions: first, what are the ways in which power relations are enacted within one early learning environment? Second, how do educators’ perceptions of the environment as place and space contribute to the ways in which power relations are enacted? The findings from this study suggested that power was enacted within one early childhood setting in a multitude of ways. The findings are organized under four key themes: interrelational power; regulatory power; power and temporality; and power, space, and place. The findings suggest that power is a negotiated entity between children and Early Childhood Educators, and that viewing the environment as place may encourage a reconceptualization of traditionally hierarchical power dynamics between educators and young children.
    • The practical examination and how it correlates with the triple jump, tutorial, and written examination

      Jung, Bonny.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      This study explored the relationship between the practical examination and other course evaluation methods~ specifically, the triple jump, tutorial, and written examination. Studies correlating academic and clinical grades tended to indicate that they may not be highly correlated because each evaluation process contributes different kinds of information regarding student knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Six hypotheses were generated stating a positive relationship between the four evaluation methods. A correlation matrix was produced of the Pearson Product Moment correlation co-efficients on the four evaluation methods in the second and third year Occupational Therapy Technique and Clinical Problem Solving courses of the 1988 and 1989 graduates (n~45). The results showed that the highest correlations existed between the triple jump and the tutorial grades and the lowest correlations existed between the practical examination and written examination grades. Not all of the correlations~ however~ reached levels of significance. The correlations overall. though, were only low to moderate at best which indicates that the evaluation methods may be measuring different aspects of student learning. This conclusion supports the studies researched. The implications and significance of this study is that it will assist the faculty in defining what the various evaluation methods measure which will in turn promote more critical input into curriculum development for the remaining years of the program.
    • Pre-Service Teachers’ Experiences With Curriculum Integration: A Qualitative Study

      Lowe, Rachel; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      Curriculum integration is being adopted worldwide in the 21st century. However, in-service and pre-service teachers often receive little or no training in curriculum integration upon graduating university, which often makes them ill-prepared to implement this strategy. Moreover, because the term lacks universality and clarity in both theory and implementation, it has become a source of confusion and anxiety for educators. This qualitative study examined the amount of curriculum integration training received by teacher candidates at a medium-sized university in Southern Ontario in completing their final year of schooling. The study’s primary purpose was to determine the degree of curriculum integration training teacher candidates had received during their university career as well as their comfort levels in implementing curriculum integration upon graduation. The study also sought to identify the knowledge base of curriculum integration that these teachers had acquired during their time in university. Convenience sampling was used to select students in their final year of teacher certification. Twenty- five participants from both concurrent and consecutive teacher education programs were recruited and the data were collected solely through face-to-face interviews. General thematic analysis was used to analyze and identify patterns within the qualitative data. The results indicated that many teachers did not have a sufficient knowledge base of curriculum integration upon graduation, and did not appear to be familiar with the various methods of curriculum integration. Finally, the study found that teacher candidates felt uncomfortable integrating curricula in their own classrooms. Results are discussed in terms of teacher training, teaching practice, and further research.
    • Preadjunct questions as a learning strategy for older adults

      Smith, Barbara A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      This study investigated the effectiveness of comprehension level preadjunct questions as a learning strategy for older adults in a classroom setting. Fifty-five adults from 55 to 70 years of age were randomly assigned to two groups, the preadjunct question group and a no-question control group. They viewed a video on high blood pressure and completed a recall posttest immediately after viewing the video and again seven days tater. Results demonstrated that there was no significant difference between groups. However, the no-question control group obtained a higher mean score on both the immediate and delayed recall tests than did the preadjunct question group. Nevertheless, significant differences in posttest scores were found related to educational levels and prior knowledge about high blood pressure. Results obtained were explained in terms of resource theory of cognitive aging.
    • Preadolescents' internet usage : psychosocial implications /

      Pollon, Dawn E.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2003-07-14)
      Preadolescent Internet usage is prevalent today. This thesis examined how Canadian preadolescents use the Internet, what they do when they are on the Internet, and why preadolescents are fascinated with the Internet. Eight quahtative categories were derived from the data. The categories are Downloading, Information Hunting, Consumerism, Virtual Nurturing, Gaming, Expressions of Violence, Chatting, and Music. By critically distilling and analyzing preadolescent Internet behaviour through the lens of behavioural and cognitive psychology, and explicating the amount of psychological, cognitive, and social learning that preadolescents may be exposed to on the Internet, and the attraction that is cumulatively a profound draw for a preadolescent audience, an argument will be made that Internet usage in preadolescents may impair their cognitive, social, and psychological development because of the impulse seeking and gratification priming that has been reinforced during the formative period of preadolescence.
    • Preoperative education and its influence on perception of recovery for clients awaiting total hip and total knee replacement surgery /

      Coughlin, Shirley.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-06-04)
      The puqjose of this study was to examine the manner in which an inviting approach to a preoperative teaching and learning educational experience influenced the perception and subsequent recovery of clients who were awaiting total hip and total knee replacement surgery. An in-depth review of the internal and external factors that shape client perceptions was undertaken in this study. In addition, this study also explored whether or not the Prehab Program was preparing clients physically, socially, and psychologically for surgery. Data for this qualitative case study research were collected through preoperative interviews with 4 participants awaiting total hip replacement surgery and 1 participant awaiting total knee replacement surgery. Four postoperative interviews were conducted with the participants who had received total hip replacement surgery. The occupational therapist and physical therapist who were the coleaders of the Prehab Program at the time of this study were also interviewed. The results of this study suggest that while individuals may receive similar educational experiences, their perceptions of the manner in which they benefited from these experiences varied. This is illustrated in the research findings, which concluded that while clients benefited physically from the inviting approach used during the practical teaching session, not all clients perceived the psychological benefits of this practice session, especially clients with preexisting high levels of anxiety. In addition to increasing the understanding of the internal as well as external factors that influence the perceptions of clients, this study has also served as an opportunity for reflection on practice for the Prehab therapists and other healthcare educators.
    • Preparing students for the transition from college to work /

      Morrison, Sue.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-05-21)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived preparedness of college students for the transition from college to full-time employment. The study was concerned with the interest and rationale behind developing a required Exit Course for college students in order to improve the college to work transition. As well, possible content of an Exit Course was evaluated. The importance of addressing college to work transitions is highlighted by two phenomena. First, there are specific employability skills that employers in Canada are seeking in newly hired employees. Second, the provincial government in Ontario is determining college funding based on graduate employment statistics which are measured by graduate satisfaction, graduate employment, and employer satisfaction. The research concentrated on the following stakeholders involved in the transition from college to work: (a) current students, (b) recent graduates, (c) support staff who assist students in college to work transition (Career Educators), and (d) employers. Through qualitative research, including focus groups and interviews, these stakeholder groups participated in the research to determine if the Exit Course was a viable solution to facilitate the transition from college to work. Focus groups were conducted with current students, while one-on-one, semi-structured interviews were conducted with recent graduates, Career Educators, and employers. Common themes elicited from the participants included the following: (a) although students were perceived by the participants of this study to be technically prepared for employment, they were perceived to have weak job search skills and unrealistic expectations of the world of work unless they had received the benefits of a Co-operative Education experience; (b) an Exit Course was seen as a viable solution to the issues involved in college to work transition; (c) an Exit Course should be comprised of skills necessary to obtain and succeed in a job and the course should be taught by individuals with extensive qualifications in this area; and (d) there is a need to develop college and business partnerships to ensure that students are connected to employers. Educators within post secondary institutions, specifically colleges, can benefit from the information provided within this study to gain a better understanding of the perceived level of preparedness of students for the transition from college to work. Suggestions with regard to how to improve this transition were made, with specific reference to the addition of an Exit Course as one possible solution.
    • Preparing Students with ASD for Inclusive Classrooms: A Case Study of Giant Steps

      Smith, Katlynne; Smith, Katlynne; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      Giant Steps is a therapeutic school for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) founded in 1995 by a group of parents who felt that the public school system was not fully able to meet the needs of their children. While the education system has progressed through the years to offer all students with access to public education, many educators still are not adequately prepared to provide inclusive learning environments for students with ASD. Given the prevalence of ASD in southern Ontario (1 in every 42 boys and 1 in every 189 girls), research on ASD and inclusive practices is both vital and timely. The purpose of this qualitative case study is to understand how the Giant Steps program prepares and transitions students with ASD for inclusive classrooms. Data was collected through two rounds of in-depth interviews, and was subsequently analyzed and interpreted into research findings that are presented through three major themes (i.e., unique program aspects, holistic approach, inclusion not integration). Collectively, the themes provide insights about how students at Giant Steps are prepared for inclusion, as well as how different stakeholders within the Giant Steps program perceive inclusion and their role in preparing students for inclusive classrooms.
    • Preparing to teach : learning from an exploration of teachers' experiences of teaching in classrooms of difference

      Piluso, Rosaleen.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2002-07-09)
      This qualitative study explores practicing teachers' experiences of teaching in classrooms of diversity, that is, classrooms where students represent a variety of differences including race, culture, ethnicity, and class. More specifically, this study investigates the types of curricular and pedagogical practices teachers employ in their classrooms. This study attempts to make a contribution to the scholarship of critical pedagogy by drawing upon the works of critical pedagogues to make sense of participants' descriptions oftheir curricular and pedagogical practices. Four participants were involved in this study. Participants were elementary teachers in classrooms of difference in Ontario who contributed the primary sources of data by engaging in 2 individual interviews. Additional sources of data included a focus group meeting that 2 ofthe participants were able to attend, school board curriculum resource documents assisting teachers in teaching critically, as well as a research journal which the researcher kept throughout the study. The scholarship of critical pedagogy (Ellsworth, 1992; Giroux, 1993; McLaren, 1989) informs the analysis of participants' descriptions of their teaching experiences. Many of the participants did not engage in a practice of critical pedagogy. This study explores some of the challenges and possibilities of using critical pedagogy to create spaces in classrooms where teachers can build connections between the curriculum mandated by the government and the multiple identities and experiences that students bring into the classroom. This study concludes with a discussion on what teachers need to know to be able to begin creating equitable and educational experiences in classrooms of difference.
    • The principal in the high school: effectiveness in a climate of sharing

      Kikot, Nancy J.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      This pilot study developed a climate instrument which was administered in a sample of high schools in one board of education. Several tests were conducted i n order to determine the reliability and internal consistency of the instrument . The ability of the instrument to identify the demographic differences of school and gender was also tested. The relationship between leadership styles and an effective use of authority in creating a productive and rewarding work environment was the f ocus of t his study. Attitudes to leadership and perceived school morale were investigated in a demographic study, a climate survey, as well as a body of related literature. In light of the empirical research, an attempt was made to determine the extent to which the authority figure's behaviour and adopted leadership style contributed to a positive school climate : one in which t eachers were motivated to achieve to t he best of their abilities by way of their commitment and service. The tone of authority assumed by t he leader not only shapes the mood of the school environment but ultimately determines the efficiency and morale of t he teaching staff.
    • Private versus public : how one gay professor negotiates the boundaries between his personal and professional lives /

      MacBride, John D.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-05-21)
      This study examined how one university professor negotiated the boundaries between his personal life as a gay man and his professional life as a teacher. Using his sexual orientation as a focal point, the study explored the circumstances and underlying assumptions that influenced this professor's decisions to disclose information of a personal nature. Data collection was solicited from a number of sources: (a) In-depth interviews with the participant, his colleagues, students, and friends; (b) Field observation of the participant teaching over a 3 -day period; and (c) A document review of lesson plans, course outlines, student feedback forms, and the participant's teaching portfolio. The researcher maintained both observation journals and reflective journals during this process. Data analysis using the constant comparative method elicited several themes. The participant engaged in a variety of strategies in disclosing his sexual orientation that included: (a) no disclosure at all, (b) assuming people knew, (c) casually mentioning it in conversation, and (d) deliberately planning to tell someone. The participant also engaged in an ongoing assessment of his environment that included evaluating the level of risk in disclosing his sexual orientation and assessing the listener's ability to receive the information. The participant cited numerous reasons for disclosing his sexual orientation. Further inquiry revealed a number of belief systems that underlined these reasons. These belief systems included beliefs around privacy, authenticity, teaching, manners, professionalism, and homosexuality. The conclusions suggested that the participant utilized a consistent process in both his personal and professional lives to determine what information was kept private and what information was made public. While the process used to determine the degree of disclosure was consistent, the actual disclosures themselves varied widely in nature.
    • Problem solving and computer-assisted instruction in science education : analysis of research findings and the research process /

      Skinner, Jennifer Anastasia.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2001-05-21)
      The quantitative component of this study examined the effect of computerassisted instruction (CAI) on science problem-solving performance, as well as the significance of logical reasoning ability to this relationship. I had the dual role of researcher and teacher, as I conducted the study with 84 grade seven students to whom I simultaneously taught science on a rotary-basis. A two-treatment research design using this sample of convenience allowed for a comparison between the problem-solving performance of a CAI treatment group (n = 46) versus a laboratory-based control group (n = 38). Science problem-solving performance was measured by a pretest and posttest that I developed for this study. The validity of these tests was addressed through critical discussions with faculty members, colleagues, as well as through feedback gained in a pilot study. High reliability was revealed between the pretest and the posttest; in this way, students who tended to score high on the pretest also tended to score high on the posttest. Interrater reliability was found to be high for 30 randomly-selected test responses which were scored independently by two raters (i.e., myself and my faculty advisor). Results indicated that the form of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) used in this study did not significantly improve students' problem-solving performance. Logical reasoning ability was measured by an abbreviated version of the Group Assessment of Lx)gical Thinking (GALT). Logical reasoning ability was found to be correlated to problem-solving performance in that, students with high logical reasoning ability tended to do better on the problem-solving tests and vice versa. However, no significant difference was observed in problem-solving improvement, in the laboratory-based instruction group versus the CAI group, for students varying in level of logical reasoning ability.Insignificant trends were noted in results obtained from students of high logical reasoning ability, but require further study. It was acknowledged that conclusions drawn from the quantitative component of this study were limited, as further modifications of the tests were recommended, as well as the use of a larger sample size. The purpose of the qualitative component of the study was to provide a detailed description ofmy thesis research process as a Brock University Master of Education student. My research journal notes served as the data base for open coding analysis. This analysis revealed six main themes which best described my research experience: research interests, practical considerations, research design, research analysis, development of the problem-solving tests, and scoring scheme development. These important areas ofmy thesis research experience were recounted in the form of a personal narrative. It was noted that the research process was a form of problem solving in itself, as I made use of several problem-solving strategies to achieve desired thesis outcomes.